- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objective: This paper aims to assess the impact of co-injuries and consequent emergency surgical interventions and nosocomial pneumonia on the 28-day mortality of patients with severe traumatic brain injuries (TBIs). Subjects and methods: One hundred and seventy-seven patients with TBI admitted to the emergency trauma intensive care unit at the Clinical Center of Serbia for more than 48 h were studied over a 1-year period. On admission, the Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS), Injury Severity Score (ISS) and Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II score (APACHE II) were calculated. At admission, an isolated TBI was recorded in 45 of the patients, while 44 had three or more co-injuries. Results: Of the 177 patients, 78 (44.1%) died by the end of the 28-day follow-up period. They had a significantly higher ISS score (25 vs. 20; p = 0.024) and more severe head (p = 0.034) and chest (p = 0.013) injuries compared to those who survived. Nonsurvivors had spent more days on mechanical ventilation (9.5 vs. 8; p = 0.041) and had a significantly higher incidence of ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) than survivors (67.9 vs. 40.4%; p < 0.001). A high Rotterdam CT score (OR 2.062; p < 0.001) and a high APACHE II score (OR 1.219; p < 0.001) were identified as independent predictors of early TBI-related mortality. Conclusion: Patients who had TBI with a high Rotterdam score and a high APACHE II score were at higher risk of 28-day mortality. VAP was a very common complication of TBI and was associated with an early death and higher mortality in the subgroup of patients with a GCS ≤8.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Severe liver injury in trauma patients still accounts for significant morbidity and mortality. Operative techniques in liver trauma are some of the most challenging. They include the broad and complex area, from damage control to liver resection. This is a retrospective study of 121 trauma patients with hepatic trauma American Association for Surgery of Trauma (AAST) grade III-V who have undergone surgery. Indications for surgery include refractory hypotension not responding to resuscitation due to uncontrolled hemorrhage from liver trauma; massive hemoperitonem on Focused assessment by ultrasound for trauma (FAST) and/or Diagnostic peritoneal lavage (DPL) as well as Multislice Computed Tomography (MSCT) findings of the severe liver injury and major vascular injuries with active bleeding. Non-survivors have significantly higher AAST grade of liver injury and higher Injury Severity Score (ISS) (p = 0.000; p = 0.0001). Non-survivors have significant hypotension on arrival and lower Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) on admission (p = 0.000; p = 0.0001). Definitive hepatic repair was performed in 62(51.2 %) patient. Damage Control, liver packing and planned re-laparotomy after 48 h were used in 59(48.8 %). There was no statistically significant difference in terms of the surgical approach. There was significant difference in the amount of red blood cells (RBC) transfusion in the first 24 h between survivors and non-survivors (p = 0.001). Overall mortality rate was 33.1 %. Regarding complications non-survivors had significantly prolonged bleeding and higher rate of Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) (p = 0.0001; p = 0.0001), while survivors had significantly higher rate of pleural effusion (p = 0.0001). All efforts in the treatment of severe liver injuries should be directed to the rapid and effective control of bleeding, because uncontrollable hemorrhage is the cause of early death and it requires massive blood transfusion, all of which contributes to the late fatal complication.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Introduction: The aims of this study were (1) to assess the incidence of ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) in patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI), (2) to identify risk factors for developing VAP, and (3) to assess the prevalence of the pathogens responsible. Patients and methods: The following data were collected prospectively from patients admitted to a 24-bed intensive care unit (ICU) during 2013/14: the mechanism of injury, trauma distribution by system, the Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE) II score, the Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS) score, the Injury Severity Score (ISS), underlying diseases, Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) score, use of vasopressors, need for intubation or cardiopulmonary resuscitation upon admission, and presence of pulmonary contusions. All patients were managed with a standardized protocol if VAP was suspected. The Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) score and the Clinical Pulmonary Infection Score (CPIS) were measured on the day of VAP diagnosis. Results: Of the 144 patients with TBI who underwent mechanical ventilation for >48 h, 49.3% did not develop VAP, 24.3% developed early-onset VAP, and 26.4% developed late-onset VAP. Factors independently associated with early-onset VAP included thoracic injury (odds ratio (OR) 8.56, 95% confidence interval (CI) 2.05–35.70; p = 0.003), ISS (OR 1.09, 95% CI 1.03–1.15; p = 0.002), and coma upon admission (OR 13.40, 95% CI 3.12–57.66; p
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Introduction: The aim of this study was to identify risk factors for severe postoperative pain immediately after hip-fracture surgery. Patients and methods: Three hundred forty-four elderly patients with an acute hip fracture were admitted to the hospital during a 12-months period. All patients who entered the study answered a structured questionnaire to assess demographic characteristics, previous diseases, drug use, previous surgery, and level of education. Physical status was assessed through the American Society of Anesthesiologists' preoperative risk classification, cognitive status using the Short Portable Mental Status Questionnaire, and depression using the Geriatric Depression Scale. The presence of preoperative delirium using the Confusion Assessment Method was assessed during day and night shifts until surgery. Pain was measured using a numeric rating scale (NRS). An NRS ≥ 7 one hour after surgery indicated severe pain. Results: Patients with elementary-level education (8 yr in school) presented a higher risk for immediate severe postoperative pain than university-educated patients (> 12 yr in school) (P < 0.05). Higher cognitive function was associated with higher postoperative pain (P < 0.01). Patients with symptoms of depression and patients with preoperative delirium presented a higher risk for severe pain (P < 0.05, P < 0.01, respectively). Multivariate analysis showed that depression and a low level of education were independent predictors of severe pain immediately after surgery. Conclusion: Depression and lower levels of education were independent predictors of immediate severe pain following hip-fracture surgery. These predictors could be clinically used to stratify analgesic risk in elderly patients for more aggressive pain treatment immediately after surgery.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Occupational exposure to blood and body fluids is a serious concern of health care workers and presents a major risk of transmission of infections such as human immuno-deficiency virus (HIV), hepatitis B virus (HBV), and hepatitis C virus (HCV). The aim of this study was to determine the frequency and circumstances of occupational blood and body fluid exposures among health care workers. Cross-sectional study was conducted in three university hospitals in Belgrade. Anonymous questionnaire was used containing data about demographic characteristics, self-reported blood and body fluid exposures and circumstances of percutaneous injuries. Questionnaire was filled in and returned by 216 health care workers (78.2% of nurses and 21.8% of doctors). 60.6% of participants-health care workers had sustained at least one needlestick injury during their professional practice; 25.9% of them in the last 12 months. Of occupational groups, nurses had higher risk to experience needlestick injuries than doctors (p = 0.05). The majority of the exposures occurred in the operating theatre (p = 0.001). Among factors contributing to the occurrence of needlestick injuries, recapping needles (p = 0.003) and decontamination/cleaning instruments after surgery (p = 0.001) were more frequent among nurses, while use of a needle before intervention was common among doctors (p = 0.004). Only 41.2% of health care workers had reported their injuries to a supervisor in order to obtain medical attention. 50.2% of health care workers were vaccinated with three doses of hepatitis B vaccine. There is a high rate of needlestick injuries in the daily hospital routine. Implementation of safety devices would lead to improvement in health and safety of medical staff.
Article: Coagulopathy in trauma
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Introduction Occupational exposure to blood and body fluids is a serious concern of health care workers and presents a major risk of transmission of infections such as human immuno-deficiency virus (HIV), hepatitis B virus (HBV), and hepatitis C virus (HCV). Objective The aim of this study was to determine the frequency and circumstances of occupational blood and body fluid exposures among health care workers. Methods Cross-sectional study was conducted in three university hospitals in Belgrade. Anonymous questionnaire was used containing data about demographic characteristics, self-reported blood and body fluid exposures and circumstances of percutaneous injuries. Results Questionnaire was filled in and returned by 216 health care workers (78.2% of nurses and 21.8% of doctors). 60.6% of participants-health care workers had sustained at least one needlestick injury during their professional practice; 25.9% of them in the last 12 months. Of occupational groups, nurses had higher risk to experience needlestick injuries than doctors (p=0.05). The majority of the exposures occurred in the operating theatre (p=0.001). Among factors contributing to the occurrence of needlestick injuries, recapping needles (p=0.003) and decontamination/cleaning instruments after surgery (p=0.001) were more frequent among nurses, while use of a needle before intervention was common among doctors (p=0.004). Only 41.2% of health care workers had reported their injuries to a supervisor in order to obtain medical attention. 50.2% of health care workers were vaccinated with three doses of hepatitis B vaccine. Conclusion There is a high rate of needlestick injuries in the daily hospital routine. Implementation of safety devices would lead to improvement in health and safety of medical staff.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Segment-oriented liver resections can be performed effective by posterior intrahepatic approach. A significance of such resection - is that they are oncologically radical as well as parenchyma-sparing. Segmental liver resections were performed in 102 patients with liver tumors. Suprahilar control of the appropriate glissonean pedicle was achieved by the posterior intrahepatic approach. Liver parenchyma was transsected by ultrasonic dissector, under intermittent vascular occlusion (IVO). Pedicle was divided at the end of resection using "endo-GIA" vascular stapler. The overall transection time was 30,14+/-12,56 min. The amount of blood loss was 285,59+/-129,92 ml. The postoperative complication rate was 25,49%. R0 resection had 94 (92,16%) patients.There was no liver failure or perioperative death. Posterior intrahepatic approach for segmental resection is safe, can expedite the liver transection and reduce intraoperative hemorrhage. This approach provides adequate tumor clearance with preservation of normal parenchyma, as well as the vasculature or the biliary drainage of the contralateral liver.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Intra-abdominal compartment syndrome (ACS) are increasingly recognised to be a contributing cause of organ dysfunction and mortality in critically ill patients. The term abdominal compartment syndrome (ACS) describes the clinical manifestations of the pathologic elevation of the intra abdominal pressure (IAP). This syndrome is most commonly observed in the setting of severe abdominal trauma. ACS affects mainly the respiratory, cardiovascular, renal, gastrointestinal and central nervous system. Preventing ACS by the identification of patients at risk and early diagnosis is paramount to its successful management. Because of the frequency of this condition, routine measurement of intra abdominal pressure should be performed in high risk patients in the intensive care unit. Surgical decompression is definitive treatment of fully developed abdominal compartment syndrome, but nonsurgical measures can often effectively affect lesser degrees of IAH and ACS.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Anemia is common in critically ill patients and carries risk of reduced oxygen carriage and worse outcomes. Transfusion, however, carry their own risk, and the physician must balance the risks of anemia with the risk of transfusion in each patient. Some recent studies compared a liberal with a restrictive approach to transfusion, and a clinical practice guidelines were made. This protocols consider that acute hemorrhage has been controlled, the initial resuscitation has been completed, and the patient is stabile in the intensive care unit without ongoing bleeding. The trigger for PRBC transfusion in patients without severe cardiovascular disease is hemoglobin g/dL (or a hematocrit %).
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Neurotrauma is a leading cause of childhood mortality. Physicians are in a continuous search for means to decrease mortality and morbidity caused by head injury. Treatment of these patients requires familiarity with both cerebral pathophysiology and actions of anaesthetic agents on brain. Early treatment of hypotension and hypoventilation would cut mortality rate by at least one third. Prevention of increased intracranial pressure is the best treatment for head injury. Anaesthetist, neurosurgeon and radiologist should all be members of a team which can secure timely diagnosis and treatment of an injured child. Paying attention to every detail is of huge significance. Treatment of the child in a pediatric trauma center or an accident and emergencies center for adults with both personnel and equipment capable for handling paediatric patients offers greater probability of survival.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Acutelunginjury (ALI) and its more severe form acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) are syndromes with a spectrum of increasing severity of lung injury defined by physiologic and radiographic criteria. There are many clinical disorders as sociated with the development of ALI/ARDS and can be divided into those associated with direct or indirect lung injury. Early detection and protective lung ventilation strategy contribute to lowering the mortality rate.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Injuries of the stomach and duodenum have an important place in abdominal trauma, even though that the isolated injuries are rare. This kind of injury is most commonly associated with injuries of other abdominal organs. This retrospective study has been done at the Department of Emergency Surgery, Clinical Centre of Serbia, during the period from January 2004. until January 2009. The study included 36 patients diagnosed intraoperatively with the injury of the stomach and duodenum. The most common mechanism of harming were injuries due to blunt trauma (41.7%), the ones followed by gunshot wounds (30.5%), and the least were stab injuries (27.8%). With the majority of patients has been conducted sutures (46.3%) and serosation (30.6%) of the stomach and duodenum. In 24 (66.7%) patients on admission have been done ultrasound of the abdomen, in 6 (16.7%) abdominal CT was done, in 4 (11.1%) peritoneal lavage have been done and the x-ray of the abdomen was performed in 3 (8.3%) patients. Specific complications had 1 (2.8%) patient, while 14 (29.9%) patients have had non-specific complications. Total mortality has been 33.3%
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Nosocomial infections (NI) are significant medical problem in the countries worldwide. NI significance reflects in higher morbidity and mortality rates, and moreover, NIs add to longer stay and higher treatment costs. Based on data obtained from underdeveloped and developing countries, over 20% of hospitalized patients acquire some of NIs, while that proportion is 5% in developed countries. A) to establish the frequency of noosocomial infections at the Clinic of Digestive System Diseases, b) determine the NI incidence in accord with anatomic localizations, c) evaluate the percentage prevalence of NI causes according to anatomic localizations, and d) review the problem of resistance of NI causative agents. The study of NI incidence was calculated by Center for Diseases and Prevention (CDC) methodology. Sampling, cultivation, isolation, identification and sensitivity tests of cauosative agents to antimicrobial drugs, obtained from patient's material, were carried out by standard microbiological methods in Microbiological laboratory of the Emergency Center, Clinical Center of Serbia. All infections in patients hospitalized at the Clinic of Digestive System Surgery in 2007 were recorded. Data available from medical documentation as well as data obtained from interviews of medical personnel were analyzed. The incidence rates of patients with NI ranged from 1.7-3.4 per 1000 hospital days. Out of a total number of recorded nosocomial infections, surgical site infections accounted for 69%, blood infections 23% and urinary tract infections 6.8%. The most frequent causative agents of surgical site infections in the last year were as follows: Pseudomonas spp (19%), followed by Staphylococcus aureus and Klebsiella spp--(18%), Acinetobacter spp (13%), and Enterococcus spp (8%). Forty percent (40%) of all blood infections verified by laboratory tests in 2007 was caused by coagulase negative Staphylococcus spp (CNS), followed by Acinetobacter spp (18%). Enterococcus spp (11%), and Staphylococcus aureus (7%). The most frequent causative agents of urinary infections were: Escherichia coli (35%) and Enterococcus spp (29%). Over 80% of Staphylococcus aureus isolates were resistant to Methicillin (MRSA) and enterobacteria produced by beta lactamase were recorded (ESBL). Enforcement of epidemiological surveillance of nosocomial infections contributes to insight of severity of NI problem, recognition of resistance of causative agents to antibiotics and recommendation of specific preventive measures related to these infections.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To determine overall mortality and timing of death in patients with severe acute pancreatitis and factors affecting mortality. This was a retrospective, observational study of 110 patients admitted to a general intensive care unit (ICU) from January 2003 to January 2006. The overall mortality rate was 53.6% (59/110); 25.4% (n = 15) of deaths were early (<or=14 days after ICU admission). There were no significant differences in age, sex, or surgical/medical treatment between survivors and nonsurvivors. Median Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE) II score was higher among nonsurvivors than survivors (score = 26 vs 19, respectively; P < 0.001), and the duration of hospitalization before ICU admission was significantly longer (4 vs 1 day; P < 0.001). Among the 59 patients who died, those in the early-mortality group were admitted to the ICU significantly earlier than those in the late-mortality group (3 vs 6.5 days; P < 0.05). Overall mortality and median APACHE II score were high. Death predominantly occurred late and was unaffected by patient age, length of stay in the ICU, or surgical/medical treatment. An APACHE II cutoff of 24.5 and pre-ICU admission time of 2.5 days were sensitive predictors of fatal outcome.
Conference Paper: Our experience on weight loss surgery using SAGB
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Because the supply of cadaveric organ donors is limited and their ICU management is complex, a multidisciplinary, well-coordinated, and institutionally supported approach to management is essential to ensure the maintenance of the current supply and to increase the future supply of organs and tissues that are suitable for transplantation. The potential organ donor is at high risk for instability as a direct consequence of the loss of physiologic homeostatic mechanisms that are dependent on functioning of the central nervous system. The keys to successful ICU management of the potential organ donor include a team approach that is focused on the anticipation of complications, appropriate physiologic monitoring, aggressive life support, with frequent reassessment and titration of therapy.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Massive hemorrhage is a formidable challenge for anesthesia care providers in the elective setting and poses even greater potential challenges in the trauma setting. In all this cases, the anesthesia care providers are faced with large-volume resuscitations that typically start with crystalloid and colloid and rapidly progress to blood and blood products. These large-volume replacement may cause coagulopathy, which can be difficult to manage in the setting of ongoing blood loss. Coagulopathy associated with massive transfusion is multifactorial event that results from hemodilution, hypothermia, the use of fractionated blood products and disseminated intravascular coagulation. Maintaining a normal body temperature is a first-line, effective strategy to improve hemostasis during massive transfusion. Treatment strategies include the maintenance of adequate tissue perfusion, the corection of anemia, and the use of hemostatic blood products.