[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We present a microfluidic platform that allows undergoing different chemical operations in a nanoliter droplet starting from the colloidal suspension of magnetic iron oxide (γ-Fe2O3) nanoparticles "NPs" (ferrofluid). These operations include: mixing, flocculation, magnetic decantation, colloidal redispersion, washing, surface functionalization, heating and colloidal assembly. To prove the platform capabilities, we produced fluorescent and magnetic nanoassemblies composed of fluorescent silica and magnetic NPs.
Full-text · Article · Oct 2015 · Chemical Communications
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Droplet microfluidics is currently undergoing an explosive development due to its ability to compartmentalize samples in picolitre to nanolitre volumes, transport them without dispersion and perform high-throughput analysis. The precise manipulation of single droplets, however, still requires complex chips, such as microelectrode arrays, or equipment, such as laser-based sorting. We report here a very simple proof of concept of an innovative and active technology which allows the individual manipulation of single droplets. This technology combines ferromagnetic rails and magnetic nanolitre droplets. Ferromagnetic rails are used to locally create magnetic potential wells. When the field is turned OFF, the hydrodynamic drag force transports the magnetic droplets according to the flow velocity profile. By switching ON the magnetic field, droplets experience a magnetic force that affects their trajectory when passing over the magnetized rail. The combination of the drag force exerted by the oil flow and the magnetic force resulting from the magnetized rail leads to a deflection force that guides the droplet along the rail, thus imposing a deterministic trajectory. The magnetic rails networks offer a spatially and temporally addressable guidance and sorting of individual magnetic droplets by synchronizing field activation and droplets positions. Numerical simulations were performed to evaluate spatial distribution of both drag and magnetic forces within the microdevice. The influence of different parameters such as magnetic flux density magnitude, flow rate and orientation of the rail has been investigated. Finally, selective droplet sorting, parking and merging were demonstrated and the monitoring of parallelized enzymatic reactions was performed.
No preview · Article · Jul 2015 · Microfluidics and Nanofluidics
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We report on the first development of chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) in droplets. In this context we developed a microfluidic platform combining nanoliter droplets, magnetic beads (MB) and magnetic tweezers (MT). Droplets were used as compartmentalizer for samples and reagents. Anti-histone antibodies grafted MB were used as a solid capture support to extract the target chromatin to be analyzed. MB were then transferred from droplet to droplet using the MT in order to perform the multi-step ChIP protocol including chromatin binding, washing, elution and purification of DNA. This approach dramatically reduces cost and time of the ChIP protocol.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We report on a droplet microfluidic platform based on the manipulation of magnetic particles that allows the clinical analysis of tumor tissues. In particular, it permits the extraction of mRNA from the total-RNA sample, Reverse Transcription and cDNA amplification, all in droplets. At first, the platform has been validated for housekeeping and relevant breast cancer genes (HER2), starting from commercial solutions of total RNA. Then, we evaluated its reliability with cell lines and finally with 15 patient samples, extracted from tumor tissues. Considering the good results obtained in terms of sensitivity and reproducibility we think that this droplet microfluidic platform represents a promising technology for diagnostic applications.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In this study we present a droplet microfluidic platform able to elaborate assembly of nanostructure of silica nanoparticles coated with maghemite nanoparticles (γ-Fe2O3@SiO2). Based on the combination of the iron nanoparticles properties and the magnetic tweezers technology, we have been able to integrate the complete nano-assembly workflow usually performed in batch using the microfluidic droplets approach. To do so we first coated the iron nanoparticles with citrate group and then we mixed them with silica fluorescent nanoparticles in order to produce the nanoassemblies. The dual behavior of the resulting particles (fluorescent and magnetic) has been characterized by fluorescence microscopy and transmission electron microscopy (TEM).
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Although passive immuno-agglutination assays consist of one step and simple procedures, they are usually not adapted for high throughput analyses and they require expensive and bulky equipment for quantitation steps. Here we demonstrate a low cost, multimodal and high throughput immuno-agglutination assay that relies on a combination of magnetic beads (MBs), droplets microfluidics and magnetic tweezers. Antibody coated MBs were used as a capture support in the homogeneous phase. Following the immune interaction, water in oil droplets containing MBs and analytes were generated and transported in Teflon tubing. When passing in between magnetic tweezers, the MBs contained in the droplets were magnetically confined in order to enhance the agglutination rate and kinetics. When releasing the magnetic field, the internal recirculation flows in the droplet induce shear forces that favor MBs redispersion. In the presence of the analyte, the system preserves specific interactions and MBs stay in the aggregated state while in the case of a non-specific analyte, redispersion of particles occurs. The analyte quantitation procedure relies on the MBs redispersion rate within the droplet. The influence of different parameters such as magnetic field intensity, flow rate and MBs concentration on the agglutination performances have been investigated and optimized. Although the immuno-agglutination assay described in this work may not compete with enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) in terms of sensitivity, it offers major advantages regarding the reagents consumption (analysis is performed in sub microliter droplet) and the platform cost that yields to very cheap analyses. Moreover the fully automated analysis procedure provides reproducible analyses with throughput well above those of existing technologies. We demonstrated the detection of biotinylated phosphatase alkaline in 100 nL sample volumes with an analysis rate of 300 assays per hour and a limit of detection of 100 pM.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Core-shell γ-Fe(2)O(3)@SiO(2) nanoparticles (NPs) substituted by PEG and NH(2) groups may be immobilized on metal surfaces (glassy carbon or gold) substituted by 4-carboxyphenyl groups through electrostatic interactions. Such immobilization is evidenced by (i) IRRAS owing to the Si-O band, (ii) SEM images, which show that the surface coverage by the NPs is nearly 100%, and (iii) the NPs film thickness measured by ellipsometry or AFM, which corresponds to about one NPs monolayer. Such NPs film is permeable to redox probes, which allows us to propose electrochemical methods based on direct or local measurements as a way to inspect the NPs assembly steps through their ability to alter mass and charge transfer. This process also applies to patterned polystyrene surfaces, and selective immobilization of NPs substituted by amino groups was carried out onto submillimeter patterns obtained by local oxidation. Biological applications are then expected for hyperthermia activation of the NPs to trigger cellular death. Finally, some tests were performed to further derivatize the immobilized NPs onto surfaces through either a covalent bond or electrostatic interactions. Future work will be dedicated to the recovery of such Janus NPs from the substrate surface.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Nanomaterials have been widely developed for their use in nanomedicine, especially for immunoassay-based diagnosis. In this review we focus on the use of nanomaterials as a nanoplatform for colloidal immunoassays. While conventional heterogeneous immunoassays suffer from mass transfer limitations and consequently long assay time, colloidal immunosupports allow target capture in the entire volume, thus speeding up reaction kinetics and shortening assay time. Owing to their wide range of chemical and physical properties, nanomaterials are an interesting candidate for immunoassay development. The most popular colloidal nanomaterials for colloidal immunoassays will be discussed, as well as their influence on immune reactions. Recent advances in nanomaterial applications for different formats of immunoassays will be reported, such as nanomaterial-based indirect immunoassays, optical-based agglutination immunoassays, resonance energy transfer-based immunoassays and magnetic relaxation-based immunoassays. Finally, the future of using nanomaterials for homogeneous immunoassays dedicated to clinical diagnosis will be discussed.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We report on the development of a simple and easy to use microchip dedicated to allergy diagnosis. This microchip combines both the advantages of homogeneous immunoassays i.e. species diffusion and heterogeneous immunoassays i.e. easy separation and preconcentration steps. In vitro allergy diagnosis is based on specific Immunoglobulin E (IgE) quantitation, in that way we have developed and integrated magnetic core-shell nanoparticles (MCSNPs) as an IgE capture nanoplatform in a microdevice taking benefit from both their magnetic and colloidal properties. Integrating such immunosupport allows to perform the target analyte (IgE) capture in the colloidal phase thus increasing the analyte capture kinetics since both immunological partners are diffusing during the immune reaction. This colloidal approach improves 1000 times the analyte capture kinetics compared to conventional methods. Moreover, based on the MCSNPs' magnetic properties and on the magnetic chamber we have previously developed the MCSNPs and therefore the target can be confined and preconcentrated within the microdevice prior to the detection step. The MCSNPs preconcentration factor achieved was about 35,000 and allows to reach high sensitivity thus avoiding catalytic amplification during the detection step. The developed microchip offers many advantages: the analytical procedure was fully integrated on-chip, analyses were performed in short assay time (20 min), the sample and reagents consumption was reduced to few microlitres (5 μL) while a low limit of detection can be achieved (about 1 ng mL(-1)).
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In this paper, we demonstrate the possibility to use magnetic nanoparticles as immunosupports for allergy diagnosis. Most immunoassays used for immunosupports and clinical diagnosis are based on a heterogeneous solid-phase system and suffer from mass-transfer limitation. The nanoparticles' colloidal behavior and magnetic properties bring the advantages of homogeneous immunoassay, i.e., species diffusion, and of heterogeneous immunoassay, i.e., easy separation of the immunocomplex and free forms, as well as analyte preconcentration. We thus developed a colloidal, non-competitive, indirect immunoassay using magnetic core-shell nanoparticles (MCSNP) as immunosupports. The feasibility of such an immunoassay was first demonstrated with a model antibody and described by comparing the immunocapture kinetics using macro (standard microtiter plate), micro (microparticles) and nanosupports (MCSNP). The influence of the nanosupport properties (surface chemistry, antigen density) and of the medium (ionic strength, counter ion nature) on the immunocapture efficiency and specificity was then investigated. The performances of this original MCSNP-based immunoassay were compared with a gold standard enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) using a microtiter plate. The capture rate of target IgG was accelerated 200-fold and a tenfold lower limit of detection was achieved. Finally, the MCSNP-based immunoassay was successfully applied to the detection of specific IgE from milk-allergic patient's sera with a lower LOD and a good agreement (CV < 6%) with the microtiter plate, confirming the great potential of this analytical platform in the field of immunodiagnosis.
Full-text · Article · May 2011 · Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Magnetic core shell nanoparticles (MCSNPs) 30 nm diameter with a magnetic weight of 10% are usually much too small to be trapped in microfluidic systems using classical external magnets. Here, a simple microchip for efficient MCSNPs trapping and release is presented. It comprises a bed of micrometric iron beads (6-8 μm diameter) packed in a microchannel against a physical restriction and presenting a low dead volume of 0.8 nL. These beads of high magnetic permeability are used to focus magnetic field lines from an external permanent magnet and generate local high magnetic gradients. The nanoparticles magnetic trap has been characterised both by numerical simulations and fluorescent MCSNPs imaging. Numerical simulations have been performed to map both the magnetic flux density and the magnetic force, and showed that MCSNPs are preferentially trapped at the iron bead magnetic poles where the magnetic force is increased by 3 orders of magnitude. The trapping efficiency was experimentally determined using fluorescent MCSNPs for different flow rates, different iron beads and permanent magnet positions. At a flow rate of 100 μL h(-1), the nanoparticles trapping/release can be achieved within 20 s with a preconcentration factor of 4000.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We report on the development of a microdevice dedicated to allergy diagnosis which combines both the advantages of homogeneous and heterogeneous immunoassays (IAs). As allergy diagnosis is based on IgE quantitation, we have used magnetic core shell nanoparticles (MCSNPs) as IgE capture nanoplateform. Integrating such immunosupport allows to perform the target antibody (IgE) capture in colloidal phase and thus to increase the IgE capture kinetics. Moreover, due to their magnetic properties and to the magnetic trap we have previously developed, the MCSNPs and therefore the target will be confined and preconcentrated prior the detection step. This microfluidic approach has been successfully developed for allergy diagnosis. The assay time was 20 min with a IgE limit of detection of 1 ng/mL.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The use of nanoparticles (NPs) in immunodiagnostics is a challenging task for many reasons, including the need for miniaturization. In view of the development of an assay dedicated to an original, miniaturized and fully automated immunodiagnostics which aims to mimic in vivo interactions, magnetic zwitterionic bifunctional amino/polyethyleneoxide maghemite core/silica shell NPs functionalized with allergenic alpha-lactalbumin were characterized by CE. Proper analytical performances were obtained through semi-permanent capillary coating with didodecyldimethylammonium bromide (DDAB) or permanent capillary wall modification by hydroxypropylcellulose. The influence of experimental conditions (e.g. buffer component nature, pH, ionic strength, and electric field strength) on sample stability, electrophoretic mobility, and dispersion was investigated using either DDAB- or hydroxypropylcellulose-coated capillaries. Adsorption to the capillary wall and aggregation phenomena were evaluated according to the CE conditions. The proper choice of experimental conditions, i.e. separation under -10 kV in a 25 mM ionic strength MES/NaOH (pH 6.0) with a DDAB-coated capillary, allowed the separation of the grafted and the non-grafted NPs.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A chemometric approach was developed to optimize the grafting of a bovine milk allergen: alpha-Lactalbumin (alpha-Lac) on colloidal functionalized magnetic core-shell nanoparticles (MCSNP). Such nanoparticles, functionalized with polyethyleneglycol and amino groups, exhibit a 30nm physical diameter and behave as a quasi-homogeneous system. The alpha-Lac immobilization was achieved through the covalent binding between MCSNP amino groups and alpha-Lac carboxylic moieties using the well-known tandem carbodiimide (EDC) and hydroxysulfosuccinimide (NHS). In this study, a chemometric approach was employed to highlight the parameters influencing the number of grafted proteins on the MCSNP. Three factors were evaluated: the ratio in concentration between EDC and alpha-Lac, between NHS and EDC and the concentration of alpha-Lac. After a first full factorial design to delimit the region of the space where the optimum could be located, a central composite design was then carried out to predict the best grafting conditions. It was established and experimentally confirmed that the optimum parameters are [EDC]/[alpha-Lac]=25; [NHS]/[EDC]=1.55 and alpha-Lac=24.85nmolmL(-1). In these optimal conditions, MCSNP surface was successfully saturated with alpha-Lac (34 alpha-Lac/MCSNP) with a high reproducibility (RSD=2%). The colloidal stability of MCSNP grafted with alpha-Lac as well as the immunological interactions using anti alpha-Lac antibody were then investigated in different buffers. The results emphasized that a 50mM MES buffer (pH 6) allows an efficient immune capture and a satisfying colloidal stability which provide an immunological interaction in homogeneous liquid phase.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In view of employing functionalized nanoparticles (NPs) in the context of an immunodiagnostic, aminated maghemite/silica core/shell particles were synthesized so as to be further coated with an antibody or an antigen via the amino groups at their surface. Different functionalization rates were obtained by coating these maghemite/silica core/shell particles with 3-(aminopropyl)triethoxysilane and 2-[methoxy(polyethyleneoxy)propyl]-trimethoxysilane at different molar ratios. Adequate analytical performances with CE coupled with UV-visible detection were obtained through semi-permanent capillary coating with didodecyldimethyl-ammonium bromide, thus preventing particle adsorption. First, the influence of experimental conditions such as electric field strength, injected particle amount as well as electrolyte ionic strength and pH, was evaluated. A charge-dependent electrophoretic mobility was evidenced and the separation selectivity was tuned according to electrolyte ionic strength and pH. The best resolutions were obtained at pH 8.0, high ionic strength (ca. 100 mM), and low total particle volume fraction (ca. 0.055%), thus eliminating interference effects between different particle populations in mixtures. A protocol derived from Kaiser's original description was performed for quantitation of the primary amino groups attached onto the NP surface. Thereafter a correlation between particle electrophoretic mobility and the density of amino groups at their surface was established. Eventually, CE proved to be an easy, fast, and reliable method for the determination of NP effective surface charge density.