[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Aging and apolipoprotein E (APOE) isoform are among the most consistent risks for the development of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Metabolic factors that modulate risk have been elusive, though oxidative reactions and their by-products have been implicated in human AD and in transgenic mice with overt histological amyloidosis. We investigated the relationship between the levels of endogenous murine amyloid beta (Abeta) peptides and the levels of a marker of oxidation in mice that never develop histological amyloidosis [i.e. APOE knockout (KO) mice with or without transgenic human APOEepsilon3 or human APOEepsilon4 alleles]. Aging-, gender-, and APOE-genotype-dependent changes were observed for endogenous mouse brain Abeta40 and Abeta42 peptides. Levels of the oxidized lipid F2-isoprostane (F2-isoPs) in the brains of the same animals as those used for the Abeta analyses revealed aging- and gender-dependent changes in APOE KO and in human APOEepsilon4 transgenic KO mice. Human APOEepsilon3 transgenic KO mice did not exhibit aging- or gender-dependent increases in F2-isoPs. In general, the changes in the levels of brain F2-isoPs in mice according to age, gender, and APOE genotype mirrored the changes in brain Abeta levels, which, in turn, paralleled known trends in the risk for human AD. These data indicate that there exists an aging-dependent, APOE-genotype-sensitive rise in murine brain Abeta levels despite the apparent inability of the peptide to form histologically detectable amyloid. Human APOEepsilon3, but not human APOEepsilon4, can apparently prevent the aging-dependent rise in murine brain Abeta levels, consistent with the relative risk for AD associated with these genotypes. The fidelity of the brain Abeta/F2-isoP relationship across multiple relevant variables supports the hypothesis that oxidized lipids play a role in AD pathogenesis, as has been suggested by recent evidence that F2-isoPs can stimulate Abeta generation and aggregation.
Full-text · Article · Sep 2004 · Journal of Neurochemistry
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To assess the influence of age and diet on cerebral pathology in mice lacking apolipoprotein E (apoE), four male apoE knockout mice (epsilon -/-), and five male wild-type (epsilon +/+) littermate controls were placed on a high-fat/high-cholesterol diet for 7 weeks beginning at 17 months of age. All four aged knockout mice developed xanthomatous lesions in the brain consisting mostly of crystalline cholesterol clefts, lipid globules, and foam cells. Smaller xanthomas were confined mainly to the choroid plexus and ventral fornix in the roof of the third ventricle, occasionally extending subpially along the choroidal fissure and into the adjacent parenchyma. More advanced xanthomas disrupted adjoining neural tissue in the fornix, hippocampus, and dorsal diencephalon; in one case, over 60% of one telencephalic hemisphere, including nearly the entire neocortex, was obliterated by the lesion. No xanthomas were observed in aged wild-type controls fed the high-fat/high-cholesterol diet. Brains from 42 additional animals, fed only conventional chow, were examined; 3 of 15 aged (15- to 23-month-old) apoE knockout mice developed small choroidal xanthomas. In contrast, no lesions were observed in five young (2- to 4-month-old) apoE knockout mice or in any wild-type controls between the ages of 2 and 23 months. Our findings indicate that disorders of lipid metabolism can induce significant pathological changes in the central nervous system of aged apoE knockout mice, particularly those on a high-fat/high-cholesterol diet. It may be fruitful to seek potential interactions between genetic factors and diet in modulating the risk of Alzheimer's disease and other neurodegenerative disorders in aged humans.
Full-text · Article · Dec 1997 · American Journal Of Pathology