Carol H. Allan

Broward Medical Examiner's Office, Fort Lauderdale, Florida, United States

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Publications (3)5.18 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Cathinone derivatives (bath salts) have emerged as the latest drugs of abuse. 3,4-methylenedioxypyrovalerone (MDPV) is the primary active ingredient in bath salts used in this country. This article presents the second reported cause of death by MDPV intoxication alone. In April 2011, a delusional man was emergently brought to a hospital, where he self-reported bath salt usage. He became agitated, developed ventricular tachycardia, hyperthermia, and died. Comprehensive alcohol and drug testing was performed. Using the alkaline drug screen, heart blood contained 0.7 mg/L MDPV and peripheral blood contained 1.0 mg/L MDPV. His bizarre behavior with life-threatening hyperthermia was consistent with an MDPV-induced excited delirium state. MDPV is not yet found by routine immunoassay toxicology screens. Testing for MDPV should be considered in cases with a history of polysubstance abuse with stimulant type drugs, report of acute onset of psychogenic symptoms, excited delirium syndrome, or presentation in a hyperthermic state.
    No preview · Article · Jul 2013 · Journal of Forensic Sciences
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    ABSTRACT: We present three cases of fatal dog maulings of infants placed in mobile infant swings, a phenomenon not previously described in the literature. In each case, the victim was left in a mobile swing, unsupervised by an adult, and the attacking dog was a family pet. Case 1 involved an 18-day-old male infant attacked by a pit bull; Case 2 involved a 3-month-old male infant attacked by a Chow Chow and/or a Dachshund, and Case 3 involved an 18-day-old female infant attacked by a Labrador–pit bull mix. These cases not only underscore the importance of not leaving young children unattended in the presence of pet dogs, but also raise the possibility that mobile swings may trigger a predatory response in dogs and thus may represent an additional risk factor for dog attack.
    No preview · Article · Feb 2006 · Journal of Forensic Sciences
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    ABSTRACT: We report a case involving a fatal intoxication with loperamide (Imodium). Loperamide is a synthetic opioid of the phenyl piperidine class used as an over-the-counter antidiarrheal. It exerts its effects through interaction with micro-opiate receptors in the intestine to reduce peristalsis. Loperamide lacks the typical euphoric opiate effects when administered at recommended doses. Both loperamide and its major metabolite, N-desmethylloperamide, were isolated by liquid-liquid extraction into n-butyl chloride from alkalinized samples. Extracts were analyzed by liquid chromatography-electrospray-mass spectrometry in selected-ion-monitoring mode. Rapid separation of the drug, metabolite, and internal standard (diphenoxylate) was achieved using a high-resolution C18 column with 1.8-microm particle diameter. The mobile phase consisted of 0.1% formic acid in deionized water (60%) and acetonitrile (40%) at a flow rate of 0.5 mL/min. Heart blood concentrations for loperamide and its metabolite were 1.2 mg/L and 3.3 mg/L, respectively. In contrast, reported peak plasma concentrations of loperamide after administration of recommended daily doses of 16 mg did not exceed 0.012 mg/L in controlled trials. Because the heart blood ethanol concentration was 0.08 g/dL, the medical examiner ruled that the cause of death was loperamide and ethanol intoxication, and the manner of death as undetermined.
    Preview · Article · Nov 2005 · Journal of analytical toxicology