[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Sepsis is characterized as a systemic inflammatory response that results from the inability of the immune system to limit bacterial spread during an ongoing infection. In this condition the significant mediator of inflammation Platelet Activating Factor (PAF) and the coagulant factor thrombin are implicated. In animal models, treatment with PAF-antagonists or co-administration of antibiotics with recombinant-PAF-Acetylhydrolase (rPAF-AH) have exhibited promising results. In order to examine the putative anti-inflammatory and/or antithrombotic interactions between antibiotic treatment used in sepsis with PAF and/or thrombin, we studied the in vitro effects of these compounds towards PAF or/and thrombin related activities and towards PAF basic metabolic enzymes.
We assessed the inhibitory effect of these drugs against PAF or thrombin induced aggregation on washed rabbit platelets (WRPs) or rabbit Platelet Reach Plasma (rPRP) by evaluating their IC50 values. We also studied their effect on Cholinephosphotransferase of PAF (PAF-CPT)/Lyso-PAF-Acetyltransferase (Lyso-PAF-AT) of rabbit leukocytes (RLs), as well as on rabbit plasma-PAF-AH, the key enzymes of both de novo/remodelling PAF biosynthesis and PAF degradation, respectively.
Several antibiotics inhibited PAF-induced platelet aggregation of both WRPs and rPRP in a concentration-depended manner, with clarithromycin, azithromycin and amikacin exhibiting the higher inhibitory effect, while when combined they synergistically inhibited PAF. Higher concentrations of all antibiotics tested were needed in order to inhibit PAF induced aggregation of rPRP, but also to inhibit thrombin induced aggregation of WRPs. Concentrations of these drugs similar to their IC50 values against PAF activity in WRPs, inhibited also in vitro PAF-CPT and Lyso-PAF-AT activities of rabbit leukocytes, while only clarithromycin and azithromycin increased rabbit plasma-PAF-AH activity.
These newly found properties of antibiotics used in sepsis suggest that apart from their general actions, these drugs may present additional beneficial anti-inflammatory and anti-coagulant effects against the onset and establishment of sepsis by inhibiting the PAF/PAF-receptor and/or the thrombin/protease-activated-receptor-1 systems, and/or by reducing PAF-levels through both PAF-biosynthesis inhibition and PAF-catabolism induction. These promising in vitro results need to be further studied and confirmed by in vivo tests, in order to optimize the efficacy of antibiotic treatment in sepsis.
Preview · Article · Jul 2011 · Journal of Inflammation
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Calcific myonecrosis is a rare late complication of trauma, affecting almost exclusively the lower limb. Its radiologic appearance is characteristic. Superimposed infection usually is a sequela of biopsy.
We present three patients, one with bilateral involvement, who presented with calcific myonecrosis and spontaneous infection. Three infections were attributable to a single microorganism: Enterobacter cloacae, Staphylococcus hominis, and S. haemolyticus were recovered. Multiple microorganisms were responsible in the other case. Treatment consisted of radical surgical debridement and antibiotics. The incision was closed over a suction drain, where possible, or left open to close by secondary intention.
Calcific myonecrosis may present as infection without any obvious precipitating factor, and it should be included in the differential diagnosis in cases of soft tissue infection of the leg.
No preview · Article · Apr 2011 · Surgical Infections
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Platelet-activating factor (PAF) is a potent inflammatory mediator, which seems to play a role in the pathogenesis of several AIDS manifestations such as AIDS dementia complex, Kaposi's sarcoma, and HIV-related nephropathy. PAF antagonists have been studied in these conditions with promising results. In order to examine the possible interactions between PAF and antiretroviral therapy, we studied the effect of nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors, non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors, and protease inhibitors against PAF biological activities and its basic biosynthetic enzymes dithiothreitol-insensitive PAF-cholinephosphotransferase (PAF-CPT) and lyso-PAF-acetyltransferase (Lyso-PAF-AT), as well as its main degradative enzyme PAF-acetylhydrolase, of human mesangial cell line (HMC). We also studied the effect of several backbones and highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) regimens against PAF activity. Among the drugs tested, several inhibited PAF-induced platelet aggregation in a concentration-depended manner, with tenofovir, efavirenz, and ritonavir exhibiting the higher inhibitory effect. In addition, when these drugs were combined in backbones and HAART regimens based on American antiretroviral therapy proposals, they also synergistically exhibited an inhibitory effect against PAF-induced platelet aggregation. Several of these drugs have also inhibited in vitro microsomal PAF-CPT activity, and concentrations of lopinavir-r or tenofovir-DF (similar to their IC(50) against PAF-induced platelet aggregation) exhibited the same effect against PAF-CPT and Lyso-PAF-AT when added in the cell medium of cultured HMC. In addition, in naïve patients treated with one of the most potent anti-PAF HAART regimens (efavirenz/emtricitabine/tenofovir-DF) for a period of 1 month, a significant reduction of the specific activity of PAF-CPT of washed human leukocytes of these patients was also observed, compared with its levels before the HAART treatment. These promising results need to be further studied and confirmed by additional in vivo tests in order to optimize HAART efficacy.
No preview · Article · Aug 2008 · AIDS research and human retroviruses