Awadhesh K Jaiswal

Sanjay Gandhi Post Graduate Institute of Medical Sciences, Lakhnau, Uttar Pradesh, India

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Publications (102)93.93 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Context: Multiple glioblastomas (GBMs) have a reported incidence of 2–20%. Aims: We intend to study these subsets of GBMs to know whether these are similar to their solitary counterparts. Setting and Design: A retrospective study. Materials and Methods: We analyzed 7 cases of biopsy-proven multiple GBMs. Multiple GBMs were described if there were >1 lesion which was at least 1 cm apart. The clinical data, radiological features, histopathological and immunohistochemical analysis and follow-up were recorded. Results: The mean age was 45 years (range 17–69 years). All cases presented with features of raised intracranial pressure (ICP). Totally, 3 cases presented with hemiparesis and 2 cases with altered sensorium and generalized tonic clonic seizures each. The median Karnofsky performance status (KPS) was 50. Mean duration of symptoms was 40 days. All lesions were contrast enhancing (2 with homogenous enhancement and 5 had ring enhancement). Total excision of the lesion causing mass effect was done in all cases. Histopathologically, small cells were significantly present in 4 cases, and satellitosis was seen in 5 cases. Glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) was absent in all cases in which small cells were significant. In these 4 cases, the proliferation index ranged from 40% to 95%. Totally, 3 patients died within 2 months of surgery, whereas remaining 4 patients underwent chemo-radiotherapy. Conclusions: We conclude that the cases usually present with features of raised ICP and poor KPS. Histopathologically these lesions show significant small cell population, satellitosis, and GFAP negativity.
    No preview · Article · Oct 2015
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Gliosarcoma (GS), a subtype of glioblastoma (GBM), is a rare primary neoplasm of the central nervous system. Certain features like temporal lobe affinity, tendency for extraneural metastasis and poorer outcome compared to GBM indicate that GS may indeed be a separate clinicopathologic entity. This led us to revisit this entity in our settings. Materials and methods: Between 2009 and 2014, 16 cases of histologically proven GSs (14 primary, two secondary) were treated. Patient data were retrieved retrospectively. Statistical analysis was performed with? Statistical Package for Social Sciences, version 17.0. (Chicago, Illinois, USA). Survival was analyzed by Kaplan-Meier method. Results: GS predominantly affected males in their fifth decade of life. Raised intracranial pressure was the most common mode of clinical presentation. Temporal lobe was the most commonly affected part of the brain and majority of primary and all of secondary GBM were located peripherally. In 7 (43.8%) patients, tumor was radiologically well-demarcated and enhanced strongly and homogenously on contrast as compared to 9 (56.2%) patients where the tumor was ill-defined and showed heterogenous patchy or ring enhancement. Extent of excision was total in seven patients (43.8%), near total in 4 (25%) and subtotal in five patients (31.2%). Median survival was 6 months. Patients with well-demarcated, enhancing mass on imaging intraoperatively had firm tumors with a good plane of cleavage and had a better survival (8 months) compared to those in whom the tumor radiologically and intraoperatively mimicked GBM (2 months). Conclusion: GS is associated with poor survival (median survival 6 months). Radiological and intraoperative findings help categorize these tumors into GBM like GS and meningioma like GS. While the former histologically mimics GBM and has very poor survival (2 months), GS with meningioma like feature tends to have better survival (8 months).
    No preview · Article · Sep 2015
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    ABSTRACT: Neurenteric cysts (NC) occur due to failure of separation of neurectoderm from endoderm at the 3rd week of embryogenesis. This study focuses on key clinico-radiological features of NCs, with emphasis on surgical nuances involved in resecting anteriorly placed NC, especially at the foramen magnum (FM). Sixteen consecutive patients having a spinal NC were included. Their clinico-radiological status, surgical nuances and follow-up status were noted. The duration of spasticity/paraparesis/quadriparesis ranged from 15 days to 48 months. Twelve patients had an intradural extramedullary (IDEM; nine anterior and three anterolateral) cyst and four had an intramedullary (IM) cyst. Six of them had an anteriorly placed FM lesion (five IDEM and one IM). Amongst ten subaxial NCs, four were anterior, two antero-lateral and one postero-lateral; three were IM. Three patients had the characteristic stigmata of occult spinal dysraphism: two, a large mesenteric cyst, and one, a posterior mediastinal cyst. Excision was total in 13 patients. Subtotal excision of tumour capsule was performed for two recurrent cysts and an IM cyst. A far lateral approach was adopted for anteriorly placed FM lesions and posterior laminectomy for subaxial lesions. Histopathology revealed eight type A cysts, four type B cysts and four type C cysts. At follow-up (range, 8 months to 12 years; median, 60 ± 45.84 months), complete neurological recovery occurred in seven patients; six patients had persistent spasticity but only minor disability; two patients had difficulty in walking; and one patient with an anteriorly placed thoracic recurrent NC had sustained neurological deterioration. Surgical difficulties in addressing NCs are related to their anterior or IM location, presence of adhesions and inability to dissect the tumour capsule from the spinal cord due to fibrous or lipomatous connections. The associated developmental anomalies must be specifically sought and addressed.
    No preview · Article · Jul 2015 · Acta Neurochirurgica
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Pediatric intramedullary spinal cord lesions are not only rare but also different from adults in a number of aspects. We aimed to study the incidence and the frequencies of various pediatric intramedullary mass lesions, their outcome to treatment and the factors determining their outcome of treatment. Materials and methods: Thirty-one consecutive children (aged 1-18 years, mean 11.1 years, male: female = 1.8:1) with pathologically proven intramedullary spinal cord lesions treated at our center were studied. Clinico-radiological, histopathological, operative, and outcome data were reviewed retrospectively. The functional status was assessed using the modified McCormick grading system. Results: Gross total tumor excision was performed in 19 patients (61.3%), subtotal in 9 patients (29%), partial excision was performed in 2 (6.5%) patient, and only biopsy was performed in 1 patient (6.5%). There was one peroperative death, 2 patients died at follow-up. Complications included wound related complications (n = 4), transient deterioration in the motor power, and respiratory complication requiring a tracheostomy. Six patients showed recurrence at a mean follow-up of 16.4 months. Developmental tumors, high-grade ependymomas, and incompletely excised grade 2 ependymomas showed a tendency to recur. Conclusions: Children constituted nearly 1/5(th) (17.4%) of intramedullary spinal cord tumors. Astrocytomas and ependymomas taken together constituted the most common intramedullary spinal lesions in children; however, developmental tumors predominated in the first decade. Children usually presented in good functional grades preoperatively and maintained good grades after surgery. Functional outcome was dependent on the preoperative neurological status and histopathology of the lesions.
    No preview · Article · Jul 2015 · Journal of Pediatric Neurosciences
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    ABSTRACT: Variability in dimensions and course of vertebral artery (VA) makes it vulnerable to injury during surgery for congenital atlanto-axial dislocation (AAD) with or without an occipitalized atlas. This prospective study attempts to define anatomical variations that render VA at the craniovertebral junction (CVJ) vulnerable to injury during transoral decompression and posterior stabilization procedures; and, to propose a classification that helps in preoperative risk stratification. A prospective study. 104 patients (65 with AAD; 39 controls) underwent a three-dimensional multiplanar computed tomographic angiogram to study anatomical variations in VA size, course, and anomalous medial deviation as well as in the type of axial isthmus and rotational deformity/tilt at the CVJ. The VA/foramen transversarium diameter; "stretched loop" sign of VA; and C1-2 facet joint angle were also assessed. A medial VA deviation that brought it in close proximity to the trajectory of the surgical approach was evaluated (P ≤ 0.05 significant). An increased predisposition to VA injury was present in 23 (35.4%) patients (persistent first intersegmental artery [n = 20; 30%]; fenestrated VA [n = 1; 1.53%], and low-lying posterior inferior cerebellar artery [n = 2; 3.0%]) where VA crossed the C1-2 facet joint; 8 (12%) with an anomalous medial deviation; 12 (18%) with a high-riding VA at C2 and a narrow axial isthmus; and 13 (20%) with rotation/tilt at the CVJ. A normal score of 5 was obtained in 21 patients; and a score of 6-9 (that progressively indicated an increased vulnerability of VA to iatrogenic injury) in 44 patients. The "AAD with an occipitalized atlas" group was associated with a significant medial deviation of VA (right: P = 0.00 and left: P = 0.001). A preoperative detailed risk assessment of anatomical variations in the size and course of VA at the CVJ significantly reduces chances of its iatrogenic injury.
    No preview · Article · May 2015 · Neurology India
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    ABSTRACT: The authors present a case of 15 years male child who presented with neck pain and progressive ascending quadriparesis. Magnetic resonance imaging showed lytic mass involving C5 and C6 vertebra with soft tissue extension. Surgical excision of mass done using anterior cervical approach. Postoperatively, patient showed improvement in spasticity and power. Histopathological examination of mass was suggestive of juvenile xanthogranuloma (JXG). At 6 months follow-up, patient was improving without any evidence of recurrence. Only 12 cases of JXG of spine have been reported till date including only four cases involving the cervical spine and among these four cases only two were of pediatric age group.
    No preview · Article · Mar 2015
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    ABSTRACT: An 11-year-old boy presented with holocranial headache associated with vomiting and heaviness in right paranasal region. On examination, he had left sided upper motor neuron type facial palsy along with a subtle ipsilateral hemiparesis (grade 4/5 Medical Research Council). Magnetic resonance imaging brain revealed a contrast enhancing large well-defined extra-axial mass lesion in right middle cranial fossa with extension into the infratemporal fossa. The mass was excised in two stages. Histopathology was suggestive of clear cell meningioma (CCM). Supratentorial pediatric CCM is a rare entity. The case is discussed along with review of literature on this rare clinico-pathological entity.
    No preview · Article · Mar 2015
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    ABSTRACT: Remote cerebellar hemorrhage (RCH) is an extremely rare and potentially devastating complication of supratentorial and spinal surgeries. While there are numerous postulates explaining the patho-physiology behind this phenomenon, including the most popular CSF over drainage theory, the exact cause for the same is still largely unknown. In this report, we present 2 cases of remote cerebellar hemorrhage encountered following 2 different surgical procedures. One patient had preceding pterional craniotomy for ruptured anterior communicating artery aneurysm while the other one developed RCH after placement of EVD. Both of them had history of poorly controlled hypertension, contrary to most reports where hypertension has not been found to be commonly associated with it. Moreover, while most cases have been reported to occur following supratentorial craniotomies and spinal surgeries, one of our patients developed the same after placement of the EVD, which, to the best of our knowledge, has not been reported earlier.
    No preview · Article · Feb 2015

  • No preview · Article · Jan 2015 · Journal of Pediatric Neurosciences
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    ABSTRACT: Trends in pre- and postoperative fluid, electrolyte and osmolarity changes, and incidence of diabetes insipidus (DI) were assessed in pediatric patients with anterior visual pathway gliomas (AVPGs). Thirty-three patients with AVPGs (age < 16 years) were divided into two groups: (1) no hypothalamic involvement [NHI; n = 17 (51.5 %) including optic (5, 15.2 %); chiasmal (5, 15.2 %); and optico-chiasmal (7, 21.2 %)] and (2) hypothalamic involvement [HI; n = 16 (48.5 %) including chiasmal-hypothalamic (12, 36.4 %) and optico-chiasmal-hypothalamic (4, 12.1 %)]. Frontotemporal transylvian decompression/biopsy was undertaken in 32 patients, while one patient (with severe diencephalic syndrome) was treated conservatively. Their endocrinal and fluid/electrolyte balance, serum osmolarity, and DI status were noted. Chi-square test compared clinical/endocrinological parameters, and unpaired T test evaluated mean daily water/electrolyte changes (p value < 0.05: significant). Significant visual deterioration (perception of light (PL) positive (left: n = 4; right: n = 4) and PL negative (left: n = 5; right: n = 5) was encountered due to optic atrophy. Larger lesions (>3 cm), hydrocephalus [(NHI: n = 7, 41.18 %; HI: n = 12, 75 %), endocrinopathies (p = 0.047), Na(+)/K(+) derangements, and preoperative DI (n = 8, p = 0.004)] were present in the group HI. Increased postoperative urine output (almost double in those with hypothalamic involvement) and hypernatremia/hyperkalemia were seen in group HI until the sixth postoperative day (p < 0.05). Two patients with progressive hypernatremia without increased urine output showed dehydration on central venous pressure monitoring and improved with vasopressin administration. Five patients [NHI: n = 4 (23.5 %); HI: n = 1 (6.3 %)] had neurofibromatosis types I and 3 (NHI: n = 1, 5.9 %; HI: n = 2, 12.5 %) had a diencephalic syndrome. Hypothalamic infiltration significantly increases the incidence of DI and fluid and electrolyte disturbances. Strict vigilance over postoperative fluid balance is mandatory during the first postoperative week. Rapidly rising serial serum sodium values without increased urine output mandates immediate central venous pressure measurement to detect DI associated with dehydration.
    No preview · Article · Dec 2014 · Child s Nervous System
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    ABSTRACT: Intracranial dural metastasis presenting as chronic subdural hematoma is a relatively rare clinical scenario. There are different theories explaining the formation of subdural hematoma in such cases. In this report we present a case of chronic subdural hematoma in a 44-yearold lady who did not have any clinical evidence of primary tumour anywhere in the body. This lady died in spite of two emergency surgeries. During second surgery, the subdural membrane was sent for histopathological examination which revealed presence of metastatic tumour. We discuss the case along with a review of literature and recommend subdural membrane biopsy in all cases of chronic subdural hematoma.
    Preview · Article · Dec 2014 · Turkish neurosurgery
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    ABSTRACT: Surgical management of foramen magnum (FM) tumors is challenging by virtue of their location and vital neurovascular relationships. The ideal approach to anterior/anterolateral tumors continue to evoke controversy even in the modern era. In this article, we present and discuss our experience in the surgical management of these tumors. This retrospective study includes 29 consecutive patients (mean age 36.6 years, M: F = 2.63:1) of extramedullary tumors at the surgical foramen magnum, operated at our center, between 2007 and 2012. Their mean duration of symptoms was 14. 6 months. A majority of the patients presented with motor symptoms (quadri/paraparesis, n = 21, 72.4%), neck pain with/without suboccipital radiation (n = 16, 55.2%) and sensory symptoms like tingling/numbness (n = 16, 55.2%). There were nine extradural (31%) and 20 intradural tumors (69%). Most of the tumors were located posterolateral to the neuraxis (n = 13, 44.8%). Nerve sheath tumors (n = 11, 38%) and meningiomas (n = 5, 17.2%) were the most commonly encountered histologies in our series. The standard posterior approach was the most frequently employed surgical approach (n = 20, 69%). Operative mortality and morbidity were 3.4 and 18.9%, respectively. At a mean follow-up of 27.3 months, 13 out of the 18 available patients improved. A majority of the foramen magnum tumors are amenable to excision via the standard posterior approach. Small anterior dural-based meningiomas/recurrent tumors may require a lateral approach like the far lateral approach.
    No preview · Article · Oct 2014
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    ABSTRACT: Background: In some cases of spontaneous subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH), the cause of bleed remains obscure on initial evaluation. These patients may harbor structural lesions. We aim to determine the utility of repeat angiogram in these subsets of patients. Methods: In this prospective study, patients with SAH with a negative computed tomographic angiogram (CTA) and digital subtraction angiogram (DSA) were included. A repeat angiogram was done after 6 weeks of initial angiogram. Patients were divided into perimesencephalic SAH (PM-SAH) and diffuse classic SAH (Classic-SAH) groups. Outcome was determined by modified Rankin score (mRS). Results: A total of 22% (39/178) of all SAH were angio-negative. A total of 90% (n = 35) of these were in Hunt and Hess grade 1-3. A total of 22 patients had PM-SAH and 17 had a Classic-SAH. Repeat angiogram did not reveal any pathology in the PM-SAH group, whereas two patients with Classic-SAH were found to have aneurysms. At 6 months follow-up, 95% patients of PM-SAH and 83.3% of Classic-SAH had mRS of 0. Conclusion: Repeat angiogram is probably not necessary in patients of PM-SAH and they tend to have better outcome. Classic-SAH pattern of bleed is associated with fair chances of an underlying pathology and a repeat angiogram is recommended and these cases and they have poorer outcome.
    No preview · Article · Aug 2014 · Surgical Neurology International
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Aneurysms of proximal (A1)-segment of anterior cerebral artery (ACA) constitute <1% of all intracranial aneurysms. Aim: Management dilemmas of A1-segment aneurysms were studied utilizing a new classification based upon their location on the longitudinal and circumferential axis of A1-segment. Setting and Design: Tertiary care referral center. Materials and Methods: This is a retrospective analysis of 14 patients (0.98%; mean age: 38.02 ± 15.74 years) with A1-segment aneurysms. The data collected included clinical features, computed tomography (CT) scan and CT-angiography (CTA)/digital subtraction angiography (DSA) findings, modified Hunt and Hess (H and H) grade, surgical steps and difficulties encountered. Results: The modified Hunt and Hess (H and H) grades in the 14 patients were: grade I in two, grade II in two, grade III in four, grade IV in five and grade V in 1. The mean ictus-admission duration was 5.07 ± 2.30 days (range: 1-10 days). Multiple aneurysms were two. Thirteen patients underwent clipping and one, wrapping. Bilateral lateral ventricle hemorrhage occurred in 8 (66%) patients and frontal intracerebral hematoma in 2 (16.66%) patients. In one patient, the aneurysm could only be detected following the third angiogram. A1-aneurysms were classified as proximal (n = 6), distal (n = 7), and mid-segment (n = 1); and, anterior (n = 2), posterior-inferior (n = 7) and posterior-superior (n = 5). Follow-up (range: 6 months-10 years, mean: 2.9 years) recovery (assessed using Modified Rankin's score or mRS) correlated with preoperative status. The preoperative H and H grade and follow-up mRS status were as follows: H and H I (n = 2): mRS 0 (asymptomatic, n = 2); H and H II (n = 2): mRS 1 (minor symptoms without disability, n = 2); H and H III (n = 4):mRS 1 (n = 2) and mRS 2 (slight disability but performing unassisted activities of daily living, n = 1); H and H IV (n = 5): mRS 3 (moderate disability, requiring help for daily living but unassisted walking, n = 2) and mRS 4 (moderately severe disability, requiring help for daily living and walking, n = 2). One patient each from H and H grade III, IV and V died (mRS 6) during treatment due to severe vasospasm, pneumonitis and septicemia. Conclusions: A1-segment aneurysms have unique properties: rupturing of small-sized aneurysms; multiplicity; undetectable on initial imaging; frontal lobar/intraventricular bleeding; origin from main trunk and not bifurcating points; neck obscuration by A1-trunk; close proximity to perforators; and, associated A1-segment and ACA anomalies. A new classification identifies surgical difficulties inherent in different sites of origin of A1-aneurysms.
    No preview · Article · Jul 2014 · Neurology India
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    ABSTRACT: Surgical excision of rare, large-to-giant posterior third ventricular (PTV) meningiomas [including velum-interpositum meningiomas (VIM; postero-superior venous complex displacement; without falco-tentorial attachment) and falco-tentorial meningiomas (FTM; falco-tentorial attachment; displacing major veins antero-inferiorly)] is extremely challenging. To study the management nuances in the excision of large-to-giant PTV meningiomas. Tertiary care referral center. Four patients with large (>3 cm; n = 2) and giant (>5 cm; n = 2) meningiomas (FTM = 2; VIM = 2, mean tumor size = 4.9 cm) underwent occipital transtentorial approach (OTT) for tumor excision. One also underwent a second-stage supracerebellar infratentorial (SCIT) approach. The side of approach was determined by lateral tumor extension and venous displacement (right = 3, left = 1). Near-total removal or subtotal excision (<10% remaining) with radiotherapy was performed in 2 patients each, respectively. At follow-up (mean: 14.75 months), clinical improvement without tumor recurrence/re-growth was achieved. Extent of excision was determined by position of great vein of Galen; tumor attachment to falco-tentorium or major veins; its consistency; its lateral and inferior extent; and, presence of a good tumor-neuraxial arachnoidal plane. OTT is the preferable approach for large-to-giant meningiomas as it provides a wider corridor and better delineation of tumor-neurovascular arachnoidal interface.
    No preview · Article · May 2014 · Neurology India
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    ABSTRACT: We report a rare case of a post-traumatic subdural hygroma occurring with a giant frontotemporal arachnoid cyst in a 6-year old child and discuss its pathogenesis and management implications. Awareness regarding the association of a subdural hygroma associated with an arachnoid cyst is of immense clinical importance as the former may precipitate intracranial hypertension in a previously asymptomatic arachnoid cyst and yet may remain undetectable on a CT scan.
    No preview · Article · Dec 2013
  • A.K. Jaiswal · S.B. Yadav · R.N. Sahu · S. Behari · A.K. Mahapatra

    No preview · Article · Oct 2013 · Journal of the Neurological Sciences
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    ABSTRACT: A wide variety of congenital anomalies are observed around the craniovertebral junctional area. However, hypertrophied unilateral lateral mass of atlas in association with chiari-1 malformation leading to myelopathy is extremely uncommon. Herein we report a case of 28-year-old female who presented to us with a high cervical compressive myelopathy. Imaging revealed bony hypertrophy involving right sided C1 lateral mass along with chiari malformation-type 1. She underwent transoral as well as posterior decompression followed by occipito-cervical fusion. The authors discuss their case in light of other such reported cases and present a review of the literature.
    No preview · Article · Jul 2013 · Journal of craniovertebral junction and spine
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    ABSTRACT: Osteoblastoma (OB) is a rare bony neoplasm constituting around 1% of all primary bone tumors. Although the vertebrae and long bones are the most common sites affected by OB, skull remains a relatively uncommon site of occurrence. Aggressive variant of OB is histologically intermediate between an indolent conventional OB and a malignant osteosarcoma. To the best of our knowledge, aggressive osteoblastoma (AO) affecting the craniovertebral junction has not been previously described in the literature. In this report, we present a 34-year-old gentleman who presented with a mass involving the left side of the neck and oral cavity along with ipsilateral lower cranial nerve paresis. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging scans of the craniovertebral junction revealed a heterogeneously enhancing expansile lesion with areas of destruction involving the clivus, left sided jugular foramen and left side of first two cervical vertebras. Angiography showed distortion of the V3 segment of the left vertebral artery and shift of the ipsilateral internal carotid artery. The tumor was maximally excised through far lateral approach. Histopathologic examination revealed a diagnosis of AO. The patient was referred for radiotherapy for the residual tumor and was doing well at 5 months follow-up.
    No preview · Article · Jul 2013 · Journal of craniovertebral junction and spine

  • No preview · Article · Jun 2013 · Acta Neurochirurgica

Publication Stats

509 Citations
93.93 Total Impact Points


  • 2006-2015
    • Sanjay Gandhi Post Graduate Institute of Medical Sciences
      • Department of Neurosurgery
      Lakhnau, Uttar Pradesh, India
  • 2004-2005
    • All India Institute of Medical Sciences
      • • Neurosciences Centre
      • • Department of Neurosurgery
      New Dilli, NCT, India