[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background:
In recent years the role of vitamin D status in early life on the development of allergic disease has generated much interest. The aim of this study was to determine whether cord blood vitamin D concentrations were associated with risk of early childhood allergic disease.
Measurements of cord blood 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] concentrations were available in 270 mother-child pairs who were participating in the allergy follow-up (n = 706) of the Docosahexaenoic Acid to Optimise Mother Infant Outcome randomised controlled trial. All of the children had a hereditary risk of allergic disease. The diagnosis of allergic disease was made during medical assessments at 1 and 3 years of age.
The mean (standard deviation) standardised cord blood 25(OH)D concentration was 57.0 (24.1) nmol/L. The cumulative incidence of eczema to 3 years of age, n = 101/250 (40 %) was associated with standardised cord blood 25(OH)D concentration, with a 10 nmol/L rise in 25(OH)D concentration reducing the risk of eczema by 8 % (relative risk 0.92, 95 % confidence interval 0.86-0.97; P = 0.005). This association was stronger at 1 year of age, when a 10 nmol/L rise in standardised cord blood 25(OH)D concentration reduced the risk of eczema by 12 % (relative risk 0.88, 95 % confidence interval 0.81-0.96; P = 0.002). No associations between cord blood 25(OH)D concentrations and development of allergic sensitisation, allergic rhinitis or asthma in early childhood were found.
In children with a family history of allergic disease, a higher cord blood 25(OH)D concentration appears to be associated with reduced risk of eczema in early childhood.
Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry ACTRN12610000735055 (DOMInO trial: ACTRN12605000569606).
Full-text · Article · Dec 2015 · World Allergy Organization Journal
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In order to prevent overweight and obesity in the general population we need to understand the relationship between the proportion of energy from fat and resulting weight and body fatness in the general population.
To assess the effects of proportion of energy intake from fat on measures of weight and body fatness (including obesity, waist circumference and body mass index) in people not aiming to lose weight, using all appropriate randomised controlled trials (RCTs) and cohort studies in adults, children and young people SEARCH METHODS: We searched CENTRAL to March 2014 and MEDLINE, EMBASE and CINAHL to November 2014. We did not limit the search by language. We also checked the references of relevant reviews.
Trials fulfilled the following criteria: 1) randomised intervention trial, 2) included children (aged ≥ 24 months), young people or adults, 3) randomised to a lower fat versus usual or moderate fat diet, without the intention to reduce weight in any participants, 4) not multifactorial and 5) assessed a measure of weight or body fatness after at least six months. We also included cohort studies in children, young people and adults that assessed the proportion of energy from fat at baseline and assessed the relationship with body weight or fatness after at least one year. We duplicated inclusion decisions and resolved disagreement by discussion or referral to a third party.
We extracted data on the population, intervention, control and outcome measures in duplicate. We extracted measures of weight and body fatness independently in duplicate at all available time points. We performed random-effects meta-analyses, meta-regression, subgrouping, sensitivity and funnel plot analyses.
We included 32 RCTs (approximately 54,000 participants) and 30 sets of analyses of 25 cohorts. There is consistent evidence from RCTs in adults of a small weight-reducing effect of eating a smaller proportion of energy from fat; this was seen in almost all included studies and was highly resistant to sensitivity analyses. The effect of eating less fat (compared with usual diet) is a mean weight reduction of 1.5 kg (95% confidence interval (CI) -2.0 to -1.1 kg), but greater weight loss results from greater fat reductions. The size of the effect on weight does not alter over time and is mirrored by reductions in body mass index (BMI) (-0.5 kg/m(2), 95% CI -0.7 to -0.3) and waist circumference (-0.3 cm, 95% CI -0.6 to -0.02). Included cohort studies in children and adults most often do not suggest any relationship between total fat intake and later measures of weight, body fatness or change in body fatness. However, there was a suggestion that lower fat intake was associated with smaller increases in weight in middle-aged but not elderly adults, and in change in BMI in the highest validity child cohort.
Trials where participants were randomised to a lower fat intake versus usual or moderate fat intake, but with no intention to reduce weight, showed a consistent, stable but small effect of low fat intake on body fatness: slightly lower weight, BMI and waist circumference compared with controls. Greater fat reduction and lower baseline fat intake were both associated with greater reductions in weight. This effect of reducing total fat was not consistently reflected in cohort studies assessing the relationship between total fat intake and later measures of body fatness or change in body fatness in studies of children, young people or adults.
Full-text · Article · Aug 2015 · Cochrane database of systematic reviews (Online)
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background:
The apolipoprotein E (APOE) ε4 genotype is associated with an increased risk of Alzheimer's disease. In community surveys, older adults with this genotype have been found to have lower scores on neuropsychological tests than those who do not. It is possible that this is the consequence of subclinical changes in cognition in those persons who later develop dementia. The aim of this research was to determine whether the effect of APOE genotype on cognition would remain if those who subsequently became demented were retrospectively removed from the analysis of the baseline test data from a sample of healthy adults.
A sample of 241 nondemented persons over the age of 65 for whom APOE genotyping was available were administered a range of neuropsychological tests at baseline and were followed up 10 years later.
Significant differences between the ε4-present and ε4-absent groups were found for the delayed recall trial of the Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test and the Trail Making Test. When those participants known to have developed dementia during the follow-up period were excluded from the analysis of the baseline data these differences disappeared. A total of 113 nondemented survivors from the original sample were retested, and no difference was found in the rate of decline on any measure between the ε4-present and ε4-absent groups.
It is likely that the reported effect of the ε4 APOE genotype on cognition is the consequence of the ε4-present group containing persons whose cognition is subtly affected by the early stages of a dementing process. It is also unlikely that the presence of the ε4 allele by itself leads to a significantly accelerated rate of cognitive decline in the nondemented elderly.
No preview · Article · Jul 2014 · Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Erythrocytes, compared with plasma, are considered more robust markers of n-3 (ω-3) polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) intake, because dietary-induced change in fatty acid composition takes longer to complete. The extent to which this applies to intakes of saturated fatty acid (SFA) or n-6 PUFA is unclear. We compared the pattern of change over time in the fatty acid (FA) composition of plasma, erythrocyte, buccal cell, and adipose tissue lipids when changing between diets high in SFA or n-6 PUFA. Twenty-four (n = 7 male) healthy participants were instructed to consume either an SFA-rich (18% energy) or n-6 PUFA-rich (10% energy) diet for 8 wk before crossing over, without washout, to the alternate diet. The FA composition of plasma triacylglycerol (TG), nonesterified FAs, cholesterol ester, total phospholipids, erythrocyte total phospholipids, erythrocyte phosphatidylcholine, and buccal cell total phospholipids was measured every 2 wk and adipose tissue TG every 4 wk during the 16-wk intervention. Linoleic acid composition of plasma, erythrocyte, and buccal cell lipids increased (P < 0.01) during the first 2 wk of the n-6 PUFA diet and remained unchanged during the remaining 6 wk. During the 8-wk SFA diet, the same pattern of change over time occurred for the pentadecanoic acid composition of plasma and erythrocyte lipids; however, the pentadecanoic acid composition of buccal cell lipids did not differ between the diet periods. There were no differences in linoleic or pentadecanoic acid composition of adipose tissue TG. These results suggest plasma and erythrocyte FAs reflect intakes of SFA and n-6 PUFA over a similar period of time.
Full-text · Article · Nov 2013 · Journal of Nutrition
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: National data on the blood folate status of New Zealand adults is lacking. The objective of this study was to describe the blood folate status and examine the predictors of blood folate status in a national sample of adults from New Zealand, a country with voluntary folic acid fortification. The 2008/09 New Zealand Adult Nutrition Survey was a nationwide multistage systematic random cross-sectional survey. Serum and erythrocyte folate concentrations were measured by microbiologic assay. The survey included 4721 participants aged ≥15 y, 3359 of whom provided a nonfasting blood sample. Biochemical folate status was measured in 3277 participants. The median serum and erythrocyte folate concentrations were 23 and 809 nmol/L, respectively. The prevalence of biochemical folate deficiency, defined as plasma folate <6.8 nmol/L or erythrocyte folate <305 nmol/L, was 2%. Having breakfast daily compared with never eating breakfast was associated with 53% higher serum and 25% higher erythrocyte folate concentrations; consumers of fortified yeast extract spread had 17% higher serum and 14% higher erythrocyte folate concentrations than nonconsumers; daily users of folate-containing supplements compared with nonusers had 48% higher serum and 28% higher erythrocyte folate concentrations. The prevalence of biochemical folate deficiency in New Zealand adults is low. Participants who ate breakfast more frequently, consumed folate-fortified yeast, or used a daily folate supplement had higher blood folate concentrations.
Preview · Article · Oct 2013 · Journal of Nutrition
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Sedentary behavior is a risk factor for cardiometabolic disease. Regularly interrupting sedentary behavior with activity breaks may lower this risk.
We compared the effects of prolonged sitting, continuous physical activity combined with prolonged sitting, and regular activity breaks on postprandial metabolism.
Seventy adults participated in a randomized crossover study. The prolonged sitting intervention involved sitting for 9 h, the physical activity intervention involved walking for 30 min and then sitting, and the regular-activity-break intervention involved walking for 1 min 40 s every 30 min. Participants consumed a meal-replacement beverage at 60, 240, and 420 min.
The plasma incremental area under the curve (iAUC) for insulin differed between interventions (overall P < 0.001). Regular activity breaks lowered values by 866.7 IU · L(-1) · 9 h(-1) (95% CI: 506.0, 1227.5 IU · L(-1) · 9 h(-1); P < 0.001) when compared with prolonged sitting and by 542.0 IU · L(-1) · 9 h(-1) (95% CI: 179.9, 904.2 IU · L(-1) · 9 h(-1); P = 0.003) when compared with physical activity. Plasma glucose iAUC also differed between interventions (overall P < 0.001). Regular activity breaks lowered values by 18.9 mmol · L(-1) · 9 h(-1) (95% CI: 10.0, 28.0 mmol · L(-1) · 9 h(-1); P < 0.001) when compared with prolonged sitting and by 17.4 mmol · L(-1) · 9 h(-1) (95% CI: 8.4, 26.3 mmol · L(-1) · 9 h(-1); P < 0.001) when compared with physical activity. Plasma triglyceride iAUC differed between interventions (overall P = 0.023). Physical activity lowered values by 6.3 mmol · L(-1) · 9 h(-1) (95% CI: 1.8, 10.7 mmol · L(-1) · 9 h(-1); P = 0.006) when compared with regular activity breaks.
Regular activity breaks were more effective than continuous physical activity at decreasing postprandial glycemia and insulinemia in healthy, normal-weight adults. This trial was registered with the Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials registry as ACTRN12610000953033.
Full-text · Article · Jun 2013 · American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objective To investigate the relation between total fat intake and body weight in adults and children.
Design Systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials and cohort studies.
Data sources Medline, Embase, CINAHL, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials to June 2010.
Inclusion criteria Randomised controlled trials and cohort studies of adults or children that compared lower versus usual total fat intake and assessed the effects on measures of body fatness (body weight, body mass index, or waist circumference) after at least six months (randomised controlled trials) or one year (in cohorts). Randomised controlled trials with any intention to reduce weight in participants or confounded by additional medical or lifestyle interventions were excluded.
Data extraction Data were extracted and validity was assessed independently and in duplicate. Random effects meta-analyses, subgroups, sensitivity analyses, and metaregression were done.
Results 33 randomised controlled trials (73 589 participants) and 10 cohort studies were included, all from developed countries. Meta-analysis of data from the trials suggested that diets lower in total fat were associated with lower relative body weight (by 1.6 kg, 95% confidence interval −2.0 to −1.2 kg, I2=75%, 57 735 participants). Lower weight gain in the low fat arm compared with the control arm was consistent across trials, but the size of the effect varied. Metaregression suggested that greater reduction in total fat intake and lower baseline fat intake were associated with greater relative weight loss, explaining most of the heterogeneity. The significant effect of a low fat diet on weight was not lost in sensitivity analyses (including removing trials that expended greater time and attention on low fat groups). Lower total fat intake also led to lower body mass index (−0.51 kg/m2, 95% confidence interval −0.76 to −0.26, nine trials, I2=77%) and waist circumference (by 0.3 cm, 95% confidence interval −0.58 to −0.02, 15 671 women, one trial). There was no suggestion of negative effects on other cardiovascular risk factors (lipid levels or blood pressure). GRADE assessment suggested high quality evidence for the relation between total fat intake and body weight in adults. Only one randomised controlled trial and three cohort studies were found in children and young people, but these confirmed a positive relation between total fat intake and weight gain.
Conclusions There is high quality, consistent evidence that reduction of total fat intake has been achieved in large numbers of both healthy and at risk trial participants over many years. Lower total fat intake leads to small but statistically significant and clinically meaningful, sustained reductions in body weight in adults in studies with baseline fat intakes of 28-43% of energy intake and durations from six months to over eight years. Evidence supports a similar effect in children and young people.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A genetic variant at codon 200 (Pro200Leu) of the gene encoding for glutathione peroxidase 1 (GPx1), a selenium-dependent enzyme, is associated with lower enzyme activity; however, the evidence is limited to in vitro and observational studies. Objective: The objective was to determine whether the GPx1 Pro200Leu genetic variants modify the response of whole-blood glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activity to selenium supplementation in patients with coronary artery disease in New Zealand.
The results from 2 parallel-design, double-blind trials were combined. Participants were randomly assigned to receive a daily supplement of 100 μg Se as l-selenomethionine (n = 129) or placebo (n = 126) for 12 wk. Plasma selenium and whole-blood GPx activity were measured at baseline and at week 12. Participants were genotyped for the GPx1 Pro200Leu polymorphism.
Selenium supplementation increased whole-blood GPx activity by 5 (95% CI: 4, 7) U/g hemoglobin (P < 0.001); however, the magnitude of the increase did not differ by genotype (P = 0.165 for treatment-by-genotype interaction). In an exploratory analysis, a significant nutrient-gene interaction was apparent when baseline plasma selenium concentrations were included in the regression model (P = 0.006 for treatment-by-genotype × baseline selenium concentration interaction). Increases in GPx activity were 2-fold higher in Pro homozygotes than in participants carrying a Leu allele when baseline selenium concentrations were ≤1.15 μmol/L (P < 0.05).
These results indicate that GPx1 Pro200Leu variants do not substantially modify the response of whole-blood GPx to selenium supplementation in individuals with relatively high plasma selenium concentrations. A nutrient-gene interaction was observed when the baseline selenium concentration was low, but this requires independent confirmation. This trial was registered at www.actr.org.au as ACTRN12605000412639 and ACTRN12606000197538.
Preview · Article · Sep 2012 · American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Daily supplementation with folate increases erythrocyte folate concentrations; however, the time to reach steady-state concentrations has not been empirically demonstrated. Previous predictions of time to steady state or time to 90% steady-state concentration, based on modeling changes in erythrocyte folate during short-term trials, range widely from 40 to 86 wk. We sought to determine the time to steady-state erythrocyte folate concentrations following the initiation of daily folate supplementation using data collected from a 2-y, double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized trial involving 276 participants aged 65 y or older. The daily supplement contained 1 mg of folate. Erythrocyte folate concentrations were measured, using a microbiological assay, at baseline and at 6, 12, 18, and 24 mo. The mean plasma and erythrocyte folate concentrations in the folate-supplemented group were higher than in the placebo group at 6, 12, 18, and 24 mo (P < 0.001). Adjusted for baseline differences, the difference in erythrocyte folate concentrations between the folate and placebo group at 6 mo was 1.78 μmol/L (95% CI: 1.62-1.95 μmol/L). The difference increased significantly to 2.02 μmol/L (95% CI: 1.85-2.18 μmol/L) at 12 mo. This difference (between the folate and placebo groups) did not significantly change after a further year of folate supplementation; at 18 mo, it was 2.09 μmol/L (95% CI: 1.92-2.27 μmol/L) and at 24 mo it was 1.98 μmol/L (95% CI: 1.18-2.15 μmol/L). Twelve months of daily folate supplementation with 1 mg is sufficient time to cause erythrocyte folate concentrations to reach a new steady state.
Full-text · Article · Jul 2012 · Journal of Nutrition
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Serum fatty acids are increasingly used in cross-sectional surveys and cohort studies as biomarkers of dietary fat intake; however, it is currently difficult to judge whether an individual has low or high fatty acid status, or whether the distribution of fatty acids of a group of people is low or high due to a lack of appropriate reference values. In the absence of interpretive criteria, the distribution of serum fatty acids from a suitable reference population can be used as an alternative. We describe the distribution of the fatty acid composition of the three most commonly reported lipid classes in serum; cholesterol ester, phospholipid and triacylgycerol. Results for each serum lipid class are presented as means (SD) and percentiles (5, 10, 25, 50, 75, 90, and 95) of serum fatty acids in non-fasting blood samples collected from a population based cross-sectional survey of New Zealand adults (n = 2793). These serum fatty acid reference ranges are applicable and relevant to Australia, United Kingdom, and United States as well as other countries where fat intakes are similar to New Zealand.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Vitamin D insufficiency during pregnancy has been associated with a number of adverse outcomes for both mother and child. Vitamin D insufficiency has been well described in many populations of both pregnant and non-pregnant women of childbearing age, but there is a lack of data on women living in South-East Asia. We measured plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D in a representative sample of pregnant (n=64) and non-pregnant (n=477) women (15-49 years) living in Hanoi City (n=270) and rural Hai Duong Province (n=271) in northern Vietnam. Mean 25-hydroxyvitamin D (95% confidence interval) concentration was 81 (79, 84)nmolL(-1) . Mean 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentration differed between urban and rural (78 vs. 85nmolL(-1) ; P=0.016), farming and non-farming (89 vs. 77nmolL(-1) ; P<0.001) but not pregnant and non-pregnant or older vs. younger women. Only one woman had a 25-hydroxyvitamin D less than 25nmolL(-1) , a concentration indicative of vitamin D deficiency. Of the women, 7% and 48% of the women were vitamin D insufficient based on cut-offs for plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D of 50 and 75nmolL(-1) , respectively. Mean plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations of these Vietnamese women were much higher than those reported in other studies of pregnant and non-pregnant women in the region.
No preview · Article · Nov 2011 · Maternal and Child Nutrition
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The assessment of suspected dementia often involves the analysis of change scores from neuropsychological tests administered on two occasions. Frequently, no information is available to allow the significance of a change to be evaluated. Our aim was to prepare data useful for estimating the statistical significance of retest changes for persons older than the age of 65 on the Ruff 2 and 7 Selective Attention Test, one of the few paper-and-pencil tests of attention available to the clinician. The sample tested was composed of 234 healthy adults taking part in a randomized double-blind trial of the effect on cognitive performance of lowering homocysteine using dietary supplements, during which no treatment effects were detected. The test was found to be sensitive to the effects of aging and was well tolerated by our sample of older adults. Retest reliability for the speed of visual search for digit targets (2 and 7) under both the same category (other digits) and different category (letter) distracter conditions was high, and the practice effects during a 12-month period were substantial. Test-retest data with a 1-year interval were used to estimate reliability coefficients and to calculate Reliable Change indices useful for evaluating persons with suspected dementia. The rate of decline in search speed as a function of age was the same for both distraction conditions, suggesting that older persons used a controlled serial search process for targets in both conditions of this test.
No preview · Article · Oct 2010 · Applied Neuropsychology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Wholegrain intake is inversely related to weight gain over time, but little information is available on the role of pulses in weight control.
To compare weight loss, metabolic outcomes, and nutrient intakes in obese people assigned to a diet rich in pulses and wholegrains or a control diet.
Randomized controlled study of 18 months with 113 volunteers (body mass index [BMI] ≥ 28 kg/m(2)). Diets were based on guidelines published by the National Heart Foundation of New Zealand. The intervention group was advised to consume 2 serves of pulses and 4 serves of wholegrain foods per day as substitutions for more refined carbohydrates.
Fiber intakes were higher, intakes of several vitamins and minerals were better maintained, and dietary glycemic index was lower in the intervention compared with the control group. Mean (standard error [SE]) weight loss at 6 months was 6.0 (0.7) kg and 6.3 (0.6) kg in the control and intervention groups, respectively, and was not different between groups (p > 0.05). Blood pressure, triglycerides, and glycemic load were lowered in both groups compared with baseline. Waist circumference was decreased at 18 months in the intervention compared with the control group (-2.8 cm; 95% confidence interval [CI]: -0.4, -5.1).
Incorporation of pulses and wholegrain foods into a weight loss program resulted in a greater reduction in waist circumference compared with the group consuming a control diet, although no difference in weight loss was noted between groups. Retention of several nutrients was better with the pulse and wholegrain diet.
Full-text · Article · Aug 2010 · Journal of the American College of Nutrition
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Elevated plasma total homocysteine (tHcy) is a risk factor for vascular disease but lowering tHcy with B-vitamins, including folate, has generally not reduced vascular events in secondary prevention trials. Elevated plasma S-adenosylhomocysteine (AdoHcy) concentration may be a more sensitive indicator of vascular disease than plasma tHcy. However, unlike tHcy, plasma AdoHcy did not correlate with folate concentration in one study indicating that folate supplementation may not lower AdoHcy. Our aim was to determine whether providing B-vitamin supplements to healthy older people with elevated tHcy (>13 micromol/l) affects plasma AdoHcy and S-adenosylmethionine (AdoMet) concentrations. Healthy older participants (n 276; > or = 65 years) were randomised to receive a daily supplement containing folate (1 mg), vitamin B12 (500 microg) and vitamin B6 (10 mg), or placebo, for 2 years. Of these participants, we selected the first fifty participants in each treatment group and measured plasma AdoHcy and AdoMet. Plasma tHcy was 4.4 (95 % CI 3.2, 5.6; P < 0.001) micromol/l lower at 2 years in the vitamins group compared with the placebo group. At 2 years, there were no significant differences in plasma AdoMet (+4 % (95 % CI - 2, 11); P = 0.19), AdoHcy ( - 1 % (95 % CI - 10, 8); P = 0.61) or the AdoMet:AdoHcy ratio (0.22 (95 % CI - 0.04, 0.49); P = 0.10) between the two groups. In conclusion, B-vitamin supplementation of older people lowered plasma tHcy but had no effect on plasma AdoMet or AdoHcy concentration. If elevated plasma AdoHcy is detrimental, this may explain why B-vitamins have generally failed to reduce vascular events in clinical trials.
Full-text · Article · Jun 2010 · The British journal of nutrition