[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objective:
To investigate the concentrations of plasma cytokines and Galectin-3 (Gal-3) as inflammatory markers in patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI).
The study population consisted of 29 patients with AMI and 29 healthy control subjects. We measured Gal-3, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), and interleukin-6 (IL-6) levels in plasma using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs). We measured levels of C-reactive protein (CRP) via the nephelometric method.
Patients with AMI showed significantly higher plasma Gal-3, TNF-α, and IL-6 levels compared with controls. Gal-3 levels were positively and significantly correlated with plasma IL-6, TNF-α, and CRP levels in the control and patient groups.
Our findings suggest that Gal-3 can be a new circulating biomarker of inflammation associated with AMI.
Preview · Article · Sep 2014 · Laboratory Medicine
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Acrylamide (ACR), used in many fields from industrial manufacturing to laboratory personnel work is also formed during the heating process through interactions of amino acids. Therefore ACR poses a significant risk to human health. This study aimed to elucidate whether resveratrol (RVT) treatment could modulate ACR-induced oxidative DNA damage and oxidative changes in rat brain, lung, liver, kidney and testes tissues. Rats were divided into four groups as control (C); RVT (30 mg/kg i.p. dissolved in 0.9% NaCl), ACR (40 mg/kg i.p.) and RVT + ACR groups. After 10 days rats were decapitated and tissues were excised. 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) is a biomarker of oxidative DNA damage. 8-OHdG content in the extracted DNA solution was determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay method. Malondialdehyde (MDA), glutathione (GSH) levels and myeloperoxidase activity (MPO) were determined in tissues, while oxidant-induced tissue fibrosis was determined by collagen contents. Serum enzyme activities, cytokine levels, leukocyte apoptosis were assayed in plasma. As an indicator of oxidative DNA damage, 8-OHdG levels significantly increased in ACR group and this was reversed significantly by RVT treatment. In ACR group, GSH levels decreased significantly while the MDA levels, MPO activity and collagen content increased in the tissues suggesting oxidative organ damage. In RVT-treated ACR group, oxidant responses reversed significantly. Serum enzyme activities, cytokine levels and leukocyte late apoptosis which increased following ACR administration, decreased with RVT treatment. Therefore supplementing with RVT can be useful in individuals at risk of ACR toxicity.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Determination of oxidant stress in plasma of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and primary osteoarthritis (POA) patients is important in understanding the pathogenesis of these diseases. In this study, we examined the relationship between oxidant stress and inflammation by measuring protein carbonyl content, thiol levels and plasma protein fractions as the oxidation markers and erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), C-reactive protein (CRP) tests as inflammation markers. Protein carbonyls content was higher in RA and POA patients, as compared to controls (p<0.0001), while the plasma thiol levels in both groups of patients were significantly lower than controls (p<0.0001). Increased levels of proteins under 40 kDa molecular mass were detected in the RA and POA patients compared to that of controls (p<0.0001) both in HPLC and SDS-PAGE analysis. Total protein concentration in plasma of RA patients was higher than the controls (p<0.001), while in POA patients was lower than that of controls (p<0.001). ESR and CRP levels were higher in both the patient groups than the normal group (p<0.001). These results suggested that alterations in the oxidant stress markers could be the cause of inflammation in these diseases. Thus, while working for RA/POA treatment strategies, consideration of the relationship between oxidant stress and inflammation would be worth evaluating.
Full-text · Article · Dec 2010 · Indian journal of biochemistry & biophysics
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Tissue factor (TF) is a low-molecular-weight glycoprotein responsible for the initiation of the coagulation cascade. The relation between oxidized low-density lipoprotein (Ox-LDL), that has been shown to be involved in atherogenesis, and TF has not been evaluated before in circulating plasma. The aim of this study was to determine plasma levels of TF and Ox-LDL in acute coronary syndrome (ACS) and stable coronary artery disease (SCAD).
The study group consisted of 41 patients with ACS and 26 patients with SCAD. Among the ACS patients, 12 were diagnosed with unstable angina pectoris (UAP) and 29 were diagnosed with acute myocardial infarction (AMI). The control group consisted of 30 healthy volunteers. TF and Ox-LDL levels were evaluated by ELISA kits.
Ox-LDL levels were significantly higher in UAP and AMI patients compared with the control (p < 0.001) and SCAD (p < 0.01 and p < 0.001, respectively) groups. TF levels were significantly higher in the UAP, AMI and SCAD groups compared with the control group (p < 0.001, p < 0.001 and p < 0.01, respectively). In the AMI group a significant increase was observed in TF levels when compared with the SCAD group (p < 0.01). Plasma Ox-LDL levels were significantly and positively correlated with TF levels in the UAP and AMI groups (p < 0.05, r = 702, and p < 0.0001, r = 0.679, respectively).
The potential link between Ox-LDL and TF in circulating blood in ACS may strengthen the evidence supporting a relationship between oxidant stress, lipids and thrombosis and consequently may contribute to understanding the mechanism through which Ox-LDL and TF may mediate the pathogenesis of CAD.
No preview · Article · Mar 2010 · Pathophysiology of Haemostasis and Thrombosis
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objective: Total knee arthroplasty (TKA) is a major risk factor for thrombosis in patients over 40 years of age and this risk persists for several weeks after the surgery. Since inflammatory mechanisms affect coagulation and the natural anticoagulant system, we aimed to investigate protein C activities and inflammatory markers in patients undergoing TKA surgery. Material and Methods: We included 20 osteoarthritis patients and 20 healthy controls. Protein C activity and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) levels in plasma and synovia were evaluated by ELISA technique. Results: In the patient group, protein C activities decreased and TNF-alpha levels increased significantly both in synovia and plasma when compared with the controls. Erythrocyte sedimentation rate of the patient group was found to be significantly elevated in comparison to the controls. On the other hand, serum C reactive protein values increased insignificantly when compared to controls. Conclusion: The decreased activity of protein C and increased levels of inflammatory markers in preoperative plasma and synovia of the patient group may enhance the risk for developing thrombosis.
Preview · Article · Jan 2010 · Medical Journal of Trakya University / Trakya Universitesi Tip Fakultesi Dergisi
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Although nuts are typically high in dietary fat, novel studies have shown that regular consumption of these heart-healthy foods might confer a beneficial effect on cardiovascular disease risk. In the present study, we aimed to analyse the effects of pistachio consumption on blood lipids, antioxidant activity, oxidative stress and sialic acid levels in high-fat-fed rats for 8 weeks. The oxidant-antioxidant status was evaluated by the determination of lipid peroxidation (thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances), total antioxidant activity, reduced glutathione content, activity of superoxide dismutase and total thiol levels. Furthermore, tissue damage was evaluated by total sialic acid levels in serum. Total cholesterol, triglycerides, sialic acid and thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances significantly increased whereas total antioxidant activity, reduced glutathione, total thiol levels significantly decreased in the hyperlipidaemic group compared to the control group. Pistachio consumption significantly decreased triglycerides and thiobarbituric acid-reactive substance levels and significantly increased total antioxidant activity in the hyperlipidaemic group. In conclusion, pistachio supplementation may improve blood lipids and ameliorate oxidative stress in experimental hyperlipidaemia, which may have beneficial applications in the prevention of cardiovascular diseases. However, its antioxidant mechanisms remain to be investigated.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Saliva samples are often required to be stored for longer periods of time either because of the project protocol or because of lack of funding for analysis. The effects of 6 months storage (fresh, 30, 60, 90 120, 150, and 180 d) on the stability of salivary reduced glutathione (GSH), lipid peroxidation (LPO) and 90 days of storage (fresh, 15, 30, 60, and 90 d) on the stability of salivary tissue factor (TF) activity and the stability of saliva imprint samples at -20 degrees C were evaluated in this study. Salivary GSH, malondialdehyde (MDA) levels as an index of LPO, and TF activities were determined using the methods of Beutler, Yagi, and Quick, respectively. Saliva imprint samples were stained with Giemsa and microscopically examined. Salivary GSH levels and TF activities decreased, whereas MDA levels increased significantly after 6 months of storage at -20 degrees C. Leucocyte, epithelium and bacterium cell counts did not significantly change at the end of 90 d of storage. Saliva samples may be stored up to 1 month at -20 degrees C for LPO assay. For cytological examinations, saliva samples may be stored for 90 d at -20 degrees C. Further studies are needed to determine the stability of salivary GSH, and salivary TF activity stored less than 30 days at -20 degrees C. On the other hand, if saliva samples are required to be stored, to avoid the changes because of different storage periods, we recommend that they must be stored under the same circumstances and in the same time period.
No preview · Article · Jan 2009 · Journal of Clinical Laboratory Analysis
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Tendency to hypercoagulation is a common phenomenon in primary osteoarthritis patients (POA) undergoing total knee arthroplasty (TKA) surgery, but the clinical implications of this condition are not clear. Therefore we aimed to evaluate the inflammatory and coagulation parameters in the patient group and find a possible explanation for the tendency to hypercoagulation occurring in plasma and synovia of inflamed joints. Of the evaluated factors involved in inflammation and coagulation, galectin-3, C reactive protein (CRP), erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), fibrinogen, FVIIa:C, FXII:C, and platelet count increased, whereas tissue factor (TF) activity in synovia, PT, APTT and FVII:C in plasma and synovia were decreased. In conclusion, activation of inflammation and tendency to hypercoagulation is observed in preoperative plasma and synovia of patients undergoing TKA surgery.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In recent years, attention has been developed to the protective biochemical function of natural antioxidants contained in dietary plants. Plant medicines are generally perceived as safe products and the toxicity of these plants has not been reported. Nuts are high in natural antioxidants and other nutrients that may improve glucose homeostasis and support the antioxidant system. In diabetes, the diet must provide the right amount of nutrients and calories in order for the individual to reach and maintain the ideal weight, stabilize the blood glucose levels close to the norm. The objective of this study was to elucidate the hypoglycemic and antioxidative activities of pistachio nuts which are consumed widely in Anatolia, Turkey. Diabetes was induced in rats by intraperitoneal injection of a single dose of 45 mg/kg STZ freshly dissolved in citrate buffer. Plasma and serum samples were used to determine total antioxidant activity (TAA), superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, reduced glutathione, protein sulfhydryls, malondialdehyde (MDA) and sialic acid levels. According to our results, pistachio consumption caused a significant reduction in MDA levels (P<0.001) and an increase in TAA (P<0.01) in pistachio treated diabetic rats. Furthermore, in pistachio treated control group, we found an insignificant decrease (P>0.05) in glucose levels. The results indicate that pistachio consumption can provide antioxidant protection to membrane lipids, support the antioxidant system and inclusion of pistachios in a healthy diet beneficially affects diabetic risk factors in a dose-dependent manner. Son yıllarda, bitkilerde bulunan doğal antioksidanların koruyucu biyokimyasal işlevine dair ilgi artmıştır. Bitkisel ilaçlar genellikle güvenilirdir ve bitkilerin toksisitesine dair bildirim olmamıştır. Fıstık, glikoz homeostazını destekleyecek ve antioksidan sistemini geliştirecek doğal antioksidan ve diğer besinler yönünden zengindir. Şeker hastalığında perhiz, bireyin ideal kilosunu koruyacak ve kan glikozu seviyelerini norma yakın stabilize edecek şekilde gereken oranda gıda ve kalori temin etmelidir. Bu çalışmanın amacı, Türkiye'de ve özellikle Anadolu'da yaygın olarak tüketilen Antep fıstığının hipoglisemik ve antioksidatif faaliyetlerine açıklık getirmektir. Sıçanlar, tek dozluk (45 mg/kg) STZ ile intraperitoneal enjeksiyon yoluyla diyabetik hale getirildiler. Plazma ve serum örnekleri total antioksidan aktivitesini (TAA), süperoksit dismutaz (SOD) aktivitesini, redüklenmiş glutatyonu, protein sülfhidril miktarlarını, malondialdehit (MDA) ve siyalik asit seviyelerini belirlemek için kullanıldı. Sonuçlarımıza göre, Antep fıstığı tüketimi Antep fıstığı verilen sıçanlarda MDA seviyelerinde anlamlı düzeyde bir azalmaya (P<0.001), TAA (P<0.01) seviyelerinde ise anlamlı düzeyde bir artışa sebep olmuştur. Bu sonuçlar, Antep fıstığının antioksidan sistemi desteklediğini ve membran lipitlerine antioksidan koruma sağladığına işaret etmektedir ki Antep fıstığının sağlıklı bir perhize dahil edilmesi diyabetik risk faktörlerini doza bağlı olarak faydalı yönde etkileyebilecektir. Anahtar Kelimeler: Antep fıstığı, deneysel diyabet, antioksidan aktivite, siyalik asit, kan glukozu.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Accumulation of oxidized proteins and impaired antioxidant system have been shown to be associated with arthritis. Serum sialic acid (SA) is known as a parameter of inflammation. In the present study, to explore the potential role of SA in arthritis, we measured serum SA levels, plasma protein oxidation, and antioxidant status in patients with primary osteoarthritis (POA) and inactive rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Inactive RA (iRA) was defined upon the American College of Rheumatology criteria for clinical remission of RA. A total of 40 patients (20 POA patients, including 4 male subjects, and 20 iRA female patients) and 20 healthy female subjects were included in this study. SA, antioxidants, and protein oxidation levels were determined spectrophotometrically in serum or plasma samples. Serum SA levels were significantly increased in POA (3.34 +/- 0.37 mM, p < 0.0001) and iRA (3.11 +/- 0.47 mM, p < 0.05), compared with healthy controls (2.41 +/- 0.16 mM). Plasma total antioxidant activity, plasma superoxide dismutase activity and serum reduced glutathione levels were significantly decreased in patients with POA and those with iRA, whereas plasma carbonyl content and serum total protein were increased in those patients. Moreover, plasma total thiol levels were significantly increased in iRA and decreased in POA. Thus, increased SA and protein oxidation levels are associated with the decreased antioxidant levels in POA and iRA patients. These results suggest that SA may be considered as a potent defense molecule against oxidative damage in arthritis. Antioxidant therapy may halt or ameliorate the progression of arthritis.
No preview · Article · Nov 2007 · The Tohoku Journal of Experimental Medicine
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Thyroid hormones are associated with the oxidative and antioxidative status of the organism. Depression of metabolism by hypothyroidism has been reported to decrease oxidant production and thus protect tissues against oxidant damage. The purpose of the present study was to investigate Zn and Cu levels in MMI-induced hypothyroidism and to show whether there is a connection between these trace elements and the oxidant-antioxidant status in experimental hypothyroidism. 3-Nitrotyrosine was measured as a marker of nitro-oxidative stress. In order to examine the antioxidant status of MMI-induced hypothyroidism in rats, GSH and SOD levels were determined as well. Significantly decreased 3-nitrotyrosine, Cu and Zn levels were observed in our experimental model when compared with the controls. On the other hand, GSH and SOD levels remained constant. It may be suggested that Cu and Zn serve as antioxidant molecules and exert their effects in an indirect manner to reduce oxidative stress in experimental hypothyroidism.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The influence of thyroid failure on hemostasis has been studied and is still not well understood. These patients have high risk for cardiovascular diseases because of the lipid metabolism and procoagulant agents. But the influence of thyroid failure on hemostasis is controversial. Tissue factor (TF) has an important role in the thromboembolic state. Recent experiments have demonstrated that TF-dependent activation of the coagulation cascade plays an important role in the pathophysiology of intravascular thrombus formation. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the contributions of TF, factor VII:C (FVII:C), factor XII:C (FXII:C), and fibrinogen in experimental hypothyroidism. TF was obtained from the thyroid gland and lung tissue of 10 rats following experimental hypothyroidism induced for 30 d and compared with similar tissue from 10 control rats. Significantly increased TF activities were found in hypothyroid rats. By contrast, FVII:C level was significantly decreased when compared with the control group. In this respect it is interesting to note that a hypercoagulable state due to increased thromboplastic activity may occur. Based on those results, elevated tissue factor activities (TFa) of the patients with low thyroid dysfunction may have another risk factor for cardiovascular diseases.