[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The prediction of RNA structure is useful for understand evolution for both In-Silico and In-Vitro studies. Physical methods like NMR studies to predict structure are expensive and difficult. RNA secondary structure prediction is one of major task in Bioinformatics and various computational methods have been proposed so far. MFOLD is one of the methods for Secondary structure prediction of single stranded nucleic acid. Three species of the mature ribosomal RNA of Saccharomyces cerevisiae 18s, 26s and 5.8s rRNAs were derived for statistical analysis. The secondary structure model of Internal Transcribed Spacer (ITS) region consisting of an open multi branch loop, closed multi branch loop, helices, hairpin loop, bulge loop, interior loop and stem the lowest minimum free energy values calculated. Computational energy minimization is dynamic based programming. In this study several structural elements were utilized in MFOLD algorithm. The portal for the Mfold web server is http://www.bioinfo.rpi.edu/applications/Mfold. This URL will be referred to as 'MFOLDROOT'.
Full-text · Article · Apr 2014 · International Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences Review and Research
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: West Nile Virus is an arthropod borne virus of genus Flavivirus. Mosquitoes are predominate arthropod vector. WNV is a single stranded, positive sense RNA of about 11 kb containing a single long open reading frame flanked by Non coding region at both ends. The RdRp polymerase activity of Nonstructural protein NS5 has essential role in viral replication. The RdRp duplicates the single stranded RNA genome during a single, continuous polymerization event. In this study we performed docking study on NS5 Methyltransferase protein as target and ligand compounds are selected from the natural products of mangrove derived compounds and performed the docking to inhibit the viral replication process. The screened mangrove derived compounds were binding site of WNV RdRp which inhibits the viral replication.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Worldwide diabetes mellitus refers to a group of disorders with different etiologies. In the present study effort has been made to apply the bioinformatics tools to identify the action of mangrove derived compounds against the target protein of the disease diabetes mellitus. The molecular targets, Myo-Inositol Oxygenase (MIOX), the crystallographic structures are available on the Protein Data Bank database as (PDB ID: 3BXD), were used for the docking analysis using the Argus lab programs. The docking studies of the mangrove derived compounds as ligand with target proteins showed that this is a good molecule which docks well with various targets related to diabetes mellitus. Hence the mangrove derived compounds can be considered for developing into a potent anti-diabetic drug.
No preview · Article · Jun 2013 · International Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences Review and Research
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The present study focused on molecular computational analysis to identify the potential compounds, derived from marine organisms (algae, sponges and fungi), which can block the mutated gene (BRCA1) responsible for the breast cancer. Seven compounds were tested against the carcinogenic
protein. The 3D crystal structure of the protein (ID: 2IOK) was retrieved from protein data bank (PDB) and the protein binding sites of the test compounds were identified. The results revealed that among seven compounds, tretinoin, stigmasterol, triterpenoid, heritonin,rubrolide , 5-Norbornene-2-carboxylic acid, tricin were found efficient in inhibiting the protein (BRCA1) responsible for breast cancer
Full-text · Article · Jul 2012 · International Journal of Research in Ayurveda and Pharmacy
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The fishes are living in the medium rich in pathogenic microbes. The mucus secreted by the skin of fish showed more antimicrobial properties. The mucus collected from the two exotic fishes and two indigenous fishes were tested against the five pathogenic bacteria (Klebsiella pneumonia, Vibrio cholerae, Salmonella typhi, Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa) and five pathogenic fungi namely (Mucor globosus, Rhizopus arrhizus, Candida albicans, Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus niger). The fishes are living in media rich in pathogenic microbes which secrete substances against them. The mucus secreted by the skin of fish showed more antimicrobial properties. More antibacterial and antifungal activity were observed in an indigenous fishes (Catla catla and Labeo rohita) than exotic fishes (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix and Ctenopharyngodon idella).
Full-text · Article · Jun 2012 · African journal of microbiology research
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In the present study, effort has been made to find the antimicrobial activity of haemolymph collected from freshwater crab, Paratelphusa hydrodromous. The haemolymph collected was tested for antimicrobial assay by disc diffusion method against clinical pathogens. Five bacterial species, namely, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumonia, Proteus mirabilis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, and five fungal strains, namely and Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus fumigatus, Aspergillus niger, Rhizopus sp., and Mucor sp., were selected for the study. The result shows a strong response of haemolymph against the clinical pathogens which confirms the immune mechanism of the freshwater crab.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cervical cancer remains a major worldwide public health problem in women and it requires a potent lead compound for its control. Therefore, in the present study six compounds derived from marine organisms (algae, sponges and fungi) were tested against viral oncoprotein HPV16 E6 of cervical cancer. The 3D crystal structure of HPV16 E6 was tested for potent inhibitor compounds by insilico docking process. The results revealed that all the six compounds (scalaradial, rubrolide, caulerpin, zeatin, fascaplysine and liphagal) were identified to be efficient in destroying viral oncoprotein responsible for cervical carcinogenesis, based on activation energy.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Earthworms respond to microbial infection through cellular and humoral defense mechanisms such as antimicrobial protein secretions. Most of the humoral defense proteins are synthesized in the skin itself.
In the present study, a dried powder was prepared from two indigenous earthworms (Lampito mauritii and Perionyx excavatus) and tested against two gram-positive bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis) and five gram-negative bacteria (Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Proteus mirabilis, Proteus vulgaris, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa).
The dried earthworm powder of two species shows a strong antibacterial activity against the S. aureus, P. mirabilis, and P. aeruginosa bacterial strains. Of these, the 60 μg/mL/disc of P. excavatus earthworm powder shows more activity than the L. mauritii.
No preview · Article · Feb 2011 · Journal of alternative and complementary medicine (New York, N.Y.)
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: For thousands of years, earthworm and its products have been used for its therapeutic benefits. The traditional medical knowledge of indigenous people throughout the world more particularly in Asia, including India, Myanmar, China, Korea and Vietnam has played vital role in identifying, extracting and using biologically active compounds from earthworms.
Effect of various doses (20, 40, 80, 160 and 320 mg/kg, po) of earthworm paste (Lampito mauritii, Kinberg) was studied on aspirin-induced gastric ulcer and compared to ranitidine.
The earthworm paste showed significant ulcer protective effects.The cytoprotective effect of the earthworm paste seems to be not only due to the anti-secretory action but also to the effects on mucosal glycoprotein. The decrease in total acidity, pepsin and protein content of the gastric juice proved the antiulceral activity of earthworm paste. Histopathological studies revealed that the earthworm paste was more effective in gastric cytoprotection than ranitidine in preventing lesion formation.
These observations show that the earthworm paste possess antiulcer potential.
Preview · Article · Mar 2010 · European review for medical and pharmacological sciences
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Fly ash is an amorphous ferroalumino silicate, an important solid waste around thermal power plants. It creates problems leading to environmental degradation due to improper utilization or disposal. However, fly ash is a useful ameliorant that may improve the physical, chemical and biological properties of soils and is a source of readily available plant macro and micronutrients when it is used with biosolids. Supply of nutrients from fly ash with biosolids may enhance their agricultural use. The growth and reproduction of Eisenia fetida was studied during vermicomposting of fly ash with cowdung and pressmud in four different proportions (T 1,T 2,T 3 & T 4) and one control i.e ., cow dung and pressmud alone. The growth, cocoon and hatchlings production were observed at the interval of 15 days over a period of 60 days. The maximum worm growth and reproduction was observed in bedding material alone. Next to that the T 1 was observed as the best mixture for vermiculture.
Preview · Article · Apr 2009 · E-Journal of Chemistry
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Earthworms have been widely used in traditional medicine for thousands of years. However, it is only during the past few decades, with the development of biochemical technologies, that research on the pharmaceutical effects has been initiated. The present study was carried out to investigate the hepatoprotective and antioxidant properties of indigenous earthworm powder (Perionyx excavatus), using alcohol induction as a model of hepatotoxic and oxidative damage. Alcohol-hepatotoxic rats exhibited elevation in the lipid-peroxidative marker thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS). A decrease in the activities of enzymatic antioxidant enzymes: Superoxide dismutase (SOD), Catalase (CAT), Glutathione peroxidase (GPx), and non-enzymatic antioxidant vitamin C, vitamin E and reduced glutathione (GSH) was observed. Oral administration of dried earthworm powder (500 mg/kg body weight) for 42 days reversed these parameters towards normalcy. These results suggest that the indigenous earthworm Perionyx excavatus could afford a significant hepatoprotective and antioxidant effect against alcohol induced rats.
No preview · Article · Jul 2008 · European review for medical and pharmacological sciences
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Extracts and preparations made from the animal origin were used extensively in folk and modern medicine for treating many human diseases. In the present study efforts have been made to find the antimicrobial effect of the mucus of two bottom dwelling fresh water fishes namely, Channa punctatus and Cirrhinus mrigala. Fish mucus were tested against ten pathogenic bacteria such as Escherichia coli, Klebsiella oxytoca, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Lactobacillus vulgaris, Proteus mirabilis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella paratyphi, Salmonella typhi, Staphylococcus aureus and Vibrio cholera. The activity was measured in terms of zone of inhibition in mm. The mucus collected from Cirrhinus mrigala shows a strong inhibiting activity than the mucus of Channa punctatus.
No preview · Article · Jun 2008 · European review for medical and pharmacological sciences
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The growth (biomass) and reproduction (cocoon production and hatch- lings) of earthworms Eisenia fetida Savigny were observed in leguminous tree Leucaena glauca leaf litter, clay loam soil and cowdung mixture (w/w) in dif- ferent proportions. They were T1 ferent proportions. They were T1 ferent proportions. They were T (cowdung alone), T2 (cowdung alone), T2 (cowdung alone), T (1 leaf litter: 1 clay loam soil), T3 soil), T3
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Studies have been made to understand the anti-ulceral and anti-oxidant properties of the "earthworm paste" derived from Lampito mauritii (Kinberg), an indigenous species, in comparison with the standard anti-ulceral drug-ranitidine, on the Wistar strain albino rats Rattus norvegicus. Administration of 200 mg/kg aspirin was found to increase the volume of gastric juice secretion, total acidity, free acidity, ulcer index and reduce the pH. It also had decreased the anti-oxidant levels such as reduced glutathione, glutathione peroxidase, catalase, superoxide dismutase and increased the level of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances. Pretreatment with the standard drug-ranitidine (50 mg/kg) and different doses of "earthworm paste" (20, 40, 80, 160 and 320 mg/kg) in ulcer induced animal had enhanced the pH, decreased the volume of gastric juice, free acidity, total acidity and reduced the ulcer index. Further the activities of reduced glutathione, glutathione peroxidase, catalase, superoxide dismutase were increased whereas the thiobarbituric acid reactive substance had decreased. The results were more significant in rats administered with 160 mg/kg "earthworm paste" than the application of ranitidine and other doses of "earthworm paste". This indicates the presence of antiulcer and anti-oxidative effects in "earthworm paste". In conclusion, administration of 160 mg "earthworm paste"/kg was found to have better therapeutic properties.
No preview · Article · Nov 2006 · European review for medical and pharmacological sciences
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The antimicrobial activity present in the skin mucus of cat fish (Clarias batrachus) was tested against five pathogenic bacteria and fungi. The mucus collected were tested against five pathogenic bacteria namely Escherichia coli, Aeromonas hydrophila, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Vibrio fischeri and Vibrio anguillarum using Muller Hinton agar plates by disc diffusion method and five pathogenic fungi namely Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus nidulans, Fusarium moniliforme, Candida albicans and Trichoderma koningi using Potato Dextrose agar plates by disc diffusion method. The activity was measured in terms of zone of inhibition and expressed as millimeter (mm in diameter). The mucus collected from Clarias batrachus shows a strong inhibiting activity against the bacteria than the fungi.