[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: PDCD1, an immunoreceptor involved in peripheral tolerance has previously been shown to be genetically associated with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). PDCD1 has two ligands whose genes are located in close proximity on chromosome 9p24. Our attention was drawn to these ligands after finding suggestive linkage to a marker (gata62f03, Z=2.27) located close to their genes in a genome scan of Icelandic families multiplex for SLE. Here, we analyse Swedish trios (N=149) for 23 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within the genes of the PDCD1 ligands. Initially, indication of association to eight SNPs was observed, and these SNPs were therefore also analysed in Mexican trios (N=90), as well as independent sets of patients and controls from Sweden (152 patients, 448 controls) and Argentina (288 patients, 288 controls). We do not find support for genetic association to SLE. This is the first genetic study of SLE and the PDCD1 ligands and the lack of association in several cohorts implies that these genes are not major risk factors for SLE.
Full-text · Article · Feb 2007 · Genes and Immunity
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A genetic contribution to the development of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is well established. Several genome-wide linkage scans have identified a number of putative susceptibility loci for SLE, some of which have been replicated in independent samples. This study aimed to identify the regions showing the most consistent evidence for linkage by applying the genome scan meta-analysis (GSMA) method. The study identified two genome-wide suggestive regions on 6p21.1-q15 and 20p11-q13.13 (P-value=0.0056 and P-value=0.0044, respectively) and a region with P-value<0.01 on 16p13-q12.2. The region on chromosome 6 contains the human leukocyte antigen cluster, and the chromosome 16 and 20 regions have been replicated in several cohorts. The potential importance of the identified genomic regions are also highlighted. These results, in conjunction with data emerging from dense single nucleotide polymorphism typing of specific regions or future genome-wide association studies will help guide efforts to identify the actual predisposing genetic variation contributing to this complex genetic disease.
Full-text · Article · Nov 2006 · Genes and Immunity
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Systemic lupus erythematosus is a systemic autoimmune disorder of unknown aetiology but is most likely caused by an interaction between several genetic factors and the environment. In a previously published genome scan we presented linkage to a marker on chromosome 4p13 in Icelandic families. Fine mapping of the region has been performed using 10 multicase families from Iceland and the maximum two-point LOD score was given by marker D4S2974 (Z = 3.57, alpha = 1). Multipoint analyses of the markers in the region suggest a putative disease gene to be located between markers D4S405 and D4S2381. The maximum multipoint LOD score (Z = 3.76) was given for marker D4S2974 in combination with the novel repeat GT4C2. A family-specific haplotype was segregating with the disease in each of eight families although a founder haplotype could not be identified. Analysis of recombination events in the patients delimited the susceptibility locus to approximately 3 cM. The susceptibility locus identified probably contains a mutation that has been enriched in the Icelandic population but is less common in other populations. We also show that this region is not identical to a susceptibility locus for SLE located on 4p16 where we detect no linkage.
Full-text · Article · Oct 2006 · Scandinavian Journal of Immunology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is an autoimmune disease characterized by the presence of autoantibodies against intracellular components, the formation of immune complexes, and inflammation in various organs, typically the skin and kidney glomeruli. The etiology of the disease is not well understood but is most likely the result of the interaction between genetic and environmental factors. In order to identify susceptibility loci for SLE, we have performed genome scans with microsatellite markers covering the whole genome in families from Argentina, Italy, and Europe. The results reveal a heterogeneous disease with different susceptibility loci in different family sets. We have found significant linkage to chromosome 17p12-q11 in the Argentine set of families. The maximum LOD score was given by marker D17S1294 in combination with D17S1293, when assuming a dominant inheritance model (Z = 3.88). We also analyzed a repeat in the promoter region of the NOS2A gene, a strong candidate gene in the region, but no association was found. The locus on chromosome 17 has previously been identified in genetic studies of multiple sclerosis families. Several other interesting regions were found at 1p35, 1q31, 3q26, 5p15, 11q23 and 19q13, confirming previously identified loci for SLE or other autoimmune diseases.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We have described suggestive linkage between microsatellite markers within the cytogenetic region 18q21-23 and SLE, a region where linkage with other autoimmune diseases has also been detected. The Bcl-2 gene located within this region, is a candidate gene because of its role in apoptosis, a physiological mechanism that could be deregulated in autoimmune disease. Furthermore, several studies have found abnormalities of Bcl-2 expression in SLE patients. We therefore sought to determine if the Bcl-2 gene is involved in SLE by studying members of a large cohort of Mexican SLE patients (n = 378) and 112 Swedish simplex families. Using a microsatellite marker and two single nucleotide polymorphisms located within the gene, we were unable to detect association between Bcl-2 and SLE in either population. We also tested whether combinations of alleles of the Bcl-2 and IL-10.G microsatellites would increase the risk for SLE. Our results do not support such hypothesis. Our findings suggest that linkage between SLE and the 18q21-23 region is due to a gene other than Bcl-2.
Full-text · Article · Sep 2000 · Genes and Immunity