[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The cystic fibrosis (CF) transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) is a member of the ATP-binding cassette transporter superfamily that functions as an epithelial chloride channel. Gating of the CFTR ion conduction pore involves a conserved irreversible cyclic mechanism driven by ATP binding and hydrolysis at two cytosolic nucleotide-binding domains (NBDs): formation of an intramolecular NBD dimer that occludes two ATP molecules opens the pore, whereas dimer disruption after ATP hydrolysis closes it. CFTR dysfunction resulting from inherited mutations causes CF. The most common CF mutation, deletion of phenylalanine 508 (ΔF508), impairs both protein folding and processing and channel gating. Development of ΔF508 CFTR correctors (to increase cell surface expression) and potentiators (to enhance open probability, Po) is therefore a key focus of CF research. The practical utility of 5-nitro-2-(3-phenylpropylamino)benzoate (NPPB), one of the most efficacious potentiators of ΔF508 CFTR identified to date, is limited by its pore-blocking side effect. NPPB-mediated stimulation of Po is unique in that it involves modulation of gating transition state stability. Although stabilization by NPPB of the transition state for pore opening enhances both the rate of channel opening and the very slow rate of nonhydrolytic closure, because of CFTR's cyclic gating mechanism, the net effect is Po stimulation. In addition, slowing of ATP hydrolysis by NPPB delays pore closure, further enhancing Po. Here we show that NPPB stimulates gating at a site outside the pore and that these individual actions of NPPB on CFTR are fully attributable to one or the other of its two complementary molecular parts, 3-nitrobenzoate (3NB) and 3-phenylpropylamine (3PP), both of which stimulate Po: the pore-blocking 3NB selectively stabilizes the transition state for opening, whereas the nonblocking 3PP selectively slows the ATP hydrolysis step. Understanding structure-activity relationships of NPPB might prove useful for designing potent, clinically relevant CFTR potentiators.
Preview · Article · Oct 2014 · The Journal of General Physiology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) is the chloride ion channel mutated in cystic fibrosis (CF) patients. It is an ATP-binding cassette protein, and its resulting cyclic nonequilibrium gating mechanism sets it apart from most other ion channels. The most common CF mutation (ΔF508) impairs folding of CFTR but also channel gating, reducing open probability (Po). This gating defect must be addressed to effectively treat CF. Combining single-channel and macroscopic current measurements in inside-out patches, we show here that the two effects of 5-nitro-2-(3-phenylpropylamino)benzoate (NPPB) on CFTR, pore block and gating stimulation, are independent, suggesting action at distinct sites. Furthermore, detailed kinetic analysis revealed that NPPB potently increases Po, also of ΔF508 CFTR, by affecting the stability of gating transition states. This finding is unexpected, because for most ion channels, which gate at equilibrium, altering transition-state stabilities has no effect on Po; rather, agonists usually stimulate by stabilizing open states. Our results highlight how for CFTR, because of its unique cyclic mechanism, gating transition states determine Po and offer strategic targets for potentiator compounds to achieve maximal efficacy.
Preview · Article · Jan 2014 · The Journal of General Physiology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A central step in the gating of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) chloride channel is the association of its two cytosolic nucleotide-binding domains (NBDs) into a head-to-tail dimer, with two nucleotides bound at the interface. Channel opening and closing, respectively, are coupled to formation and disruption of this tight NBD dimer. CFTR is an asymmetric adenosine triphosphate (ATP)-binding cassette protein in which the two interfacial-binding sites (composite sites 1 and 2) are functionally different. During gating, the canonical, catalytically active nucleotide-binding site (site 2) cycles between dimerized prehydrolytic (state O1), dimerized post-hydrolytic (state O2), and dissociated (state C) forms in a preferential C→O1→O2→C sequence. In contrast, the catalytically inactive nucleotide-binding site (site 1) is believed to remain associated, ATP-bound, for several gating cycles. Here, we have examined the possibility of conformational changes in site 1 during gating, by studying gating effects of perturbations in site 1.
Previous work showed that channel closure is slowed, both under hydrolytic and nonhydrolytic conditions, by occupancy of site 1 by N6-(2-phenylethyl)-ATP (P-ATP) as well as by the site-1 mutation H1348A (NBD2 signature sequence). Here, we found that P-ATP prolongs wild-type (WT) CFTR burst durations by selectively slowing (>2×) transition O1→O2 and decreases the nonhydrolytic closing rate (transition O1→C) of CFTR mutants K1250A (∼4×) and E1371S (∼3×). Mutation H1348A also slowed (∼3×) the O1→O2 transition in the WT background and decreased the nonhydrolytic closing rate of both K1250A (∼3×) and E1371S (∼3×) background mutants. Neither P-ATP nor the H1348A mutation affected the 1:1 stoichiometry between ATP occlusion and channel burst events characteristic to WT CFTR gating in ATP. The marked effect that different structural perturbations at site 1 have on both steps O1→C and O1→O2 suggests that the overall conformational changes that CFTR undergoes upon opening and coincident with hydrolysis at the active site 2 include significant structural rearrangement at site 1.
Full-text · Article · Jun 2013 · The Journal of General Physiology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cyclophilin D was recently shown to bind to and decrease the activity of F0F1-ATP synthase in submitochondrial particles and permeabilized mitochondria [Giorgio V et al. (2009) J Biol Chem, 284, 33982–33988]. Cyclophilin D binding decreased both ATP synthesis and hydrolysis rates. In the present study, we reaffirm these findings by demonstrating that, in intact mouse liver mitochondria energized by ATP, the absence of cyclophilin D or the presence of cyclosporin A led to a decrease in the extent of uncoupler-induced depolarization. Accordingly, in substrate-energized mitochondria, an increase in F0F1-ATP synthase activity mediated by a relief of inhibition by cyclophilin D was evident in the form of slightly increased respiration rates during arsenolysis. However, the modulation of F0F1-ATP synthase by cyclophilin D did not increase the adenine nucleotide translocase (ANT)-mediated ATP efflux rate in energized mitochondria or the ATP influx rate in de-energized mitochondria. The lack of an effect of cyclophilin D on the ANT-mediated adenine nucleotide exchange rate was attributed to the ∼ 2.2-fold lower flux control coefficient of the F0F1-ATP synthase than that of ANT, as deduced from measurements of adenine nucleotide flux rates in intact mitochondria. These findings were further supported by a recent kinetic model of the mitochondrial phosphorylation system, suggesting that an ∼ 30% change in F0F1-ATP synthase activity in fully energized or fully de-energized mitochondria affects the ADP–ATP exchange rate mediated by the ANT in the range 1.38–1.7%. We conclude that, in mitochondria exhibiting intact inner membranes, the absence of cyclophilin D or the inhibition of its binding to F0F1-ATP synthase by cyclosporin A will affect only matrix adenine nucleotides levels.
Structured digital abstract
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Mitochondria isolated from embryos of the crustacean Artemia franciscana lack the Ca(2+)-induced permeability transition pore. Although the composition of the pore described in mammalian mitochondria is unknown, the impacts of several effectors of the adenine nucleotide translocase (ANT) on pore opening are firmly established. Notably, ADP, ATP and bongkrekate delay, whereas carboxyatractyloside hastens, Ca(2+)-induced pore opening. Here, we report that adenine nucleotides decreased, whereas carboxyatractyloside increased, Ca(2+) uptake capacity in mitochondria isolated from Artemia embryos. Bongkrekate had no effect on either Ca(2+) uptake or ADP-ATP exchange rate. Transmission electron microscopy imaging of Ca(2+)-loaded Artemia mitochondria showed needle-like formations of electron-dense material in the absence of adenine nucleotides, and dot-like formations in the presence of adenine nucleotides or Mg(2+). Energy-filtered transmission electron microscopy showed the material to be rich in calcium and phosphorus. Sequencing of the Artemia mRNA coding for ANT revealed that it transcribes a protein with a stretch of amino acids in the 198-225 region with 48-56% similarity to those from other species, including the deletion of three amino acids in positions 211, 212 and 219. Mitochondria isolated from the liver of Xenopus laevis, in which the ANT shows similarity to that in Artemia except for the 198-225 amino acid region, demonstrated a Ca(2+)-induced bongkrekate-sensitive permeability transition pore, allowing the suggestion that this region of ANT may contain the binding site for bongkrekate.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cyclophilin D (cypD)-deficient mice exhibit resistance to focal cerebral ischemia and to necrotic but not apoptotic stimuli. To address this disparity, we investigated isolated brain and in situ neuronal and astrocytic mitochondria from cypD-deficient and wild-type mice. Isolated mitochondria were challenged by high Ca(2+), and the effects of substrates and respiratory chain inhibitors were evaluated on permeability transition pore opening by light scatter. In situ neuronal and astrocytic mitochondria were visualized by mito-DsRed2 targeting and challenged by calcimycin, and the effects of glucose, NaCN, and an uncoupler were evaluated by measuring mitochondrial volume. In isolated mitochondria, Ca(2+) caused a large cypD-dependent change in light scatter in the absence of substrates that was insensitive to Ruthenium red or Ru360. Uniporter inhibitors only partially affected the entry of free Ca(2+) in the matrix. Inhibition of complex III/IV negated the effect of substrates, but inhibition of complex I was protective. Mitochondria within neurons and astrocytes exhibited cypD-independent swelling that was dramatically hastened when NaCN and 2-deoxyglucose were present in a glucose-free medium during calcimycin treatment. In the presence of an uncoupler, cypD-deficient astrocytic mitochondria performed better than wild-type mitochondria, whereas the opposite was observed in neurons. Neuronal mitochondria were examined further during glutamate-induced delayed Ca(2+) deregulation. CypD-knock-out mitochondria exhibited an absence or a delay in the onset of mitochondrial swelling after glutamate application. Apparently, some conditions involving deenergization render cypD an important modulator of PTP in the brain. These findings could explain why absence of cypD protects against necrotic (deenergized mitochondria), but not apoptotic (energized mitochondria) stimuli.
Preview · Article · Feb 2011 · Journal of Biological Chemistry
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In pathological conditions, F(0)F(1)-ATPase hydrolyzes ATP in an attempt to maintain mitochondrial membrane potential. Using thermodynamic assumptions and computer modeling, we established that mitochondrial membrane potential can be more negative than the reversal potential of the adenine nucleotide translocase (ANT) but more positive than that of the F(0)F(1)-ATPase. Experiments on isolated mitochondria demonstrated that, when the electron transport chain is compromised, the F(0)F(1)-ATPase reverses, and the membrane potential is maintained as long as matrix substrate-level phosphorylation is functional, without a concomitant reversal of the ANT. Consistently, no cytosolic ATP consumption was observed using plasmalemmal K(ATP) channels as cytosolic ATP biosensors in cultured neurons, in which their in situ mitochondria were compromised by respiratory chain inhibitors. This finding was further corroborated by quantitative measurements of mitochondrial membrane potential, oxygen consumption, and extracellular acidification rates, indicating nonreversal of ANT of compromised in situ neuronal and astrocytic mitochondria; and by bioluminescence ATP measurements in COS-7 cells transfected with cytosolic- or nuclear-targeted luciferases and treated with mitochondrial respiratory chain inhibitors in the presence of glycolytic plus mitochondrial vs. only mitochondrial substrates. Our findings imply the possibility of a rescue mechanism that is protecting against cytosolic/nuclear ATP depletion under pathological conditions involving impaired respiration. This mechanism comes into play when mitochondria respire on substrates that support matrix substrate-level phosphorylation.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Mitochondrial swelling is a hallmark of mitochondrial dysfunction, and is an indicator of the opening of the mitochondrial permeability transition pore. We introduce here a novel quantitative in situ single-cell assay of mitochondrial swelling based on standard wide-field or confocal fluorescence microscopy. This morphometric technique quantifies the relative diameter of mitochondria labeled by targeted fluorescent proteins. Fluorescence micrographs are spatial bandpass filtered transmitting either high or low spatial frequencies. Mitochondrial swelling is measured by the fluorescence intensity ratio of the high- to low-frequency filtered copy of the same image. We have termed this fraction the "thinness ratio". The filters are designed by numeric optimization for sensitivity. We characterized the thinness ratio technique by modeling microscopic image formation and by experimentation in cultured cortical neurons and astrocytes. The frequency domain image processing endows robustness and subresolution sensitivity to the thinness ratio technique, overcoming the limitations of shape measurement approaches. The thinness ratio proved to be highly sensitive to mitochondrial swelling, but insensitive to fission or fusion of mitochondria. We found that in situ astrocytic mitochondria swell upon short-term uncoupling or inhibition of oxidative phosphorylation, whereas such responses are absent in cultured cortical neurons.
Full-text · Article · May 2008 · Biophysical Journal