[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of the study was to perform cost-effectiveness analysis of immunosuppressive drugs in post-renal transplantation maintenance therapy. A hypothetical cohort of transplanted adults was followed for 20 years, using the Markov model. The 10 evaluated therapeutic regimens contained prednisone (P). Average cost of the medicines was obtained from CMED (Câmara de Regulação do Mercado de Medicamentos). Other patient care costs were included in each disease stage. Costs were expressed in Brazilian reais, effectiveness was measured as years of life gained, and the study adopted a public health system perspective. At the end of follow-up, the analysis with discount showed that all the regimens were dominated by cyclosporine (CSA)+azathioprine (AZA)+P. In the remaining analyses, tacrolimus+AZA+P was not dominated, but the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio between these two regimens was R$ 156,732.07/ years of life gained, a value that exceeds the threshold of three times the Brazilian per capita GDP. In the sensitivity analysis, no qualitative change was observed and the probability of CSA+AZA+P being the most cost-effective regimen was greater than 85%.
Full-text · Article · Nov 2013 · Cadernos de Saúde Pública
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objective:
To evaluate the cost-effectiveness of different drug therapies for chronic hepatitis B in adult patients.
Using a Markov model, a hypothetical cohort of 40 years for HBeAg-positive or HBeAg-negative patients was constructed. Adefovir, entecavir, tenofovir and lamivudine (with rescue therapy in cases of viral resistance) were compared for treating adult patients with chronic hepatitis B undergoing treatment for the first time, with high levels of alanine aminotransferase, no evidence of cirrhosis and without HIV co-infection. Values for cost and effect were obtained from the literature, and expressed in effect on life years (LY). A discount rate of 5% was applied. Univariate sensitivity analysis was conducted to assess model uncertainties.
Initial treatment with entecavir or tenofovir showed better clinical outcomes. The lowest cost-effectiveness ratio was for entecavir in HBeAg-positive patients (R$ 4,010.84/LY) and lamivudine for HBeAg-negative patients (R$ 6,205.08/LY). For HBeAg-negative patients, the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of entecavir (R$ 14,101.05/LY) is below the threshold recommended by the World Health Organization. Sensitivity analysis showed that variation in the cost of drugs may make tenofovir a cost-effective alternative for both HBeAg-positive and HBeAg-negative patients.
Entecavir is the recommended alternative to start treating patients with chronic hepatitis B in Brazil. However, if there is a reduction in the cost of tenofovir, it can become a cost-effective alternative.
Full-text · Article · Aug 2013 · Revista de saude publica
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To conduct a cost-effectiveness analysis of drug alternatives with rescue therapy in case of relapse due to viral resistance for the treatment of patients with chronic hepatitis B (CHB).
Hypothetical cohort of patients with CHB, HBeAg-negative, without clinical or histological evidence of cirrhosis, detectable HBV DNA, histological diagnosis of the disease, positive serum HBsAg for longer than six months, high levels of alanine aminotransferase (ALT) (twice as high as the upper limit of normality) and mean age of 40 years. A Markov model was developed for chronic hepatitis B (HBeAg- negative) with a 40-year time horizon. Costs and benefits were discounted at 5%. Annual rates of disease progression, costs due to complications and the efficacy of medicines were obtained from the literature. One-way and probabilistic sensitivity analysis evaluated uncertainties.
Initiation of treatments with entecavir resulted in an increase of 0.35 discounted life-years gained compared to lamivudine. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio was R$16,416.08 per life-years gained. In the sensitivity analysis, the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio was more sensitive to variation in the probability of transition from chronic hepatitis B to compensated cirrhosis, discount rate and medicine prices (± 10%). In the probabilistic sensitivity analysis, the acceptability curve showed that beginning treatment with entecavir was the most cost-effective alternative in comparison with the use of lamivudine.
The availability of entecavir is economically attractive as part of early treatment for patients with chronic hepatitis B without HIV co-infection.
Full-text · Article · Dec 2012 · Revista de saude publica
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The objective of this study was to evaluate factors associated with use of medicines by the elderly. A national postal survey was conducted with a random sample of 3,000 elderly individuals selected from the registry of the Brazilian National Social Security Institute. The study estimated the prevalence and average number of medicines used in the 15 days prior to the survey, according to age bracket. Prevalence of use of medication was 83.0%: 78.8% in the 60-69 year bracket and 87.3% in individuals 70 years or older (p < 0.05). Older elders had taken an average of 4.4 drugs, as compared to 3.3 among younger elders. Drugs for the cardiovascular system were the most widely used. Age 70 years and older, female gender, poor self-rated health, interruption of routine daily activities, six or more medical visits in the previous year, private health insurance, and reporting of four or more illnesses were independently associated with use of medications (p < 0.05). The results expand the knowledge on use of medications among elderly Brazilians, emphasizing the need to improve pharmaceutical care focused on this subgroup of the population.
Full-text · Article · Jun 2012 · Cadernos de saúde pública / Ministério da Saúde, Fundação Oswaldo Cruz, Escola Nacional de Saúde Pública
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To perform a cost-effectiveness evaluation from the perspective of the Brazilian National Health System of alternatives strategies (i.e., conventional interferon, pegylated interferon, and lamivudine) for the treatment of patients with chronic hepatitis B who present elevated aminotransferase levels and no evidence of cirrhosis at the beginning of treatment.
A Markov model was developed for chronic hepatitis B (hepatitis B antigen e [HBeAg] positive and negative) with 40 years' time horizon. Costs and benefits were discounted at 5%. Annual rates of disease progression, costs due to complications, and the efficacy of medicines were obtained from the literature. One-way and probabilistic sensitivity analysis evaluated uncertainties.
For HBeAg positive patients, peginterferon (48 weeks) resulted in an increase of 0.21 discounted life-years gained compared to interferon (24 weeks). The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) converted to US dollars using the 2009 purchasing power parity conversion factor was US$100,752.24 per life-year gained. For HBeAg negative patients, it was observed that interferon (48 weeks) compared with long-term lamivudine presented an increase of 0.45 discounted life-years gained and ICER of US$15,766.90 per life-year gained. In the sensitivity analysis, the ICER was more sensitive to variation in the probability of transition from chronic hepatitis B to compensated cirrhosis, discount rate, and medicine prices. Cost-effectiveness acceptability curve for HBeAg positive (pegylated interferon vs. conventional interferon) and negative (conventional interferon vs. lamivudine) showed that conventional interferon was cost-effective until three times the gross domestic product per capita.
For patients with chronic hepatitis B with elevated aminotransferase levels in the pretreatment and no cirrhosis who were HBeAg positive, pegylated interferon (48 weeks) provided more life-years gained when compared to conventional interferon (24 weeks), and the ICER surpasses the country's buying power, which makes conventional interferon the chosen alternative. For HBeAg negative patients, conventional interferon (48 weeks) compared to lamivudine provided more life-years gained at a favorable ICER.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: OBJETIVO: Analisar fatores associados à complexidade do esquema terapêutico em prescrições de medicamentos para idosos, em Belo Horizonte (MG). MÉTODOS: Inquérito domiciliar, com idosos selecionados por amostragem aleatória simples, a partir do cadastro do INSS. O Índice de Complexidade Terapêutica (ICT), medida direta das ações necessárias para administrar o medicamento, foi obtido de informações contidas na última prescrição. Foram realizadas análises univariada e bivariada dos dados para identificar fatores associados ao ICT. RESULTADOS: Dos 667 entrevistados, 56,5% apresentaram prescrição que atendia aos critérios de inclusão. A maioria (69,2%) era do sexo feminino com idade média de 72,4 anos. 35,5% consideravam seu estado de saúde bom ou muito bom e 37,4% relataram cinco ou mais doenças. Nos 15 dias anteriores à entrevista, foram utilizados 1873 medicamentos (média=5,1), desses, 942 constavam nas prescrições analisadas (média=2,5). Para o mesmo período, 22,3% dos entrevistados deixaram de usar algum medicamento prescrito. O ICT encontrado variou de 1 a 24 (média=6,1). Número de medicamentos prescritos (>2), menor escolaridade, pior percepção de saúde e menor valor do benefício recebido foram associados positivamente à maior complexidade (p<0,05). Observou-se associação entre maior complexidade do regime e não uso de algum medicamento nos últimos 15 dias (p=0,034) CONCLUSÃO: Idosos com piores condições socioeconômicas e de saúde parecem mais propensos a receber esquemas terapêuticos mais complexos. Terapias mais complexas estão associadas ao menor cumprimento do tratamento proposto, sendo um importante aspecto a se considerar na atenção à saúde do idoso. A simplificação da terapia pode melhorar o autocuidado entre idosos.
Full-text · Article · Jan 2009 · Revista da Associação Médica Brasileira
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To examine factors associated with therapeutic regimen complexity of drug prescriptions for elderly people in Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brazil.
A household survey of elderly people selected by simple random sampling from Brazil's social security register. The medication complexity index (MCI), a direct measurement of actions required to administer medication, was derived from information in the latest prescription. Univariate and bivariate analyses were performed to identify factors associated with the MCI.
Of the 667 interviewees, 56.5% had prescriptions meeting the inclusion criteria; most (69.2%) were females aged 72.4 years (mean); 35.5% self-rated their health good or very good; and 37.4% reported five or more diseases. In the 15 days prior to interview, 1873 drugs were used (mean=5.1), of which 942 appeared on the prescriptions examined (mean=2.5). Over the same period, 22.3% of interviewees failed to use some prescribed drug. The MCI ranged from 1 to 24 (mean=6.1). Number of drugs prescribed (>2), less schooling, worse perception of health and a lower benefit payment associated positively with greater complexity (p<0.05). An association was observed between regimen complexity and failure to use some drug in the preceding 15 days (p=0.034).
Elderly people in worse socio-economic and health conditions seem more likely to receive more complex therapeutic regimens, which are associated with non-compliance to the proposed treatment. This is an important consideration in the healthcare of elderly. Simplification of therapy could aid self-care among the elderly.
Full-text · Article · Dec 2008 · Revista da Associação Médica Brasileira
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The purpose of this work was to improve the separation and yield of pure β- and α-trypsin isoforms by ion-exchange chromatography and to characterize some physical-chemical properties of these isoforms. Purification of trypsin isoforms was performed by ion-exchange chromatography in 0.1 mol/L tris-HC buffer, pH 7.10 at 4°C. The sample loading, salt concentration, flow rate and pH of mobile phase were varied to determine their effects on the resolution of the separation. The resolution was optimized mainly between β- and α-trypsin. Pure isoforms were obtained by chromatographying 100 mg of commercial trypsin during seven days, yielding 51 mg of high purity β-trypsin and 13 mg of α-trypsin partially pure, with small amounts of contaminating of ψ-trypsin. Thus, time and resolution of purification were optimized yielding large amounts of pure active enzymes that are useful for several research areas and biotechnology.
Full-text · Article · Aug 2008 · Brazilian Archives of Biology and Technology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The purpose of this work was to improve the separation and yield of pure beta- and alpha-trypsin isoforms by ion-exchange chromatography and to characterize some physical-chemical properties of these isoforms. Purification of trypsin isoforms was performed by ion-exchange chromatography in 0.1 mol/L tris-HC buffer, pH 7.10 at 4 degrees C. The sample loading, salt concentration, flow rate and pH of mobile phase were varied to determine their effects on the resolution of the separation. The resolution was optimized mainly between beta- and alpha-trypsin. Pure isoforms were obtained by chromatographying 100 mg of commercial trypsin during seven days, yielding 51 mg of high purity beta-trypsin and 13 mg of alpha-trypsin partially pure, with small amounts of contaminating of psi-trypsin. Thus, time and resolution of purification were optimized yielding large amounts of pure active enzymes that are useful for several research areas and biotechnology.
No preview · Article · Jul 2008 · Brazilian Archives of Biology and Technology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Osteoporosis, a typical disease of the elderly, has become a frequent and relevant public health problem. Several drugs are available for treatment of osteoporosis, some of which are currently dispensed by the Brazilian Unified National Health System. The objective of this study was to present a systematic review of drugs for treatment of osteoporosis, focusing on the adequacy of clinical protocols based on existing evidence in the scientific literature. We conducted a search for randomized clinical trials in PubMed and LILACS that presented results for bone mineral density, incidence of vertebral fractures, and adverse effects. 32 articles met the review's inclusion criteria. Bisphosphonates were reported to have consistently reduced the risk of vertebral fractures. Hormone replacement therapy showed positive outcomes, but its use has been found to increase the risk of cardiovascular disease and breast cancer. Teriparatide and monofluorophosphate also showed efficacy against osteoporosis. Calcium and vitamin D were given to patients as food supplements.
Full-text · Article · Feb 2008 · Cadernos de saúde pública / Ministério da Saúde, Fundação Oswaldo Cruz, Escola Nacional de Saúde Pública