[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The genus Pseudoplatystoma includes catfish species distributed throughout the fresh waters of South America. These species are important fisheries resources and play a significant ecological role due to their piscivorous and migratory habits. The taxonomy of this genus is still debated: traditionally, only three species have been recognised, but recently, this number was raised to eight. The validity of these eight morphospecies, however, was not confirmed by two subsequent molecular phylogenetic studies, which identified either five or four main clades. In this study, we focused on the two morphospecies restricted to the Orinoco basin, P. metaense and P. orinocoense, which have been assigned to either the same or different clades in previous studies. We carried out cytogenetic analyses to describe their unknown karyotypes and to look for cytotaxonomic markers. We also analysed their mitochondrial sequences in order to assign the sampled specimens to the previously identified molecular clades. The two presumptive species show similar karyotypes (2n = 56, 42 biarmed and 14 uniarmed chromosomes) and cytogenetic features in terms of the constitutive heterochromatin distribution and the number and location of minor and major ribosomal genes. Thus, no species-specific chromosome markers could be identified. The analysis of cytochrome b and cytochrome oxidase I mitochondrial genes (carried out by retrieving all the mtDNA Pseudoplatystoma sequences available in GenBank) distributed the sampled specimens into two distinct molecular clades
and confirmed the need to re-evaluate, by parallel morphological and molecular analyses, the monophyly of some lineages.
Full-text · Article · Nov 2013 · Italian Journal of Zoology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The family Loricariidae with 813 nominal species is one of the largest fish families of the world. Hypostominae, its more complex subfamily, was recently divided into five tribes. The tribe Hypostomini is composed of a single genus, Hypostomus Lacépède, 1803, which exhibits the largest karyotypic diversity in the family Loricariidae. With the main objective of contributing to a better understanding of the relationship and the patterns of evolution among the karyotypes of Hypostomus species, cytogenetic studies were conducted in six species of the genus from Brazil and Venezuela. The results show a great chromosome variety with diploid numbers ranging from 2n=68 to 2n=76, with a clear predominance of acrocentric chromosomes. The Ag-NORs are located in terminal position in all species analyzed. Three species have single Ag-NORs (Hypostomus albopunctatus (Regan, 1908), Hypostomus prope plecostomus (Linnaeus, 1758), and Hypostomus prope paulinus (Ihering, 1905)) and three have multiple Ag-NORs (Hypostomus ancistroides (Ihering, 1911), Hypostomus prope iheringi (Regan, 1908), and Hypostomus strigaticeps (Regan, 1908)). In the process of karyotype evolution of the group, the main type of chromosome rearrangements was possibly centric fissions, which may have been facilitated by the putative tetraploid origin of Hypostomus species. The relationship between the karyotype changes and the evolution in the genus is discussed.
Full-text · Article · Dec 2012 · Comparative cytogenetics
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The family Loricariidae with about 690 species divided into six subfamilies, is one of the world's largest fish families. Cytogenetic studies conducted in the family showed that among 90 species analyzed the diploid number ranges from 2n=38 in Ancistrus sp. to 2n=96 in Hemipsilichthys gobio Luetken, 1874. In the present study, fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) was employed to determine the chromosomal localization of the 18S rDNA gene in four suckermouth armoured catfishes: Kronichthys lacerta (Nichols, 1919), Pareiorhaphis splendens (Bizerril, 1995), Liposarcus multiradiatus (Hancock, 1828) and Hypostomus prope plecostomus (Linnaeus, 1758). All species analyzed showed one chromosome pair with 18S rDNA sequences, as observed in the previous Ag-NORs analyses. The presence of size and numerical polymorphism was observed and discussed, with proposing a hypothesis of the Ag-NOR evolution in Loricariidae.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cytogenetic analyses performed in Cephalosilurus apurensis, Microglanis aff. cottoides and Pseudopimelodus bufonius revealed that the three species have 2n = 54 chromosomes: C. apurensis presented six metacentric (M), 28 submetacentric (SM), 14 subtelolocentric (ST), and six acrocentric (A) chromosomes, while M. aff. cottoides showed 10M, 32SM, 10ST and 2A, and P. bufonius had 12M, 30SM and 12ST. The nucleolus organizer regions (NORs) were present on the short arm of a middle-sized ST pair, identified as pair 19, in C. apurensis NORs were found on the short arm of a middle-sized ST (pair 23) and on the long arm of a middle-sized ST (pair 22) in M. aff. cotttoides and on the short arm of three middle-sized ST pairs, identified as pairs 9, 10 and 11, in P. bufonius. C-banding revealed a very small amount of constitutive heterochromatin in the chromosomes of all species, including the NORs. The occurrence of 2n = 54 in all species of the family Pseudopimelodidae and its absence among species of the closely related Pimelodidae and Heptapteridae may be important in identifying Pseudopimelodidae species.
Key words: karyotype, chromosomes, C-banding, Ag-NOR, fish.
Full-text · Article · Mar 2008 · Genetics and Molecular Biology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The karyotype and chromosomal characteristics of the characid fish Triportheus venezuelensis were investigated using differential staining techniques (C-banding, Ag-NOR staining) and fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) with an 18S rDNA probe. The diploid chromosome number (2n = 52), karyotype composition and sex chromosome determination system of the ZZ/ZW type were the same as previously described in other species of the genus Triportheus. However, extensive variation regarding nucleolus organizer regions (NOR) different from other species was observed. 18S rDNA sequences were distributed on nine chromosome pairs, but the number of chromosomes with Ag-NORs was usually lower, reaching a maximum of four chromosomes. When sequential staining experiments were performed, it was demonstrated that: 1.) active NORs usually corresponded to segments with 18S rDNA genes identified in FISH experiments; 2.) several 18S rDNA sequences were not silver-stained, suggesting that they do not correspond to active NORs; and 3.) some chromosomes with silver-stained regions did not display any 18S rDNA signals. These findings characterize an extensive polymorphism associated with the NOR-bearing chromosomes of T. venezuelensis and emphasize the importance of combining traditional and molecular techniques in chromosome studies.
Full-text · Article · Dec 2006 · Genetics and Molecular Biology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The family Loricariidae, with about 683 species, is one the largest fish families in the world. The subfamily Hypostominae was recently reviewed and is now divided in five tribes. With the main objective of contributing to a better understanding of the relationships of the members of the subfamily Hypostominae, cytogenetic analyses were conducted in seven species (three Hypostomini, three Pterygoplichthini and two Ancistrini) from Brazil and Venezuela. In Pterygoplichthini, all species show 2n = 52 chromosomes. In Hypostomini Hypostomus ancistroides has 2n = 68, H. regani 2n = 72 and Hypostomus goyazensis 2n = 72 chromosomes. In Ancistrini Ancistrus n. sp. 1 has 2n = 39/40 with a sex chromosome system of the type XX/X0, which is a novelty for neotropical fishes, and Ancistrus n. sp. 2 has 2n = 52 chromosomes. Six species have single Ag-NORs and two multiple Ag-NORs. The possible cytogenetic relationships among the species of Hypostominae are discussed.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Se estudió el cariotipo de Pygocentrus cariba de Caicara del Orinoco, Venezuela. El número diploide de cromosomas 2n=60 estuvo compuesto de 18 metacéntricos, 30 submetacéntricos, 2 subtelocéntricos y 10 acrocéntricos (NF= 110). Un máximo de 12 cromosomas portadores de NOR fueron detectados, estando las NOR localizadas en la región terminal de los brazos cortos de un par de cromosomas metacéntricos de mediano tamaño y de cinco pares acrocéntricos pequeños. La heterocromatina constitutiva se observó localizada en las regiones centroméricas y teloméricas de casi todos los cromosomas, algunas más conspicuas que otras. Algunos segmentos heterocromáticos intersticiales fueron también observados. Las similaridades entre P. cariba y las especies del género Serrasalmus estudiadas hasta ahora, en términos de número y tipo de cromosomas, multiplicidad de cromosomas portadores de NOR y la distribución de heterocromatina constitutiva localizada en posiciones centromérica y telomérica, refuerzan la hipótesis de la relación filogénética cercana entre los géneros Pygocentrus y Serrasalmus.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cytogenetic studies were conducted on Pygocentrus cariba from Caicara del Orinoco, Venezuela. The diploid chromosome number 2n=60 consisted of 18 metacentric, 30 submetacentric, 2 subtelocentric and 10 acrocentric chromosomes (NF = 110). A maximum of 12 nucleolar organizer regions (NOR) bearing chromosomes were visualized, with the NORs located terminally on the short arms of one pair of medium sized metacentric chromosomes, and on five small-sized acrocentric chromosome pairs. Constitutive heterochromatin blocks were located at centromeric and telomeric regions of practically all chromosomes, some being more conspicuous than others. Similarities between P. cariba and the species of the genus Serrasalmus so far studied, in terms of the number and type of chromosomes, multiplicity of NOR-bearing chromosomes and the distribution of constitutive heterochromatin located in centromeric and telomeric position, reinforces the hypothesis of the close phylogenetic relationship between the genera Pygocentrus and Serrasalmus.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Conventional karyotype and nucleolar organizer regions (NORs) of C. macropomum x P. brachypomus hybrids and parental species are reported. A modal diploid number of 54 chromosomes and a fundamental number (NF) of 108 were found for C. macropomum, P. brachypomus and their hybrids. P. brachypomus shows a pair of silver stained chromosomes, while cells with three and four Ag-NOR bearing chromosomes were observed in C. macropomum. The hybrids consistently presented cells with a single metacentric Ag-NOR bearing chromosome and cells with three Ag-NOR bearing chromosomes. The FISH technique was employed to localize 18S rDNA in the chromosomes of the parentals and the hybrids. In P. brachypomus the FITC signals appeared in the SM pair as when stained with silver salts. In C. macropomum the signals were evidenced in six chromosomes. In the hybrids, as expected, the FITC dots were observed in four chromosomes. All the techniques employed in the present work represent good tools to identify the parentals and distinguish them of the hybrids.
Full-text · Article · Oct 2003 · Caryologia -Firenze-
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Fish of the family Prochilodontidae are considered one of the most important components of commercial and subsistence fishery in freshwater environments in South America. This family consists of 21 species and three genera. In the present study, the karyotypes of Prochilodus mariae, Semaprochilodus kneri, and S. laticeps from Caicara del Orinoco, Bolivar State, Venezuela were studied. The species P. mariae, S. kneri and S. laticeps exhibited 2n=54 chromosomes (40 metacentric and 14 submetacentric), a single chromosome pair with nucleolus organizer regions, and a large amount of heterochromatin found at
centromeric and pericentromeric positions in almost all chromosomes. The P. mariae specimens studied displayed 0 to 3 supernumerary microchromosomes. The data obtained here confirm the conservative nature of the chromosome number and morphology of Prochilodontidae and reinforce the hypothesis that small structural chromosome rearrangements were the main cause of the karyotypic diversification seen in this group.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cytogenetic studies were conducted on Serrasalmus rhombeus from Caicara del Orinoco, Venezuela. The diploid chromosome number 2n=60 was composed of 30 metacentric, 16 submetacentric, 4 subtelocentric and 10 acrocentric chromosomes (NF= 110). Four pairs of NOR-bearing chromosomes were detected. NOR are located terminally on the short arms of one pair of medium sized subtelocentric chromosomes, and on three small sized acrocentric chromosome pairs. The karyotype diversity in this species suggests that karyotype formulae and NOR number could be useful for characterization of intraspecific stocks or populations.