AA Murphy

Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia, United States

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Publications (36)141.03 Total impact

  • Article: O-21

    No preview · Article · Sep 2006
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    ABSTRACT: An abstract is unavailable. This article is available as HTML full text and PDF.
    No preview · Article · Feb 2006 · Journal of Pelvic Medicine and Surgery
  • M. Song · C. E. Dominguez · S. Parthasarathy · A. A. Murphy

    No preview · Article · Sep 2005 · Fertility and Sterility
  • M. Song · C. Dominguez · E. Lowe · S. Parthasarathy · A. A. Murphy

    No preview · Article · Sep 2004 · Fertility and Sterility

  • No preview · Article · Sep 2004 · Fertility and Sterility

  • No preview · Conference Paper · Sep 2004
  • M. Song · C. Dominguez · E. Lowe · S. Parthasarathy · A. A. Murphy

    No preview · Article · Sep 2004 · Fertility and Sterility

  • No preview · Article · Feb 2002 · Fertility and Sterility
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    ABSTRACT: Estradiol has been documented to inhibit the oxidation of low density lipoprotein (LDL). We show that physiological concentrations of estradiol do not inhibit the oxidation of LDL by copper. LDL samples isolated from a) premenopausal and postmenopausal women and from b) women at different time periods during their menstrual cycle, who differ vastly in plasma estradiol levels, were also oxidized at the same rates by copper. In contrast, LDL samples isolated from c) women who were hyperstimulated during in vitro fertilization (IVF), with estradiol concentrations above 2000 pg/ml, were resistant to oxidation by copper. However, these LDL samples were also oxidized at a higher rate by peroxidases. More importantly, subjects with high estradiol levels also showed an increase in myeloperoxidase (MPO) protein in the plasma. Based on these results, we conclude that at physiologic concentrations, it is unlikely that estradiol could act as an antioxidant. In fact, the ability of estradiol to induce MPO and become a prooxidant might instead suggest that MPO-mediated oxidative clearance of LDL from plasma by liver might favorably influence the outcome of atherosclerosis.
    Preview · Article · Dec 1998 · The Journal of Lipid Research
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    ABSTRACT: Our purpose was to examine RU 486 and related compounds on monocyte to macrophage differentiation through scavenger receptors and cellular adhesion. Human monocytes were isolated, cultured, and treated with dexamethasone, levonorgestrel, RU 486, and other structurally related compounds alone or in combination. Macrophage scavenger receptor activity, inhibited by glucocorticoids and associated in the current literature with macrophage cellular adhesion, was determined in this study by counting the number of adherent cells after treatment. In addition, fluorescent-labeled acetyl-low-density lipoprotein uptake was determined as a function of scavenger receptor biologic activity. Dexamethasone, levonorgestrel (antiglucocorticoid only) and RU 486 (antiglucocorticoid and antioxidant) all significantly decreased adherent macrophages (4%, 52%, and 74% of control). Levonorgestrel, however, demonstrated a marked uptake of fluorescent-labeled scavenger receptor ligand. RU 486 and dexamethasone were antagonistic when combined (P < .001); levonorgestrel was less antagonistic but, however, still significant (P < .05). Reduced RU 486 (antioxidant but loses antiglucocortioid activity) decreased cellular adhesion, yet scavenger receptor function was enhanced. Both probucol (extracellular mechanism of action) and probucol analog (intracellular action) markedly up-regulated scavenger function, but once again a separation of adhesion from scavenger activity was noted. Vitamin E (antioxidant) and onapristone (antioxidant and antiglucocorticoid) had virtually little to no effect on adhesion and scavenger receptor activity. Finally, pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate, a potent oxygen-free radical quencher, was toxic to all cells examined. RU 486 is a known antiglucocorticoid with novel antioxidant properties first demonstrated by our laboratories. Levonorgestrel has antiglucocorticoid but no antioxidant activity. RU 486 antagonized the inhibitory effect of dexamethasone on scavenger receptor development, whereas levonorgestrel was stimulatory. A separation of scavenger receptor-induced cellular adhesion and scavenger receptor internalized ligand was demonstrated by (1) reduced RU 486, which loses its antiglucocorticoid activity but retains its antioxidant activity, and (2) probucol analog, which is chemically altered to allow intracellular entry. Glucocorticoids decrease the development of scavenger receptors, whereas antioxidants regulate inflammatory cytokines by intracellular mechanisms. It is therapeutically important to up-regulate scavenger receptor activity by antiglucocorticoids in the peritoneal cavity of women with endometriosis. However, because these mechanisms also induce inflammatory cytokines, a balance of antioxidants and antiglucocorticoids such as those demonstrated in the above study may prove beneficial.
    No preview · Article · Aug 1998 · American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology
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    ABSTRACT: Our central hypothesis proposes that oxidatively damaged red blood cells (RBCs), apoptotic endometrial cells or undigested endometrial tissue may signal the recruitment and activation of mononuclear phagocytes. Women with endometriosis are prone to respond to this stimulus with an inadequate macrophage scavenger receptor response although the secretory response is not impaired. Activated macrophages in the peritoneal cavity generate an oxidative stress, which consists of lipid peroxides, their degradation products, and products formed from their interaction with low-density lipoprotein (LDL) apoprotein and other proteins. The lipoproteins of the peritoneal fluid (interstitial fluid) have been shown to have lower vitamin E levels and to be more readily oxidized than plasma, so peritoneal fluid may actually contribute to the disease process actively rather than as a passive carrier of mediators of inflammation and growth. As a result of such a stress, a sterile, inflammatory reaction with secretion of growth factors, cytokines, and chemokines is generated, which is deleterious especially to successful reproduction. We propose that such a pro-oxidant environment (peritoneal fluid as well as activated macrophages) promotes growth of ectopic endometrium. The data presented in this review are just the beginning of exploring the role of oxidative stress in mediating the pathophysiology of endometriosis. Only by understanding the mechanisms involved in the pathogenesis of endometriosis can we develop the basis for new diagnostic and therapeutic approaches.
    No preview · Article · Feb 1998 · Seminars in reproductive endocrinology
  • AA Murphy · S Parthasarathy

    No preview · Article · Jan 1998 · Seminars in reproductive endocrinology

  • No preview · Article · Dec 1997 · Fertility and Sterility
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    J G Kim · C Keshava · AA Murphy · R E Pitas · S Parthasarathy
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    ABSTRACT: Peritoneal macrophages are easily isolated by lavage, suggesting that they are either nonadherent or weakly adherent in situ. Cultured macrophages express class A scavenger receptors (SCR), which mediate Ca2+-independent adhesion in vitro. We examined fresh peritoneal macrophages from mice and from women with endometriosis to determine whether the adherence of these cells was associated with increased expression of class A SCR. Fresh human macrophages were not immunoreactive to SCR antibodies; however, SCR immunoreactivity increased with time in culture. Fresh mouse and human macrophages took up minimal amounts of 1,1'-dioctadecyl-3,3,3',3'-tetramethylindocarbocyanine (DiI)-acetyl-low density lipoproteins (Ac-LDL), a class A SCR ligand. Murine macrophages in culture for 24-72 h internalized four times more Ac-LDL than fresh cells. Cells cultured for 2 days incorporated 3.2 times more [14C] oleate than freshly isolated cells (55.7 +/- 7.9 versus 17.6 +/- 3.0 nmol/mg cell protein). In contrast to SCR activity, mouse macrophage SCR mRNA expression was similar in freshly isolated macrophages and those cultured for 3 days. These results suggest that peritoneal macrophages express only low levels of SCR activity in situ and that posttranscriptional regulation after isolation leads to an increase in SCR activity that correlates with adherence of the macrophages in vitro.
    Preview · Article · Dec 1997 · The Journal of Lipid Research
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    ABSTRACT: To elucidate further the antioxidant properties of RU486. We determined whether it can protect biologic molecules such as proteins (albumin, low-density lipoprotein [LDL] and oxidized LDL) from damage by pre-existing lipid peroxides. In vitro study. We tested the effects of RU486 on the formation of fluorescent oxidatively modified proteins by pre-existing lipid peroxides. We used two model systems, the incubation of oxidized linoleic acid with serum albumin and the incubation of human LDL with copper. The formation of modified protein was established by determining fluorescence at excitation wavelength of 330 nm and emission wavelength between 390 and 500 nm. Modified protein has a characteristic emission between 425 and 430 nm. The addition of increasing amounts of RU486 inhibited the formation of fluorescent oxidatively modified protein products in both model systems. These results provide evidence that RU486 not only can prevent the formation of lipid peroxide, but also can block the formation of fluorescent protein adducts in the presence of pre-existing lipid peroxides.
    No preview · Article · Aug 1996 · Fertility and Sterility
  • C P Roberts · A.A. Murphy · N Santanam · S Parthasarathy
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    ABSTRACT: Our purpose was to examine RU 486 and related compounds on macrophage scavenger receptors and cellular adhesion. THP-1 cells were activated with phorbol myristate acetate and treated with dexamethasone, levonorgestrel, and RU 486 alone or in combination. Scavenger receptor activity was determined by counting adhered cells. In addition, fluorescently labeled acetyl low density lipoprotein uptake was determined. Both dexamethasone and RU 486 significantly decreased activated macrophages (81% and 26% of control). Levonorgestrel stimulated adherent cells in activated monocytes (130% of control). RU 486 and dexamethasone were antagonistic when combined (p < 0.001). In contrast, dexamethasone could not overcome the stimulatory effect of levonorgestrel (p < 0.001). Fluorescent studies yielded similar results. RU 486 is a known antiglucocorticoid with novel antioxidant properties. Levonorgestrel has antiglucocorticoid but no antioxidant activity. Glucocorticoids decrease scavenger receptors and antioxidants regulate inflammatory cytokines. RU 486 antagonized the inhibitory effect of dexamethasone on scavenger receptors, whereas levonorgestrel was stimulatory. It is therapeutically important to up-regulate scavenger receptor activity by antiglucocorticoids in the peritoneal cavity of women with endometriosis. However, because these mechanisms also induce inflammatory cytokines, a balance of antioxidants and antiglucocorticoids may prove beneficial.
    No preview · Article · Aug 1996 · American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology
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    ABSTRACT: To evaluate the safety and efficacy of an antiprogesterone (mifepristone, RU486; Roussel-Uclaf, Romaineville, France) on endometriosis. An open, prospective clinical trial. The clinical practice of an academic faculty. Nine women with endometriosis were studied. RU486 (50 mg/d) was administered for 6 months. Daily symptom inventories and urinary steroid metabolites were assessed before, during, and after treatment. Blood for hormone analysis was obtained weekly for 4 weeks and monthly thereafter. The extent of endometriosis, bone mineral density, circadian rhythm of cortisol, and LH pulsatility were determined before and after treatment. Safety laboratory measurements were made before and at 1, 2, and 6 months of treatment. Pelvic pain and uterine cramping improved in all patients. Endometriosis regressed by 55%. All patients exhibited endocrine features of anovulatory amenorrhea without hypoestrogenism. A rise in serum LH and T levels was observed during the first month of treatment and one patient developed an elevation of liver transaminases during the last month of treatment. All other measurements were unchanged. RU486 appears to be effective in improving the symptoms and causing regression of endometriosis in the absence of significant side effects.
    No preview · Article · Feb 1996 · Fertility and Sterility
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    ABSTRACT: Macrophages are implicated in the pathophysiology of endometriosis and are influenced by anti-inflammatory steroids as well as anti-oxidants. We tested the effect of RU-486, an antiprogesterone, antiglucocorticoid and an antioxidant, on the proliferation of RAW macrophages. The incorporation of 3H-thymidine was significantly inhibited by both progesterone and RU-486. Progesterone and RU-486, in combination, synergistically inhibited macrophage growth. In contrast, dexamethasone-stimulated growth was antagonized by RU-486 in a dose dependent manner. ZK 112,993 which is structurally related to RU-486 but lacks antioxidant properties, also inhibited thymidine incorporation. The synergistic effect of RU-486 and ZK 112,993 with progesterone implicate a mechanism of action separate from receptor bound antagonists. A cell permeable antioxidant, pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate was very effective in inhibiting the incorporation of 3H-thymidine into cells. These results suggest novel therapeutic modalities in the management of endometriosis via antiglucocorticoid as well as antioxidant mechanisms.
    No preview · Article · Nov 1995 · American journal of reproductive immunology (New York, N.Y.: 1989)
  • AA Murphy · AJ Morales · L M Kettel · S. S. C. Yen
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    ABSTRACT: To study the response of uterine leiomyomata to three daily doses of RU486 (5, 25, and 50 mg). Prospective nonrandomized trial of women with symptomatic leiomyomata. Patients from the clinical practice of the authors at the University of California, San Diego Medical Center. Ten patients with symptomatic leiomyomata previously reported after treatment with 50 mg of RU486 daily for 3 months. Eleven patients treated with 25 mg of RU486 daily and nine patients placed on 5 mg of RU486 daily for 12 weeks. Changes in leiomyomata volume as measured with vaginal ultrasounds at baseline and monthly thereafter. Frequent blood samples for hematology, chemistry, and hormone levels were obtained. Twenty-four-hour urine collections for free cortisol and creatinine were obtained at baseline and at 12 weeks. All three doses induce ovarian acyclicity. Administration of 50 mg of RU486 decreases leiomyomata volume to 78.1% +/- 4.8% of baseline at 4 weeks, 60.5% +/- 6.6% at 8 weeks, and 51.0% +/- 9.2% after 12 weeks of treatment. Regressive response in patients treated with 25 mg of RU486 daily was 76.3% +/- 5.0% of baseline at 4 weeks, 54.0% +/- 5.1% at 8 weeks, and 44.0% +/- 5.0% after 12 weeks. At 5 mg of RU486 leiomyomata volume was 80.6% +/- 8.3% of baseline after 4 weeks, 63.7% +/- 14.6% after 8 weeks, and 74.4% +/- 19.8% after 12 weeks of therapy. Although acyclicity is seen at all three doses, an effective dose to cause a clinically significant (50%) decrease in leiomyomata volume appears to be 25 mg daily.
    No preview · Article · Aug 1995 · Fertility and Sterility
  • AF Haney · J Hesla · B S Hurst · L M Kettel · AA Murphy · JA Rock · G Rowe · W D Schlaff
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    ABSTRACT: To compare the impact of expanded polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE; Gore-Tex Surgical Membrane; W. L. Gore & Associates, Inc., Flagstaff, AZ) and oxidized regenerated cellulose (Interceed TC7, Johnson & Johnson Medical, Inc., Arlington, TX) on the development of postsurgical adhesions. A multicenter, nonblinded, randomized clinical trial. University medical centers. Each barrier was allocated randomly to the left or right sidewall of every patient. Thirty-two women with bilateral pelvic sidewall adhesions undergoing reconstructive surgery and second-look laparoscopy. Adhesion score (on a 0- to 11-point scale), the area of adhesion (cm2), and the likelihood of no adhesions. The use of both barriers was associated with a lower adhesion score and area of adhesion postoperatively. However, those sidewalls covered with PTFE had a significantly lower adhesion score (0.97 +/- 0.30 versus 4.76 +/- 0.61 points, mean +/- SEM) and area of adhesion (0.95 +/- 0.35 versus 3.25 +/- 0.62 cm2). Overall, more sidewalls covered with PTFE had no adhesions (21 versus 7) and, when adhesions were present on the contralateral sidewall, the number of sidewalls covered with PTFE without adhesions was greater than those covered with oxidized regenerated cellulose (16 versus 2). Expanded polytetrafluoroethylene was associated with fewer postsurgical adhesions to the pelvic sidewall than oxidized regenerated cellulose.
    No preview · Article · May 1995 · Fertility and Sterility

Publication Stats

1k Citations
141.03 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 1994-2005
    • Emory University
      • • Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics
      • • School of Medicine
      Atlanta, Georgia, United States
  • 1991-1996
    • University of California, San Diego
      • Department of Reproductive Medicine
      San Diego, California, United States