[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Graptopetalum paraguayense E. Walther is a popular traditional Chinese herb and possesses several health benefits. In earlier studies, we demonstrated that G. paraguayense showed no genotoxicity and showed several biological activities. However, the constituents of G. paraguayense have not been studied yet. In this present study, we isolated and identified the constituents of the leaves of G. paraguayense E. Walther.
A total of seven flavonoid compounds were isolated from the methanolic extract of G. paraguayense. The four major compounds isolated were flavonoid glucoside derivatives of quercetin (1, 3) and kampferol (2, 4), each presenting a 3-hydroxyl-3-methylglutaroyl (HMG) substituent; compounds 3 and 4—the 2´´-acetyl derivatives of 1 and 2, respectively—are novel compounds isolated from nature for the first time. High-performance liquid chromatography for the quantitative analyses of the four major HMG-substituted flavonoid glycosides in G. paraguayense E. Walther were accomplished to acquire the high yields of 1–4 in the methanolic extract (4.8, 5.7, 4.3, and 2.5 mg/g, respectively). Furthermore, the antioxidant activities, including radical-scavenging, reducing power and lipid peroxidation inhibitory effects of these isolated flavonoids were also evaluated. All seven of the isolated flavonoid compounds possessed antioxdative activity.
In this study of the constituents of the leaves of G. paraguayense E. Walther, we isolated four major components from its methanolic extract and determined their structures to be (acetylated) HMG-substituted flavonol glycosides, which are rare in nature. All seven of the isolated compounds possessed antioxdative activity, and those flavonoid compounds may be responsible for the functional ingredients in G. paraguayense. Further investigation of their bioactivities or pharmacological activities will be continued.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) family, including extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)1/2, c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK)1/2 and p38 MAPK, is known to be activated by ultraviolet (UV) radiation in melanocytes to regulate melanin production. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) play important roles in the pathway of ERK and JNK activation. It has been established that the essential oil of Achillea millefolium L. (AM-EO) has activities that suppress the oxidative stress and inflammatory responses. Thus, we analyzed the effects of AM-EO on melanogenesis in melanocyte stimulating hormone (α-MSH) treated melanoma cells. The results demonstrated that AM-EO suppresses melanin production by decreasing tyrosinase activity through the regulation of the JNK and ERK signaling pathways. This effect might be associated with the AM-EO activity leading to the suppression of ROS, and linalyl acetate is its major functional component. Therefore, we propose that AM-EO has the potential to treat hyperpigmentation in the future.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The major objective of this study was to estimate the hypopigmentation function of the essential oil from Vetiveria zizanioides (VZ-EO). Our results indicated that VZ-EO exhibits potent lipid peroxidation inhibitory activity to moderate the bleaching of β -carotene and to maintain the cellular glutathione (GSH) levels. VZ-EO can markedly decrease melanin production and tyrosinase activity in α -melanin-stimulating-hormone- ( α -MSH-) stimulated B16 cells. The effect of VZ-EO on melanogenesis is achieved by the suppression of cellular tyrosinase expression. The results demonstrated that the activity of VZ-EO on melanogenesis might be the result of its potent antioxidative ability, which was reflected in the decreased cellular oxidant and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels and the recovered activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPX), and catalase (CAT) in α -MSH-stimulated B16 cells. The most abundant compound in VZ-EO is cedr-8-en-13-ol (12.4%), which has a strong capability to inhibit lipid peroxidation. Therefore, VZ-EO has the potential to become an ingredient in future hypopigmentation drugs, foods, and cosmetics.
Preview · Article · Mar 2014 · The Scientific World Journal
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background:
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of 50% ethanol extracts from red bean non-fermented (RBE) and fermented by Bacillus subtilis (RBNE) on the antioxidant status of aged ICR mouse.
Compared to 2-month-old ICR mouse, the plasma total antioxidant status (TAS) in 12-month-old ICR mouse decreased about 57%, while malondialdehyde (MDA) levels in the liver and brain of 12-month-old ICR mouse increased 56% and 30%, respectively. Orally administration of RBE or RBNE could completely recover the changes of MDA and plasma TAS levels due to the aging process. Vitamin E contents declined 88% in the liver and 74% in the brain of aged ICR mouse. At a level of 0.3 or 0.6 g kg(-1) body weight, RBNE raised vitamin E content in the liver and brain; however, RBE showed no significant influence. All antioxidant enzymes activities in the liver and brain of aged ICR mouse decreased compared to those activities in 2-month-old ICR mouse. RBNE could significantly enhance the superoxide dismutase activity in the brain of aged ICR mouse.
Oral administration of RBE or RBNE could improve antioxidant status in aged ICR mouse. Fermentation by Bacillus subtilis could enhance the antioxidant properties of red bean.
No preview · Article · Aug 2013 · Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Achillea millefolium L. is a member of the Asteraceae family and has been used in folk medicine in many countries. In this study, 19 compounds in A. millefolium essential oil (AM-EO) have been identified; the major components are artemisia ketone (14.92%), camphor (11.64%), linalyl acetate (11.51%) and 1,8-cineole (10.15%). AM-EO can suppress the inflammatory responses of lipopolysaccharides (LPS)-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophages, including decreased levels of cellular nitric oxide (NO) and superoxide anion production, lipid peroxidation and glutathione (GSH) concentration. This antioxidant activity is not a result of increased superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activities, but rather occurs as a result of the down-regulation of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-6 (IL-6) and heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) expression, thus reducing the inflammatory response. Therefore, AM-EO can be utilized in many applications, including the treatment of inflammatory diseases in the future.
Full-text · Article · Jul 2013 · International Journal of Molecular Sciences
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The effects of 80% ethanolic extract derived from commercial granule chlorella (GPE) on cell viability, invasion capacity and apoptosis in human hepatoma cell line (Hep G2 cells) were investigated. The results demonstrated that GPE decreased cell viability, induced apoptosis and showed invasion inhibitory effects in the Hep G2 cells. GPE-triggered apoptosis was confirmed by 4′-6-diamidino-2-phenyindole (DAPI) staining and comet assay. GPE promoted an increase of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and Ca2+, and loss of mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm) accompanied by cytochrome c release that was due to the decrease of Bcl-2 in the Hep G2 cells. GPE also induced the protein levels of apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF), increased the levels of caspase-3, -8 and -9, and stimulated the levels of fatty acid synthase (Fas) and Fas ligand (FasL) in the Hep G2 cells. Additionally GPE inhibited invasion of Hep G2 cells by down-regulation of the expression of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 and -9. Furthermore, cellular glutathione content and superoxide dismutases (SOD) activities were significantly reduced and thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS) levels were significantly increased after GPE treatment. These results suggest that GPE can induce cytotoxicity on Hep G2 cells and inhibit the invasive capacity of malignant cells.
Preview · Article · Jan 2012 · Journal of Functional Foods
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: An appropriate length of milk stasis between two consecutive lactations of dairy cows is crucial for sustainable milk production. This dry period of cows allows extensive remodeling and sufficient cell renewal in mammary gland. Nevertheless, early dry period is one of the most risky stages in cow lactation cycle to intramammary infection. Dry-cow treatment through teats is, therefore, widely practiced at the commencement of milk stasis. Neutrophils are the most abundant cellular components in cow mammary secretion during early dry period, which in turn attribute to the meanwhile elevation of somatic cell counts and matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) level. This study used bovine peripheral neutrophils as a cell model to examine the mode of modifications in their defense and remodeling functionalities after infiltration into mammary gland during early dry period. Results indicate a dose-dependent suppression of phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate-stimulated free radical production and induction of MMP 9 degranulation in bovine peripheral neutrophils exposure to the d 7-dry secretion of cows received dry cow treatment at d 0 in milk stasis. Meanwhile, an enhancement of plasminogen activation and TNF-α shedding on bovine peripheral neutrophils were also observed. These two cellular events might be involved in the functional modifications on infiltrated neutrophils during early dry period. In conclusion, the opposite trend of modifications in the defense and matrix remodeling functionalities of neutrophils inside the mammary gland of cows at early dry period reflect the collaboration of infiltrated neutrophils for promoting extensive glandular remodeling at minimum compromise of local defense during the acute involution period without apparent disturbance by dry cow treatment.
No preview · Article · Dec 2011 · Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The effects of 50% ethanolic stem extracts of Zanthoxylum ailanthoides Sieb and Zucc. (ZASZ) on the cell viability, cell cycle and apoptosis were investigated in a human colon adenocarcinoma cell line (colo 205). The results demonstrated that ZASZ induced morphological changes and decreased the cell viability. ZASZ promoted Wee1, checkpoint kinase 2 (CHK2), p21 and p53 levels, decreased cyclin B and cdc25c associated with that led to G(2)/M phase arrest. ZASZ-triggered apoptosis was confirmed by 4' -6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI) staining and DNA gel electrophoresis. ZASZ increased the levels of glucose-regulated protein 78 (GRP78) and growth arrest and DNA damage inducible gene 153 (GADD153), and promoted an increase of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and Ca(2+) release, and loss of mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨ(m)) accompanied by cytochrome c release that was due to the decrease of Bcl-2 and increase of Bax levels in the colo 205 cells. ZASZ also induced the protein levels of apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF) and endonuclease G (Endo G), increased the levels of caspase-3, -7 and -9, and stimulated the levels of fatty acid synthase (Fas) and Fas ligand in the colo 205 cells. ZASZ contains phenolic compounds, including flavone, chlorogenic acid and isofraxidin, among which, flavone was found to be the most effective in reducing cell viability and proliferative responses in the colo 205 cells. ZASZ induces cytotoxicity and apoptosis in colo 205 cells which provides the rationale for studies in animal models on the utilization of ZASZ as a potential cancer therapeutic compound.
Preview · Article · May 2011 · Anticancer research
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Extraction of the leaves of Zanthoxylum ailanthoides Sieb. & Zucc. affords extracts and four isolated compounds which exhibit activities against leukemia cells. The chloroform-soluble fraction (ZAC) of the crude extract of this plant showed cytotoxic activity against human promyelocytic leukemia (HL-60) and myelomonocytic leukemia (WEHI-3) cells with IC(50) values of 73.06 and 42.22 μg/mL, respectively. The active ZAC was further separated to yield pheophorbide-a methyl ester (1), pheophorbide-b methyl ester (2), 13(2)-hydroxyl (13(2)-S) pheophorbide-a methyl ester (3) and 13(2)-hydroxyl (13(2)-R) pheophorbide-b methyl ester (4) whose structures were confirmed by spectroscopic methods. Compounds 2-4 showed cytotoxic activities against both leukemia cells with IC(50) value in the range of 46.76-79.43 nM, whereas compound 1 exhibited only weak cytotoxic activity. The extracts and compounds 1-4 also induced apoptosis and DNA damage in leukemia cells after treatment. The results suggested that the Z. ailanthoides is biologically active against leukemia cells.
No preview · Article · Oct 2010 · Phytomedicine: international journal of phytotherapy and phytopharmacology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Our previous in vitro study showed that 50% ethanolic extract of Graptopetalum paraguayense E. Walther (GE50) exhibited an inhibitory effect on angiotensin I converting enzyme (ACE). This study was aimed at evaluating the antihypertensive and antioxidant effects of GE50 extract on spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR).
RESULTS: Daily oral administration of GE50 extract (2.5 g kg−1 body weight) for 4 weeks exhibited a significant decrease in blood pressure as well as ACE activity of tested tissues in SHR rats, while no significant change was found in normotensive Wistar Kyoto rats (WKY). For SHR, GE50 extract increased the total antioxidant status in the plasma and decreased malondialdehyde levels in all tested tissues. Furthermore, GE50 extract increased α-tocopherol and glutathione levels in brain tissue, glutathione peroxidase and catalase activities in heart, as well as catalase activity in liver tissue. In WKY rats, GE50 extract only increased ascorbic acid level in liver tissue.
CONCLUSION: The present study demonstrated that GE50 might serve as an antioxidant and an ACE inhibitor in convalescence from hypertension in rats. Copyright
No preview · Article · Dec 2009 · Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The effects of 80% ethanolic chlorella extracts (GPE) on carbon tetrachloride (CCl(4))-induced hepatic damage were investigated in Sprague-Dawley rats. The rats were orally treated with GPE (0.5 g/kg body weight) or silymarin (0.2 g/kg body weight) over four consecutive weeks with administration of CCl(4) (20% CCl(4), 0.5 ml/rat twice a week). The GPE had a significant protective effect against liver injuries, as well as oxidative stress induced by CCl(4), resulting in reduced lipid peroxidation and improved serum biochemical parameters such as aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase. The reduced levels of glutathione, vitamin C, superoxide dismutase, and catalase in the CCl(4)-treated rats were significantly increased by treatment with GPE. Furthermore, the activity of GPE was comparable to the standard drug silymarin. In conclusion, chlorella may be useful as a hepatoprotective agent against chemical-induced liver damage in vivo.
No preview · Article · Nov 2008 · In vivo (Athens, Greece)
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In linguistics, stress is a relative emphasis that may be given to certain syllables in a word. In general, stressed syllables express strong intensity. But in Chinese languages, stress is not just be defined by one criterion infallibly; the list of criteria could be extended with register, duration and contour. Chinese is not a typical stress language. In this article, we will discuss two variations of stress in the Wu（吳） and Gan（贛） dialects. The Gan dialect is spoken chiefly in Jiangxi （江西） province and in the eastern part of Hunan（湖南）. One distinguishing characteristic of the Gan dialect is discontinuous tone （不連續調型） . For example , the finals -t and –k in Yugan （余干） are followed by a kind of short pause and then are added nasals at the same place of articulation: -n and -ng. The contour of yin ru（陰入） tone is like low-short — short pause — middle-high and short. The contour of yang ru（陽入） tone is like low-short — short pause —low-short. The Wu dialect is spoken chiefly in Jiangsu （江蘇） province. In some southern Wu dialects, they have a special characteristic: nasal-ending diminutive suffix. In the last word of a sentence or phrase, they add a nasal-ending diminutive suffix. This nasal-ending diminutive suffix lets the duration of the last syllable become longer and lets the rime become a heavy syllable. (The vowel of rime changes to be a high or long vowel.) The high or upper tones are the primary tones of nasal-ending diminutive suffix. If we say that the Wu dialect adding a nasal-ending lets the syllable become a heavy syllable (longer duration, high or long vowel, high or upper tone) due to the nasal-ending diminutive suffix, we can also indicate that the Gan dialect is the counter of the Wu dialect. The duration at the end of the last word becomes longer so it will add a nasal-ending at the same place of articulation. Keywords: discontinuous tone, the Wu dialect, the Gan dialect, nasal-ending diminutive suffix.