[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Overexpression of phosphatase of regenerating liver (PRL)-3 is associated with the progression of diverse human cancers. We show that the overexpression of PRL-3 protein is not directly associated with its transcript levels, indicating the existence of an underlying posttranscriptional regulation. The 5' untranslanted region (UTR) of PRL-3 mRNA possesses triple GCCCAG motifs capable of suppressing mRNA translation through interaction with PolyC-RNA-binding protein 1 (PCBP1), which retards PRL-3 mRNA transcript incorporation into polyribosomes. Overexpression of PCBP1 inhibits PRL-3 expression and inactivates AKT, whereas knockdown of PCBP1 causes upregulation of PRL-3 protein levels, activation of AKT, and promotion of tumorigenesis. An inverse correlation between protein levels of PRL-3 and PCBP1 in human primary cancers supports the clinical relevance.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: VHZ is a VH1-like (member Z) dual specific protein phosphatase encoded by DUSP23 gene. Some of the dual specific protein phosphatases (DSPs) play an important role in cell cycle control and have shown to be associated with carcinogenesis. Here, the expression of VHZ associated with cell growth and human cancers was investigated.
We generated a mouse monoclonal antibody (mAb clone#209) and rabbit polyclonal antibodies (rAb) against VHZ. We performed cell proliferation assay to learn how VHZ is associated with cell cycle by retroviral transduction to express VHZ, VHZ(C95S), and control vector in MCF-7 cells. Overexpression of VHZ [but not VHZ(C95S)] in MCF-7 cells promoted cell proliferation compared to control cells. shRNA-mediated knockdown of VHZ in MCF-7 cells showed that reduction of VHZ resulted in increased G1 but decreased S phase cell populations. Using indirect immunofluorescence, we showed that both exogenous and endogenous VHZ protein was localized at the centrosome in addition to its cytoplasmic distribution. Furthermore, using immunohistochemistry, we revealed that VHZ protein was overexpressed either in enlarged centrosomes (VHZ-centrosomal-stain) of some invasive ductal carcinomas (IDC) Stage I (8/65 cases) or in entire cytoplasm (VHZ-cytosol-stain) of invasive epithelia of some IDC Stage II/III (11/47 cases) of breast cancers examined. More importantly, upregulation of VHZ protein is also associated with numerous types of human cancer, in particular breast cancer. VHZ mAb may be useful as a reagent in clinical diagnosis for assessing VHZ positive tumors.
We generated a VHZ-specific mAb to reveal that VHZ has a novel subcellular localization, namely the centrosome. VHZ is able to facilitate G1/S cell cycle transition in a PTP activity-dependent manner. The upregulation of its protein levels in primary human cancers supports the clinical relevance of the protein in cancers.