[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cellular senescence is characterized by growth arrest, enlarged and flattened cell morphology, the expression of senescence-associated β-galactosidase (SA-β-gal), and by activation of tumor suppressor networks. Insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) plays a critical role in cellular growth, proliferation, tumorigenesis, and regulation of aging. In the present study, we show that IGF-I enhances cellular senescence in mouse, rat, and human primary cells in the confluent state. IGF-I induced expression of a DNA damage marker, γH2AX, the increased levels of p53 and p21 proteins, and activated SA-β-gal. In the confluent state, an altered downstream signaling of IGF-I receptor was observed. Treatment with a reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenger, N-acetylcystein (NAC) significantly suppressed induction of these markers, indicating that ROS are involved in the induction of cellular senescence by IGF-I. In p53-null mouse embryonic fibroblasts, the IGF-I-induced augmentation of SA-β-gal and p21 was inhibited, demonstrating that p53 is required for cellular senescence induced by IGF-I. Thus, these data reveal a novel pathway whereby IGF-I enhances cellular senescence in the ROS and p53-dependent manner and may explain the underlying mechanisms of IGF-I involvement in tumorigenesis and in regulation of aging.
No preview · Article · Aug 2012 · Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Excessive oxidative stress plays a causal role in various diseases such as diabetes, hypertension, atherosclerosis, and heart failure. Acromegaly is a pathological condition associated with excess growth hormone (GH) and insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) and a high prevalence of diabetes, hypertension, atherosclerosis, and heart failure; resulting in premature death. We hypothesized that these conditions may be associated with increased oxidative stress.
We explored the oxidative stress levels in the serum and tissues of GH-transgenic rats as an animal model for acromegaly. We also measured the oxidative stress levels in the serum of patients with acromegaly and age-, sex-, and BMI-matched control subjects. We examined the effects of GH and IGF-I on reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in C2C12 myocytes.
The levels of an oxidative stress marker, serum thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) were increased in the GH-transgenic rats. Further, tissue oxidative stress damage was enhanced in the cardiomyocytes and vascular smooth muscle cells in the aorta of the GH-transgenic rats. In addition, serum TBARS levels and 8-hydroxy-2-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) levels were increased in acromegaly in humans. IGF-I but not GH induced ROS production in C2C12 myocytes in vitro.
These data indicate that the increased levels of IGF-I are associated with enhanced oxidative stress in rats and humans. In addition, increased ROS may play an important role in the complications and premature death in acromegaly.
No preview · Article · Feb 2012 · Growth hormone & IGF research: official journal of the Growth Hormone Research Society and the International IGF Research Society
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: IGF-I induces skeletal muscle hypertrophy by stimulating protein synthesis and suppressing the protein degradation pathway; the downstream signaling pathways Akt-mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR)-p70-kDA-S6-kinase (p70S6K), and Forkhead box O1 (FoxO1) play essential roles in this regulation. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) modulate the signaling of various growth factors via redox regulation. However, the role of ROS in IGF-I signaling is not fully understood. In this study, we investigated whether ROS regulate the signaling and biological action of IGF-I in C2C12 myocytes. We found that IGF-I induces ROS in C2C12 myocytes. While treatment with H(2)O(2) significantly enhanced IGF-I-induced phosphorylation of the IGF-I receptor (IGF-IR), IGF-IR phosphorylation was markedly attenuated when cells were treated with antioxidants. The downstream signaling pathway, Akt-mTOR-p70S6K was subsequently down-regulated. Furthermore, the phosphorylation of FoxO1 by IGF-I decreased concomitantly with the restoration of the expression of its target genes, Atrogin-1 and muscle RING finger 1, which are related to muscle atrophy. Nox4 knockdown, which is reportedly to produce ROS in insulin signaling, attenuated IGF-I-induced IGF-IR phosphorylation, indicating that Nox4 is involved in the regulation of IGF-I signaling. Importantly, antioxidant treatments inhibited IGF-I-induced myocyte hypertrophy, demonstrating that ROS are necessary for IGF-I-induced myocyte hypertrophy in vitro. These results indicate that ROS play an essential role in the signaling and biological action of IGF-I in C2C12 myocytes.