[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Self-expanding stents are relatively new in the field of urology and have primarily been used for permanent remodeling of benign or malignant stricture. We are presenting a rare and interesting case of a ureterocolic fistula that formed secondary to placement of an expandable, retrievable metal stent in the ureter. After multiple retrieval efforts, the self-expanding metal stent was finally retrieved and a ureterocolic fistula was appreciated on antegrade pyelography. The patient chose to manage it non-surgically, with routine nephroureteral catheter exchanges, and her creatinine continues to remain stable.
Full-text · Article · Aug 2013 · Central European Journal of Urology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The peak incidence of bladder cancer (BC) is in the sixth decade of life. Muscle-invasive bladder cancer (MIBC) in young adults is extremely rare. We report a case of MIBC in a 28-year-old smoking male patient. The patient presented with hematuria and flank pain for which he underwent a computerized tomography (CT) scan of the abdomen and pelvis with and without contrast. The CT scan showed a 6 cm mass on the left side of the trigone extending to the left urteric orifice and left hydronephrosis, but no lymphadenopathy was noted. The patient then underwent a left nephrostomy tube placement followed by trans-urethral resection of bladder tumor (TURBT). The tumor involved both ureteric orifices and extended to the prostatic urethra. Complete resection was not feasible. Pathology showed high-grade T1 urothelial carcinoma. CT scan of the chest showed no distant lung metastasis. The patient then elected to undergo radical cystectomy with ileal conduit urinary diversion. Final pathology revealed T2a N0 urothelial carcinoma of the bladder. Our aim is to present our experience and review the literature for the natural history and oncological and quality of life outcomes of urothelial carcinoma of the bladder in young patients.
Full-text · Article · Aug 2013 · Central European Journal of Urology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background:
Although a longer time on dialysis before kidney transplant waitlisting has been shown for Blacks versus non-Blacks, relatively few studies have compared this outcome between Hispanics and Whites.
A multivariable analysis of 1910 (684 Black, 452 Hispanic, and 774 White) consecutive patients waitlisted at our center for a primary kidney transplant between 2005 and mid-2010 was performed for time from starting dialysis to waitlisting (months), the percentage who were preemptively waitlisted (waitlisted before starting dialysis), and time from starting dialysis to waitlisting after excluding the preemptively waitlisted patients.
The variables associated with significantly longer median times from starting dialysis to waitlisting and less preemptive waitlisting included Medicare insurance for patients ages <65 years (by far, the most significant variable in each analysis), Black race, higher percentage of households in the patient's zip code living in poverty, being a non-U.S. citizen (for preemptive waitlisting), Medicaid insurance, waitlisted for kidney-alone (vs. kidney-pancreas) transplant, and higher body mass index (longer median times for the latter three variables). Although the effect of Black race was mostly explained by significant associations with lower socioeconomic status (Medicare insurance for patients ages <65 years and greater poverty in the patient's zip code), an unexplained component still remained. The univariable differences showing poorer outcomes for Hispanics versus Whites were smaller and completely explained in multivariable analysis by significant associations with lower socioeconomic status and non-U.S. citizenship.
Black and Hispanic patients had significantly longer times from starting dialysis to waitlisting, in large part related to their lower socioeconomic status and less preemptive waitlisting. A greater focus on earlier nephrology care may help to erase much of these disparities.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We describe the case of a patient with a large renal cell carcinoma (RCC) who underwent cytoreductive nephrectomy utilizing liver mobilization techniques similar to those used in transplantation. Despite recurrent metastases, our patient continues to survive eight years later with several metastasectomies and adjuvant chemotherapy.
We report the case of a 48-year-old Hispanic American man who presented with a 4-month history of an enlarging right upper quadrant abdominal mass and hematuria. Computerized tomography revealed a 13 x 14 x 14 centimeter mass suspicious of RCC with possible metastasis to the lungs. The patient subsequently underwent radical nephrectomy. Pathological analysis confirmed the mass as RCC. Over the following eight years, the patient developed metastases to the pulmonary lobes, buccal mucosa, thoracic spine, and second rib, which were all treated with metastasectomy. The patient continues to survive today with a reasonable quality of life.
Palliative measures in patients with large RCC tumors with distant metastases require persistent, aggressive therapeutic modalities.
Preview · Article · Dec 2012 · Central European Journal of Urology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Primary lymphoma of the spermatic cord is rare. We report a case of primary lymphoma of the spermatic cord and review the literature. A 77-year-old man presented with a 5 month history of an enlarging right inguino-scrotal mass. On physical exam, the mass involved the spermatic cord. Computerized tomography and magnetic resonance imaging revealed a 10 cm x 4 cm inguinoscrotal mass related to the spermatic cord. A right inguinal orchidectomy with wide local excision was performed. Pathological and immunohistochemical evaluation identified the tumor as a diffuse large B cell lymphoma of the spermatic cord. Postoperatively, patient began a chemoradiotherapy regimen consistent with metastatic lymphoma.
No preview · Article · Dec 2012 · The Canadian Journal of Urology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Chemotherapy was shown to improve survival in patients undergoing radical cystectomy (RC) for muscle-invasive bladder cancer (MIBC). The initiation and completion rates for perioperative chemotherapy are variable. Our aim is to compare the likelihood of initiating and completing neoadjuvant (NAC) and adjuvant chemotherapy (AC) in patients who underwent of RC for MIBC.
We performed a retrospective analysis of patients who underwent RC between 1992 and 2011. NAC was advised for patients with clinical stage ≥T2, hydronephrosis, extensive lymphovascular invasion (LVI), or prostatic stromal invasion. Patients with ≥pT3 or lymph node metastases were considered for AC.
A total of 363 patients were considered for perioperative chemotherapy. Among the 141 patients who were offered NAC, 125 (88.6%) initiated NAC. A total of 222 were considered for AC, and 151 (68.0%) initiated AC ( < 0.001). In the NAC group, 118 (83.5%) completed planned number of cycles of chemotherapy and 7 (5.6%) did not complete the planned chemotherapy. In the AC group, 79 (35.5%) completed at least four cycles and 72 (47.3%) could not complete the planned cycles ( < 0.001).
Patients with MIBC are more likely to initiate and complete NAC than AC.
No preview · Article · Oct 2012 · Indian Journal of Urology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Gender, smoking history, patient age, and tumor size have been found to impact the likelihood of benign histology at the time of nephron-sparing surgery (NSS). Providing external validation of these variables and evaluating the relationship between body mass index (BMI) and tumor location on the likelihood of benign histology during NSS for T1 tumors were the objectives of this study.
Data were analyzed for consecutive patients undergoing NSS for T1 disease. Central tumors either were completely encircled by renal parenchyma, descended below the cortico-medullary junction, or were in direct opposition to the collecting system, renal sinus, or the hilar structures. Categorical variables were evaluated with chi-square test, and continuous variables were analyzed with independent sample t test. Logistic regression identified independent predictors of final pathology.
NSS was performed in 316 patients, of whom 79 (24 %) had benign tumors. Patients with benign tumors were more likely to be female, to have a lower BMI, and to have peripheral tumors. On multivariate analysis, female gender (hazard ratio, 3.97; 95 % CI, 2.92-4.53, p < 0.001), peripheral tumor location (hazard ratio, 2.27; 95 % CI, 1.73-3.21, p = 0.014), and lower BMI (hazard ratio, 1.5; 95 % CI, 1.12-1.94, p = 0.015) were independently associated with benign histopathology at the time of surgical resection.
Prospectively identifying which T1 tumors are benign would have tremendous implications for the patient. Ours is the first study that has identified the impact of tumor location and BMI on the risk of benign histology. Additional studies are needed to corroborate these findings and incorporate these data into future nomograms.
No preview · Article · Jun 2012 · International Urology and Nephrology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The objective of this report is to describe the oncologic outcomes of men with margin-positive prostate cancer who were managed expectantly following radical prostatectomy.
Between January 1992 and January 2011, 2166 men underwent an open radical prostatectomy by a single surgeon. Of these patients, 1592 (74%) had complete data and met the inclusion criteria of negative lymph nodes and no history of neoadjuvant or adjuvant therapy. This cohort was dichotomized by the presence or absence of at least one positive surgical margin. Groups were compared for differences in recurrence-free and overall survival.
In total, 507 (32%) of 1592 patients had at least one positive surgical margin. Clinical and pathological characteristics of these patients indicated more aggressive disease. The median follow up for biochemical recurrence and overall survival was 3.4 years and 7.7 years, respectively. Of those patients with a positive margin, 147 (29%) recurred, with estimated 5 and 10 year biochemical recurrence rates of 31% and 47%, respectively. Multivariate analysis demonstrated that the presence of a positive margin was associated with a 2.45-fold increased hazard of recurrence (p < 0.001). Despite initial observation, surgical margin status was not associated with a decrease in overall survival on both uni- (p = 0.684) and multivariate analyses (p = 0.177).
Although a positive surgical margin is associated with an increased risk of biochemical recurrence, patients in our series were not at an increased risk of all-cause mortality.
No preview · Article · Jun 2012 · The Canadian Journal of Urology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Deceased patients with acute kidney injury (AKI) from rhabdomyolysis can be considered as potential kidney donors.
We performed a retrospective chart review from January 2005 to January 2011 of three donors with AKI from rhabdomyolysis and the four recipients of the donated kidneys. Three donors had AKI from rhabdomyolysis as evidenced by elevated serum creatinine levels, myoglobinuria, and plasma creatinine kinase levels greater than five times the upper limit of normal. All grafts were maintained on pulsatile machine perfusion (MP) prior to transplantation. In one of the patients, serial venous perfusate myoglobin levels were measured from the donor kidney while on MP.
Three of the four recipients had delayed graft function, but all had normalized creatinine function after 1 month. One recipient had a creatinine of 1.2 after 79 months, the longest documented follow-up of this kind. Although we measured venous perfusate myoglobin levels from one of the grafts, we found the levels to decrease with increasing time spent on MP.
Potential donors with AKI secondary to rhabdomyolysis should not be restricted from the donor pool. MP may play a role in minimizing the effects of AKI in these types of donors.
No preview · Article · May 2012 · International Urology and Nephrology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The occurrence of low-risk, localized prostate cancer (PCa) has increased in the prostate-specific antigen era. A significant amount of low-risk PCas progress slowly and may not impact patient survival. Thus, these patients may be subjected to unnecessary interventions that result in physical and psychological complications. The active surveillance (AS) protocol has been used over the few past decades. It was designed so that patients with low-risk PCa can be monitored for a period of time, during which they are free from complication of interventions, and can be treated with curative intention on evidence of disease progression. Institutions have developed different selection criteria and follow-up schedules for suitable patients with PCa. Recently, long-term data have emerged suggesting that AS is a reasonable option for appropriately selected patients with low-risk PCa who have a life expectancy of < 10 years. Subsequently, the AS protocol has been recognized by various guidelines as part of the treatment strategy for PCa. However, the challenges that remain for AS are the risk of under-staging of PCa and the low uptake and high attrition rate of AS, and questions remain regarding its long-term efficacy. Recent advances in AS for PCa, such as better imaging modality, combining AS with limited local therapy, as well as the role of AS in association with chemoprevention, are discussed.
No preview · Article · May 2012 · Postgraduate Medicine
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To evaluate the potential significance of cystoscopy findings following neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) as prognostic indicator in patients undergoing radical cystectomy for muscle-invasive bladder cancer (MIBC).
Patients who received NAC prior to radical cystectomy for MIBC were analyzed. Patients were divided into two groups according to cystoscopy performed after two cycles of NAC: responders and non-responders. Univariate analysis was performed to analyze associations between observed response to chemotherapy and pT stage, pN stage and tumor downstaging. Logistic regression modeling was fitted to evaluate predictors for extravesical disease and pathologic downstaging. Kaplan-Meier analysis was used to evaluate disease specific survival.
We identified 101 patients who received neoadjuvant chemotherapy prior to radical cystectomy. According to the cystoscopy findings, 60 patients (59%) were identified as responders to NAC. Stage pT0 at cystectomy was confirmed in 22 patients (36.5%) in the responder group versus only 1 patient (2.5%) in the non-responder group. Univariate analysis showed statistically significant association between response to chemotherapy observed on cystoscopy and pT stage as well as tumor downstaging. Multivariate regression modeling revealed that cystoscopy findings were an independent predictor of extravesical disease and pathologic downstaging. There was a distinct survival benefit in NAC responder group (p < 0.001). Cox proportional hazard model identified cystoscopy findings as an independent predictor of survival (OR 0.38, 95% CI 0.20-0.74, p = 0.004).
Observed response to NAC on follow up cystoscopy is associated with favorable pathological outcomes and is a significant predictor of survival in patients undergoing radical cystectomy for MIBC.
No preview · Article · Apr 2012 · The Journal of Urology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVES: Treatment options for small renal tumors have evolved from radical nephrectomy (RN) to partial nephrectomy (PN), thermal ablation, or active surveillance. With the advancement of techniques, costs differences are unclear. The objective of this study is to compare the 6-month costs associated with nephron-sparing procedures for cT1a renal tumors. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We performed a review of patients diagnosed with a solitary cT1a renal mass who underwent surgical treatment from June 2008 to May 2011. Open partial nephrectomy (OPN), robot-assisted partial nephrectomy (RLPN), laparoscopic radio-frequency ablation (LRFA), or computed tomography guided radio frequency ablation (CTRFA) was performed on 173 patients. Cost data were collected for surgical costs, associated hospital stay, and the 6-month postoperative period. RESULTS: Patients underwent surgery, including 52 OPN, 48 RLPN, 44 LRFA, and 29 CTRFA. Median total costs associated were $17,018, $20,314, $13,965, and $6,475, for OPN, RLPN, LRFA, and CTRFA, respectively. When stratified by approach differences were noted for total cost (P < 0.001), operating room (OR) time (P < 0.001), surgical supply (P < 0.001), and room and board (P < 0.001) in univariable analysis. Multivariable linear regression (R(2) = 0.966) showed surgical approach (P = 0.007), length of stay (P < 0.001), and OR time (P < 0.001) to be significant predictors of total cost. However, tumor size (P = 0.175), and Charlson comorbidity index (P = 0.078) were not statistically significant. CONCLUSIONS: Six-month cost of nephron-sparing surgery is lowest with radio frequency ablation (RFA) by either laparoscopic or computed tomography (CT)-guided approach compared to RLPN and OPN. As oncologic and safety outcomes improve and become comparable in all nephron-sparing surgery (NSS) approaches, cost of each procedure will start to play a stronger role in the clinical and healthcare policy setting.
No preview · Article · Feb 2012 · Urologic Oncology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Recurrent renal cell carcinoma (RCC) that presents as a solitary metastasis to the bladder is extremely rare. We report our experience with two patients who presented with hematuria within 1 year of their radical nephrectomy. Both patients underwent endoscopic resection of the tumor metastasis. One patient developed a metastasis in the head of pancreas 12 months following endoscopic resection. The other patient developed bilateral femoral and spinal bone metastasis. Our aim is to report our experience, and discuss the proposed modes of spread, management and prognosis.
No preview · Article · Feb 2012 · The Canadian Journal of Urology