[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The relaxation of cavernous smooth muscle is critical for inducing and maintaining a penile erection. The neurogenic- and endothelium-dependent relaxation of corpus cavernosum smooth muscle and the degenerative effect of subacute ethanol treatment on the endothelial cells of corpus cavernosum was investigated in mice. In the cavernous strips contracted with phenylephrine, electrical field stimulation (EFS), acetylcholine and exogenous nitric oxide (NO) induced relaxations in the control group. Ethanol treatment abolished the endothelium-dependent relaxations induced by acetylcholine but failed to alter the relaxation to EFS and NO. L-nitroarginine, a NO synthase inhibitor, reduced relaxations induced by EFS and acetylcholine, but not those induced by NO in control and ethanol-treated mice. L-arginine prevented the response inhibited by L-nitroarginine. ODQ, a guanylyl cyclase inhibitor, inhibited relaxations in response to EFS, NO and acetylcholine in control and ethanol-treated mice. Corpus cavernosum tissues were investigated using electron microscopy and endothelial damage was observed in ethanol-treated mice. These results suggest that ethanol impairs the endothelial function of corpus cavernosum in mouse, and it may lead to erectile dysfunction through a reduced NO release via endothelial impairment.
Full-text · Article · Jan 2010 · Pharmacological reports: PR
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Although the exact role of the diphenylhydantoin treatment on the immune system is still unclear, prolonged administration of diphenylhydantoin has been suggested to be associated with immune-based disorders and syndromes.
A case of fibrillary glomerulonephritis associated with DPH treatment is reported. This is the first reported case of fibrillary glomerulonephritis associated with this commonly used common anticonvulsive drug.
A more routine surveillance for proteinuria in patients receiving DPH is recommended.
Full-text · Article · Sep 2009 · Medical science monitor: international medical journal of experimental and clinical research
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cardiac valvular pathologies are frequently encountered as mechanical and functional disorders due to the calcification of the valves whatever the etiologies are. This pathophysiologic table usually ends up with valvular replacement. In this study, we aimed to decrease/eliminate the calcium in the excised calcified human heart valves by using citric acid in vitro hence bringing about the question for possible oral treatment of calcification of the valves by citric acid ingestion.
Fourteen pieces of mitral and/or aortic valves excised from 12 patients undergoing valve replacement were placed in a freshly prepared phosphate buffered saline solution containing 0.625% glutaraldehyde at +4 0C for 48 h. They were rinsed with 0.9% NaCl and divided into two groups; study and control. Control tissues were further treated in a freshly prepared solution with identical properties for another 5 days. Study tissues were placed into a solution containing 3.8% citric acid (pH 7.4) and kept for 48 h at +37 degrees C, then rinsed with 0.9% NaCl and transferred into a fresh solution containing 0.625% glutaraldehyde with phosphate buffer at 37 0C for 3 more days. Specimens were biochemically and histopathologically evaluated and compared using Mann Whitney U test.
Calcium and phosphate levels in the study group were lower than in the control group (852.5+/-913.41 microg g-1 vs 413.05+/-519.53 microg g-1, p=0.001 and 207.6+/-321.86 microg g-1 vs 124.4+/-289.48 microg g-1, p=0.035, respectively). Malondialdehyde and protein level values were changed insignificantly in the control and study groups. Histopathologic evaluation showed that collagen and elastin fibers were similar in both groups. In the study group, irregular and fusiform calcific formations around the collagen fibers were significantly decreased.
Decalcifying human heart valves in vitro conditions with citric acid without an adverse change to the morphology of the valvular tissue specimens is meaningful. We believe that forwarding and looking for the answer to the question "whether systemic application of citric acid could lead to the decalcification and/or reduction of calcification in the native human heart valves" would be expressive.
Full-text · Article · May 2008 · Anadolu kardiyoloji dergisi: AKD = the Anatolian journal of cardiology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study aimed to investigate the effects of low-exposure Cd on normal and osteoporotic bone. For this purpose, 12-week-old Sprague-Dawley female rats were assigned randomly to a control group, a Cd group, and an ovariectomy (OVX)+Cd group. OVX+Cd rats underwent bilateral ovariectomy via ventral incision. Twelve weeks after ovariectomy, cadmium chloride (CdCl(2)) was given to rats (Cd and OVX+Cd groups) as intraperitoneal (ip) injection of 0.5mg/kg three times a week for 18 weeks and distilled water was given to control group via ip route for 18 weeks. Bone mineral density (BMD) was measured at mid-diaphysis femoral region by dual-energy X-ray absorbsiometry. Cross-sectional area of the femoral shaft was evaluated by computerized tomography. Biomechanical measurements were performed at the mid-diaphysis of the left femur. Collagen fibers were evaluated at light microscopic level. BMD, cortical thickness, cortical area, and femur length were not changed in Cd and OVX+Cd groups in comparision to controls. In the OVX+Cd group, strength, displacement, energy, stress, strain, and toughness were significantly lower than those of the control group. The Cd concentration of bone was significantly increased in the OVX+Cd group compared to that in the control group. Collagen fiber intensity was decreased in all groups except control group. The results of the present study indicate that the administration of low-dose Cd does not affect normal bone biomechanical parameters, but it has a significant effect on osteoporotic bone.
Full-text · Article · Mar 2007 · Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The effect of laser on wound healing is controversial. This study examines the effects of low-level gallium arsenide (904 nm) laser irradiation on the wound healing process in a rat model. Twenty-four rats were used. Paired wounds were made on the shaved dorsal skin on either side of the midline. The rats were randomly divided into 3 groups (n = 8 in each group). Using a gallium arsenide laser, Group 1, Group 2, and Group 3 were irradiated with 0.31 J/cm2, 2.48 J/cm2, and 19 J/cm2, respectively. The wound on the right side of each animal received laser irradiation for 7 consecutive days, and the left side wound served as a control. On Day 21, bilateral wounds were excised and processed for light microscopy examination. Impaired collagen synthesis, large defect areas, degeneration of skin appendages, and presence of dermal granulation tissue were observed in laser-treated groups, while normal wound healing was found in control wounds. High-dose gallium arsenide laser irradiation appears to impair wound healing on Day 21 in a rat model.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Post-sternotomy mediastinitis affects 1-3% of patients undergoing cardiac surgery and is lethal in 10-47% of these patients. We investigated the effect of an antioxidant/anti-inflammatory agent, caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE), in the attenuation of inflammatory response induced by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infection in a rat experimental mediastinitis model. Rats, divided into six equal groups, received MRSA precolonized stainless steel wire pieces implanted into their mediastinal spaces. Control group and CAPE control group received saline and CAPE 10 micromol/kg.day(-1 )respectively, where Group A received a single dose of teicoplanin 24 mg/kg i.m. for the first day and then 12 mg/kg.day(-1) . Group B received teicoplanin as in Group A plus CAPE 10 micromol/kg. day(-1 )intra-peritoneally. Group C received teicoplanin 60 mg/kg i.m. for the first day and then 30 mg/kg.day(-1 )and Group D received teicoplanin as in Group C plus CAPE 10 micromol/kg.day(-1) . By the end of 14 days rats were sacrificed and serum malondialdehyde (MDA), myeloperoxidase (MPO), nitric oxide (NO), urea and creatinine levels were evaluated. Mediastinal organ tissues were collected for histopathological analysis. Infection rates in all the drug-treated groups were lower than the control groups ( P=0.002) but statistical significance was attained only between the groups A and D ( P=0.018). In connective tissues and the peribronchial area polymorphonuclear leukocytic (PNL) infiltration in the treatment groups, although becoming very close, did not reach statistical significance (P =0.053, P=0.075, respectively). PNL infiltration especially in the peribronchial tissues of the Group B animals was found to be significantly less than the Control and CAPE Control groups with P values of 0.013 and 0.010, respectively. MDA and MPO levels were significantly lower in the treatment groups ( P<0.001 and P<0.001 respectively). Levels of the degradation products of NO were lower in treatment groups compared to two control groups (P=0.003, P= 0.005). NO levels in Group D were lowest among all treatment groups ( P=0.001). It has been demonstrated that although bacterial colonization can be controlled in mediastinitis, the inflammatory response persists. The combination of an antioxidant / anti-inflammatory agent, CAPE, added to standard antibiotic therapy might be effective in the treatment of post-sternotomy mediastinitis due to MRSA.
No preview · Article · Jul 2006 · Journal of chemotherapy (Florence, Italy)
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Alcohol-induced lung damage may be associated with increased oxidative stress.
Our aim was to investigate alcohol-induced changes in the biochemistry and histopathology of the lung.
Rats were divided into two groups, a control group and an ethanol group. The ethanol group received 2 g/kg ethanol (total: 3 ml) intraperitoneally. The controls were given the same amount of saline via the same route. Three hours later, the rats were sacrificed, and blood and lung tissue samples were obtained. Oxidative stress was assessed by measuring the levels of erythrocyte reduced glutathione (GSH), tissue malondialdehyde (MDA), myeloperoxidase (MPO) and Na(+)-K(+) ATPase. Histopathologic evaluation of the lung tissues was also performed.
In the ethanol group, serum and tissue MDA levels and MPO activities were increased (p = 0.007, p = 0.001 and p = 0.000), and lung tissue Na(+)-K(+) ATPase activities and erythrocyte GSH were decreased (p = 0.001 and p = 0.000) compared to the controls. Histopathologic examination demonstrated alveolocapillary thickening, alveolar degeneration, leukocyte infiltration and erythrocyte extravasation in the lungs of the ethanol group (p < 0.05).
These results suggest that high-dose acute alcohol administration aggravates systemic and local oxidative stress leading to acute lung injury, ranging from mild pulmonary dysfunction to severe lung injury. It should be borne in mind that rapid onset of the acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) may also be due to increased oxidative stress following alcohol abuse, especially when ischemic disturbances, e.g. coronary heart disease, acute ischemia of the extremities and traumatic accidents, are concomitantly present. Therefore, precautions against ARDS may prevent morbidity and mortality in alcohol-induced lung damage in at-risk patients.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of the present study was to investigate the electrophysiology of the phrenic nerve and the diaphragm muscle during sepsis. In total, 26 rats underwent either sham laparotomy or caecal ligation and puncture (CLP). Electrophysiology was evaluated via a phrenic nerve conduction study and needle electromyography of the diaphragm, prior to CLP, 6 and 24 h post-CLP and on day 7. The histopathology of the diaphragm muscle and phrenic nerve was also examined on day 7. In the sepsis group, the phrenic nerve conduction study showed decreased amplitude of compound action potential (CMAP), and prolongation in the duration and the latency of CMAP. The diaphragmatic needle electromyography showed decreased amplitude and frequency of the motor unit action potential (MUP), and prolongation in the duration of MUP, at all time points, compared with the pre-CLP values. The electrophysiological abnormalities were consistent with axonal and demyelinating phrenic nerve neuropathy. Electrophysiological abnormalities were present at 6 h with worsening at 24 h and on day 7. Histopathological examination showed normal muscular fibres and focally slight myelin degenerations of the phrenic nerve fibres. In conclusion, sepsis induced phrenic nerve neuropathy as early as the 6th h in rats.
Preview · Article · Nov 2005 · European Respiratory Journal
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To evaluate the effect of 3-aminobenzamide, an inhibitor of poly(adenosine diphosphate-ribose) polymerase (PARP), on the long-term histologic damage in testicular ischemia-reperfusion injury. PARP inhibitors have been used successfully to decrease ischemia-reperfusion injury in several organ systems.
Adult male Wistar rats were divided into four groups of 7 rats each. One group underwent 2 hours of testicular torsion; one received pretreatment with vehicle (dimethyl sulfoxide) before detorsion; one received pretreatment with 3-aminobenzamide, an inhibitor of PARP, before detorsion; and one group underwent a sham operation. All rats underwent bilateral orchiectomy 60 days after the experiment. The mean seminiferous tubular diameter, germinal epithelial cell thickness, and mean testicular biopsy score were determined by histologic examination of each testis.
Testicular torsion-detorsion caused a significant decrease in the mean seminiferous tubular diameter, germinal epithelial cell thickness, and mean testicular biopsy score in the ipsilateral testes (P <0.001), but not in the contralateral testes. The animals treated with 3-aminobenzamide had a statistically significant increase in these histologic parameters compared with the torsion-detorsion group (P <0.01).
The results of this study show that PARP may have a role in the testicular damage caused by ischemia-reperfusion. Administering PARP inhibitors before reperfusion may have the potential to decrease the long-term histologic damage that occurs after testicular torsion.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We compared the efficacy of the combination of fusidic acid impregnated bone cement and systemic teicoplanin to systemic teicoplanin alone in implant-related osteomyelitis model in the rats. Foreign bodies were implanted into the medullary channels of 30 rat tibias after intramedullary inoculation of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Following proof of induction of osteomyelitis in the rats on the 21st day, a bone cement rod including 1/40 ratio of fusidic acid was inserted into the medullary channel of the tibias in the study group. Teicoplanin was administered i.m. at 20 mg/kg/day for 14 days to both the study and control groups. At the end of the treatment, the tibias were examined macroscopically, microbiologically and histopathologically. The elimination rate with the teicoplanin+fusidic acid combination was 81.8%, while with teicoplanin alone was 55.6% (p=0.33). Although the difference between the two groups was not statistically significant, the combination treatment had a positive effect in eliminating the microorganism.
No preview · Article · Mar 2004 · Journal of chemotherapy (Florence, Italy)
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cypermethrin is widely used as an insecticide on animals and in agriculture, the home, and the garden. The effect of inhaled cypermethrin on the cardiac mechanics, electrophysiology, and ultrastructure in frogs was investigated in this study. Four groups received 100 microL of cypermethrin via inhalation for different exposure times, and one group was used as a control. Electrical and mechanical activities of the heart were recorded, and heart samples were examined at light and transmission electron microscopic levels for all groups. The atrial and ventricular contractile forces on the mechanogram, the amplitude of the P wave and the QRS complex on electrocardiogram, and the heart rate were significantly decreased in cypermethrin-inhalated frogs. The total duration of contraction was prolonged in the study groups. Ultrastructurally, dilatation in smooth endoplasmic reticulum cisterns, a decrease in the number of mitochondria, disorganization in the myofibrils of myocytes, and necrotic changes in endothelial cells were observed. These results suggest that cypermethrin has cardiotoxic effects that increase with exposure time.
No preview · Article · Mar 2004 · Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE) on the lungs as a remote organ after performing hindlimb ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) and by assessing biochemical and histopathological analysis.
The animals were divided into three groups: control, I/R, and I/R with CAPE. I/R period for 8 h was performed on the right hindlimb of all the anesthesied rats in I/R and CAPE with I/R group. In the CAPE with I/R group, the animals received CAPE 10 microM by intraperitoneal injection 1h before the reperfusion. The animals in the control and I/R groups received a similar volume of saline solution by means of intraperitoneal injection. At the end of the reperfusion period, a midsternotomy was performed. Blood, bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) and lung tissue were obtained, and were used for biochemical and histopathological examination.
The tissue and serum malondyaldehyde levels were significantly lower in the control (P=0.0001 and 0.001, respectively) and in the CAPE with I/R groups (P=0.0001 and 0.003, respectively) compared to the I/R group. Tissue Na(+)-K(+) ATPase activity in the CAPE with I/R group was significantly higher than in the I/R group (P=0.0001). Reduced activity was found in the I/R group compared to the control group (P=0.0001). Myeloperoxidase activity (P=0.001) and protein concentration (P=0.034) in BAL were significantly reduced in CAPE-treated animals when compared with the I/R group. A decreased activity and protein concentration were found in the control group compared to the I/R group (P=0.0001 and 0.024, respectively). The lungs of the I/R group displayed intense peribronchial and perivascular leukocytic infiltration in histopathological examination compared to the CAPE with I/R group (P<0.05).
CAPE seems to be effective in protecting remote organ injury caused by increased oxidative stress and neutrophil accumulation that results from an I/R injury.
No preview · Article · Oct 2003 · Pharmacological Research
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of Daflon 500 mg on tissue damage in kidney after ischemia/reperfusion hindlimb, by assessing blood biochemical assay and histopathological analysis. Rats were given Daflon 80 mg x kg(-1) x day(-1) for 10 days. On 11th day of treatment, 4h ischemia followed by 4 h reperfusion period was performed on right hind limb of the rats. Control groups were given only arabic gum and were subjected to same ischemia/reperfusion period. At the end of reperfusion period, erythrocyte superoxide dismutase, Na(+)-K(+) ATPase and reduced glutathione levels were increased in the rats erythrocytes in Daflon group (P<0.01, for all). On the other hand, serum myeloperoxidase and malondialdehyde levels were significantly lower in the Daflon-received rats (P<0.01, for all). Histopathological studies demonstrated that, there was a prominent tubulointerstitial injury with loss of brush border and this degeneration was accompanied by segmental glomerular degeneration also for both control and Daflon group. Daflon-received group animals displayed significantly less periglomerular and perivascular leukocytic infiltration (P=0.015). These overall results suggest that Daflon contributes renal protection from hind limb ischemia/reperfusion injury in some degree, by decreasing systemic oxidative stress.
No preview · Article · Jul 2003 · Pharmacological Research
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We evaluated the electrophysiological and histopathological effects of low-energy gallium arsenide (904 nm) laser irradiation on the intact skin injured rat sciatic nerve. Twenty-four male Wistar rats were divided into three groups ( n=8 each). At the level of proximal third of the femur the sciatic nerve was crushed bilaterally with an aneurysm clip (Aesculap FE 751, Tuttingen, Germany) for half a second. A gallium arsenide laser (wavelength 904 nm, pulse duration 220 ns, peak power per pulse 27 W, spot size 0.28 cm2, pulse repetition rate 16, 128 and 1000 Hz; total applied energy density 0.31, 2.48 and 19 J/cm2) was applied to the right sciatic nerve for 15 min daily at the same time on 7 consecutive days. The same procedure was performed on the left sciatic nerve of same animal, but without radiation emission, and this was accepted as control. Compound muscle action potentials were recorded from right and left sides in all three groups before surgery, just at the end of injury, at the 24th hour and on the 14th and 21st days of injury in all rats using a BIOPAC MP 100 Acquisition System Version 3.5.7 (Santa Barbara, USA). BIOPAC Acknowledge Analysis Software (ACK 100 W) was used to measure CMAP amplitude, area, proximal and distal latency, total duration and conduction velocity. Twenty-one days after injury, the rats were sacrificed. The sciatic nerves of the operated parts were harvested from the right and left sides. Histopathological evaluation was performed by light microscopy. Statistical evaluation was done using analysis of variance for two factors (right and left sides) repeated-measures (CMAP variables within groups) and the Tukey-Kramer Honestly Significant Difference test (CMAP variables between laser groups). The significance was set at p < 0.05. No statistically significant difference (p > 0.05) was found regarding the amplitude, area, duration and conduction velocity of CMAP for each applied dose (0.31, 2.48 and 19 J/cm2) on the irradiated (right) side and the control (left) side, or between irradiated groups. Twenty-one days after injury there were no qualitative differences in the morphological pattern of the regenerated nerve fibres in either irradiated (0.31, 2.48 and 19 J/cm2) or control nerves when evaluated by light microscopy. This study showed that low-energy GaAs irradiation did not have any effect on the injured rat sciatic nerve.
No preview · Article · May 2003 · Lasers in Medical Science
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of botulinum toxin type A on bladder function and histology in a rat chemical cystitis model. The study included 41 female Sprague-Dawley rats with chemical cystitis induced by intravesical instillation of hydrochloric acid. The acid instillation was repeated monthly to maintain chronic inflammation. The treatment group (n=21) received 2-3 units of botulinum toxin type A injected into the bladder detrusor at the 3, 6, 9 and 12 o'clock positions, and the control group (n=20) underwent saline injection into the bladder detrusor at the same positions. Urodynamic studies were performed in all rats before the treatment and at death. The rats were killed at 1 week, 2 weeks, 1 month and 2 months after treatment. The bladders were removed and examined histologically for mast cells and inflammatory changes. The cystometric findings showed that, at the beginning and end of the experiment, the increases in the maximum bladder capacity and compliance were significantly higher in the treatment group than in the control group (P=0.000 and P=0.025, respectively). The histological studies revealed similar mast cell counts and leukocyte infiltration for the treatment and control groups. In conclusion, in this rat chemical cystitis model, botulinum toxin type A injected into the bladder detrusor led to a functional improvement. Thus, botulinum toxin type A injection may be an alternative, minimally invasive choice to other surgical treatment options in the treatment of a chronic inflammatory condition to improve deteriorated bladder function.
No preview · Article · Mar 2003 · Urological Research
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study was designed to investigate the development and anatomical features of the wrist joint, particularly the scapholunate ligament and triangular disc in the fetal period and to identify possible congenital variations.
The study included 16 wrist joints of eight fetuses aborted at ages 8 to 14 weeks. The samples had no macroscopically discernible anomalies. Tissue specimens were fixed in 10% formalin solution, embedded in paraffin, and mounted on a microtome to obtain 5-micron sections in the coronal plane. Following staining with hematoxylin and eosin, conventional light microscopic examinations were performed.
Organization of the carpal ligaments in the wrist joint began on the radial side in the 9th week. In the 10th week, the scapholunate ligament was formed; a membranous structure was observed, which lied from the interfacet prominence of the radius to the scapholunate ligament and divided the wrist joint into two cavities. The triangular disc formation began to appear at this stage. During the 11th and 12th weeks, the membranous structure underwent regression from the dorsal to the volar aspects, and at the end of the 14th week, the wrist joint became a single cavity. Also noted was the development of fibrous appearance of the scapholunate ligament and the triangular disc into fibrocartilage. Vascular areas were identified on the radial rather than the ulnar side of the scapholunate ligament, but vice versa for the triangular disc. Bicompartmental structure seemed to persist in the wrist joint of a 14-week-old fetus.
In this study, we demonstrated that the scapholunate ligament and the triangular disc were not homogeneous in the fetal period in terms of vascularity and cellularity. We speculate that a plica-like membranous structure may persist in the wrist joint as a remnant of the fetal life. An accurate knowledge of the anatomy is necessary for the treatment planning and arthroscopic interpretation of the wrist joint.
Full-text · Article · Feb 2003 · acta orthopaedica et traumatologica turcica
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of trimetazidine (TMZ) on tissue damage in kidney after hindlimb ischemia-reperfusion (I/R), by assessing blood biochemical assay and histopathological analysis. Adult male Wistar rats were divided into two groups. TMZ 10 mg kg(-1)day(-1) was administrated twice a day for 10 days to the treatment group (group T, n=10). Sham group was given only 5% gum arabic (group S, n=10). On 11th day of treatment, 8h I/R period was performed on right hindlimb of the rats. At the end of reperfusion period, a 5 ml blood withdrawn from ascending aorta for biochemical assays and their right kidneys were harvested for histopathological examination. Superoxide dismutase, Na(+)-K(+) ATPase, and reduced glutathione levels were significantly increased in group T (P<0.001). On the other hand, myeloperoxidase and malondialdehyde levels were significantly less in group T than group S (P<0.001). Kidneys from the sham-operated group displayed intense leukocytic infiltration in histopathological examination. These overall results strongly suggested that TMZ contributes renal protection from hindlimb I/R injury by decreasing systemic oxidative stress.
No preview · Article · Oct 2002 · Pharmacological Research