[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Farnesoic acid O-methyltransferase (FaMeT) is the enzyme responsible for the conversion of farnesoic acid (FA) to methyl farnesoate (MF) in the final step of MF synthesis. Multiple isoforms of putative FaMeT were isolated from six crustacean species belonging to the families Portunidae, Penaeidae, Scyllaridae and Parastacidae. The portunid crabs Portunus pelagicus and Scylla serrata code for three forms: short, intermediate and long. Two isoforms (short and long) were isolated from the penaeid prawns Penaeus monodon and Fenneropenaeus merguiensis. Two isoforms were also identified in the scyllarid Thenus orientalis and parastacid Cherax quadricarinatus. Putative FaMeT sequences were also amplified from the genomic DNA of P. pelagicus and compared to the putative FaMeT transcripts expressed. Each putative FaMeT cDNA isoform was represented in the genomic DNA, indicative of a multi-gene family. Various tissues from P. pelagicus were individually screened for putative FaMeT expression using PCR and fragment analysis. Each tissue type expressed all three isoforms of putative FaMeT irrespective of sex or moult stage. Protein domain analysis revealed the presence of a deduced casein kinase II phosphorylation site present only in the long isoform of putative FaMeT.
No preview · Article · Feb 2007 · General and Comparative Endocrinology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Sequential hermaphroditism is a common reproductive strategy in many teleosts. Steroid production is known to mediate both the natural and induced sex change, yet beyond this the physiology directing this process has received little attention. Cytochrome P450 aromatase is a key enzyme in the hormonal pathway catalysing the conversion of sex steroids, androgens to oestrogens, and thus is highly relevant to the process of sex change. This study reports the isolation of cDNA sequences for aromatase isoforms CYP19A1 and CYP19A2 from teleost species representing three forms of sexual hermaphroditism: Lates calcarifer (protandry), Cromileptes altivelis (protogyny), and Gobiodon histrio (bi-directional). Deduced amino acid analysis of these isoforms with other reported isoforms from gonochoristic (single sex) teleosts revealed 56-95% identity within the same isoform while only 48-65% identity between isoforms irrespective of species and sexual strategy. Phylogenetic analysis supported this result separating sequences into isoform exclusive clades in spite of species apparent evolutionary distance. Furthermore, this study isolates 5' flanking regions of all above genes and describes putative cis-acting elements therein. Elements identified include steroidogenic factor 1 binding site (SF-1), oestrogen response element (ERE), progesterone response element (PRE), androgen response element (ARE), glucocorticoid response elements (GRE), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha/retinoid X receptor alpha heterodimer responsive element (PPARalpha/RXRalpha), nuclear factor kappabeta (NF-kappabeta), SOX 5, SOX 9, and Wilms tumor suppressor (WTI). A hypothetical in vivo model was constructed for both isoforms highlighting potential roles of these putative cis-acting elements with reference to normal function and sexual hermaphroditism.
No preview · Article · May 2005 · The Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology