[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The time course of lung mechanics, histology, and inflammatory and fibrogenic mediators are analysed after intratracheal instillation (IT) of bone marrow-derived cells (BMDC) in a model of silicosis. C57BL/6 mice were randomly divided into SIL (silica, 20mg IT) and control (CTRL) groups (saline IT). At day 15, mice received saline or BMDC (2 x 10(6)cells) IT. The biodistribution of technetium-99m BMDC was higher in lungs compared with other organs. At days 30 and 60, lung mechanics, the area of granulomatous nodules, and mRNA expression of IL-1beta and TGF-beta were higher in SIL than CTRL animals. BMDC minimized changes in lung mechanics, the area of granulomatous nodules, and total cell infiltration at day 30, but these effects were no longer observed at day 60. Conversely, BMDC avoided the expression of IL-1beta at days 30 and 60 and TGF-beta only at day 30. In conclusion, BMDC therapy improved lung mechanics and histology, but this beneficial effect was not maintained in the course of injury.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To investigate the effects of low and high levels of positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP), without recruitment maneuvers, during lung protective ventilation in an experimental model of acute lung injury (ALI).
Prospective, randomized, and controlled experimental study.
University research laboratory.
Wistar rats were randomly assigned to control (C) [saline (0.1 mL), intraperitoneally] and ALI [paraquat (15 mg/kg), intraperitoneally] groups.
After 24 hours, each group was further randomized into four groups (six rats each) at different PEEP levels = 1.5, 3, 4.5, or 6 cm H2O and ventilated with a constant tidal volume (6 mL/kg) and open thorax. Lung mechanics [static elastance (Est, L) and viscoelastic pressure (DeltaP2, L)] and arterial blood gases were measured before (Pre) and at the end of 1-hour mechanical ventilation (Post). Pulmonary histology (light and electron microscopy) and type III procollagen (PCIII) messenger RNA (mRNA) expression were measured after 1 hour of mechanical ventilation. In ALI group, low and high PEEP levels induced a greater percentage of increase in Est, L (44% and 50%) and DeltaP2, L (56% and 36%) in Post values related to Pre. Low PEEP yielded alveolar collapse whereas high PEEP caused overdistension and atelectasis, with both levels worsening oxygenation and increasing PCIII mRNA expression.
In the present nonrecruited ALI model, protective mechanical ventilation with lower and higher PEEP levels than required for better oxygenation increased Est, L and DeltaP2, L, the amount of atelectasis, and PCIII mRNA expression. PEEP selection titrated for a minimum elastance and maximum oxygenation may prevent lung injury while deviation from these settings may be harmful.
Full-text · Article · Apr 2009 · Critical care medicine
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The importance of lung tissue in asthma pathophysiology has been recently recognized. Although nitric oxide mediates smooth muscle tonus control in airways, its effects on lung tissue responsiveness have not been investigated previously. We hypothesized that chronic nitric oxide synthase (NOS) inhibition by N(omega)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME) may modulate lung tissue mechanics and eosinophil and extracellular matrix remodeling in guinea pigs with chronic pulmonary inflammation. Animals were submitted to seven saline or ovalbumin exposures with increasing doses (1 approximately 5 mg/ml for 4 wk) and treated or not with L-NAME in drinking water. After the seventh inhalation (72 h), animals were anesthetized and exsanguinated, and oscillatory mechanics of lung tissue strips were performed in baseline condition and after ovalbumin challenge (0.1%). Using morphometry, we assessed the density of eosinophils, neuronal NOS (nNOS)- and inducible NOS (iNOS)-positive distal lung cells, smooth muscle cells, as well as collagen and elastic fibers in lung tissue. Ovalbumin-exposed animals had an increase in baseline and maximal tissue resistance and elastance, eosinophil density, nNOS- and iNOS-positive cells, the amount of collagen and elastic fibers, and isoprostane-8-PGF(2alpha) expression in the alveolar septa compared with controls (P<0.05). L-NAME treatment in ovalbumin-exposed animals attenuated lung tissue mechanical responses (P<0.01), nNOS- and iNOS-positive cells, elastic fiber content (P<0.001), and isoprostane-8-PGF(2alpha) in the alveolar septa (P<0.001). However, this treatment did not affect the total number of eosinophils and collagen deposition. These data suggest that NO contributes to distal lung parenchyma constriction and to elastic fiber deposition in this model. One possibility may be related to the effects of NO activating the oxidative stress pathway.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We developed a model of severe allergic inflammation and investigated the impact of airway and lung parenchyma remodelling on in vivo and in vitro respiratory mechanics. BALB/c mice were sensitized and challenged with ovalbumin in severe allergic inflammation (SA) group. The control group (C) received saline using the same protocol. Light and electron microscopy showed eosinophil and neutrophil infiltration and fibrosis in airway and lung parenchyma, mucus gland hyperplasia, and airway smooth muscle hypertrophy and hyperplasia in SA group. These morphological changes led to in vivo (resistive and viscoelastic pressures, and static elastance) and in vitro (tissue elastance and resistance) lung mechanical alterations. Airway responsiveness to methacholine was markedly enhanced in SA as compared with C group. Additionally, IL-4, IL-5, and IL-13 levels in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid were higher in SA group. In conclusion, this model of severe allergic lung inflammation enabled us to directly assess the role of airway and lung parenchyma inflammation and remodelling on respiratory mechanics.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study investigated the impact of three different oral nutritional support regimens on lung mechanics and remodelling in young undernourished Wistar rats. In the nutritionally deprived group, rats received one-third of their usual daily food consumption for 4 weeks. Undernourished rats were divided into three groups receiving a balanced, glutamine-supplemented, or long-chain triglyceride-supplemented diet for 4 weeks. In the two control groups, rats received food ad libitum for 4 (C4) or 8 weeks. Lung viscoelastic pressure and static elastance were higher in undernourished compared to C4 rats. After refeeding, lung mechanical data remained altered except for the glutamine-supplemented group. Undernutrition led to a reduced amount of elastic and collagen fibres in the alveolar septa. Elastic fibre content returned to control with balanced and glutamine-supplemented diets, but increased with long-chain triglyceride-supplemented diet. The amount of collagen fibre augmented independent of nutritional support. In conclusion, glutamine-supplemented diet is better at reducing morphofunctional changes than other diets after 4 weeks of refeeding.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Forty-eight BALB/c mice were divided into two groups of 24 animals each. In the control group (CTRL) saline was intratracheally instilled, while the virus group (VR) received rAAV2-GFP (4 x 10(9) particles). These groups were subdivided into four sub-groups (n=6). Pulmonary mechanical parameters were analyzed after 3 weeks (VR1d3w) and at 1 (VR2d1w), 2 (VR2d2w) and 3 weeks (VR2d3w) after a second AAV2 dose. Fractions of the area of alveolar collapse and the amount of polymorpho- and mononuclear cells were determined by point-counting technique. Viral transduction was evaluated by immunohistochemistry. Lung mechanical data were similar in all groups. However, there was an increase in airway and lung parenchyma cellularity and in the fraction of area of alveolar collapse in the VR2d2w group, which nonetheless decreased with time. There was no evidence of apoptosis in any group. In conclusion, the gene transfer vector AAV2 induces, in the lung, a discrete inflammatory reaction that does not affect either baseline lung mechanics or airway hyperresponsiveness.
No preview · Article · Feb 2008 · Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background and objectives:
Mechanical ventilation is considered a basic element of life support in the intensive care unit and is essential for patients with acute lung injury (ALI) and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Experimental studies have demonstrated that mechanical ventilation with high volumes and/or high pressures can exacerbate (VALI) or induce lung injury (VILI) with histological aspect similar to ALI/ARDS.
This systematic review included the literature on MedLine and SciElo database published in the last 20 years. In this review, we will highlight the most recent data on the mechanisms of VILI. The main mechanisms of VILI are: volutrauma caused by overinflation and uneven expansion of the lungs due to high ventilation pressures or volumes; aletectrauma induced by shear forces generated during cyclic closure and reopening of terminal airways; and biotrauma where the injury resulted from the release inflammatory mediators due to physical stresses associated with mechanical ventilation.
It is fundamental to understand the mechanisms related to volutrauma, atelectrauma, and biotrauma to avoid ventilator-associated lung injury.
Preview · Article · Dec 2007 · Revista Brasileira de Terapia Intensiva
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: JUSTIFICATIVA E OBJETIVOS: A ventilação mecânica é considerada elemento básico de suporte de vida nas unidades de terapia intensiva e, indubitavelmente, essencial para os pacientes com lesão pulmonar aguda (LPA) e síndrome do desconforto respiratório agudo (SDRA). Estudos experimentais demonstraram que a ventilação mecânica (VM) com altos volumes e/ou altas pressões pode exacerbar ou iniciar uma lesão pulmonar, denominada lesão pulmonar associada à VM (LPAV) ou lesão pulmonar induzida pelo ventilador (LPIV), respectivamente, com aspecto histológico similar ao da LPA/SDRA. CONTEÚDO: Realizou-se uma pesquisa sistemática dos artigos incluídos na MedLine e SciElo dos últimos 20 anos, que abordavam uma visão crítica dos principais mecanismos determinantes da LPIV. Dentre os principais mecanismos da LPAV/LPIV pode-se citar: volutrauma causado por hiperdistensão e expansão desigual das unidades alveolares em função de altas pressões transpulmonares ou volumes; aletectrauma resultante da abertura e fechamento cíclicos das vias aéreas distais e o biotrauma determinado pelo processo inflamatório conseqüente às estratégias ventilatórias lesivas adotadas. CONCLUSÕES: Os mecanismos responsáveis pelo volutrauma, atelectrauma e biotrauma devem ser bem entendidos para que se possa evitar a lesão associada à ventilação mecânica.
Full-text · Article · Dec 2007 · Revista Brasileira de Terapia Intensiva
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Undernutrition thwarts lung structure and function, but there are disagreements about the behavior of lung mechanics in malnourished animals. To clarify this issue, lung and chest wall mechanical properties were subdivided into their resistive, elastic, and viscoelastic properties in nutritionally deprived (ND) rats and correlated with the data gathered from histology (light and electron microscopy and elastic fiber content), and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid analysis (lipid and protein content). Twenty-four Wistar rats were assigned into two groups. In the control (Ctrl) group the animals received food ad libitum. In the ND group, rats received one-third of their usual daily food consumption until they lost 40% of their initial body weight. Lung static elastance, viscoelastic and resistive pressures (normalized by functional residual capacity), and chest wall pressures were higher in the ND group than in the Ctrl group. The ND group exhibited patchy atelectasis, areas of emphysema, interstitial edema, and reduced elastic fiber content. The amount of lipid and protein in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid was significantly reduced in the ND group. Electron microscopy showed 1) type II pneumocytes with a reduction in lamellar body content, multilamellated structures, membrane vesicles, granular debris, and structurally aberrant mitochondria; and 2) diaphragm and intercostals with atrophy, disarrangement of the myofibrils, and deposition of collagen type I fibers. In conclusion, undernutrition led to lung and chest wall mechanical changes that were the result from a balance among the following modifications: 1) distorted structure of diaphragm and intercostals, 2) surfactant content reduction, and 3) decrease in elastic fiber content.
Full-text · Article · Dec 2004 · Journal of Applied Physiology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In vivo (lung resistive and viscoelastic pressures and static elastance) and in vitro (tissue resistance, elastance, and hysteresivity) respiratory mechanics were analyzed 1 and 30 days after saline (control) or paraquat (P [10 and 25 mg/kg intraperitoneally]) injection in rats. Additionally, P10 and P25 were treated with methylprednisolone (2 mg/kg intravenously) at 1 or 6 hours after acute lung injury (ALI) induction. Collagen and elastic fibers were quantified. Lung resistive and viscoelastic pressures and static elastance were higher in P10 and P25 than in the control. Tissue elastance and resistance augmented from control to P10 (1 and 30 days) and P25. Hysteresivity increased in only P25. Methylprednisolone at 1 or 6 hours attenuated in vivo and in vitro mechanical changes in P25, whereas P10 parameters were similar to the control. Collagen increment was dose and time dependent. Elastic fibers increased in P25 and at 30 days in P10. Corticosteroid prevented collagen increment and avoided elastogenesis. In conclusion, methylprednisolone led to a complete maintenance of in vivo and in vitro respiratory mechanics in mild lesion, whereas it minimized the changes in tissue impedance and extracellular matrix in severe ALI. The beneficial effects of the early use of steroids in ALI remained unaltered at Day 30.
Full-text · Article · Oct 2003 · American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine