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ABSTRACT: Differential gene expression profiles between normal bladder mucosas and bladder transitional cell carcinomas TCC were detected. cDNA microarrays were prepared by spotting PCR products of 12,800 human genes onto specially treated glass slides. The cDNA probes were prepared by labeling normal bladder mucosa mRNA and TCC tissue mRNA with Cy3-dUTP and Cy5-dUTP respectively through reverse transcription. The arrays were then hybridized against the cDNA probe mixture and the fluorescent signals were scanned. The ratios of Cy5/Cy3 were computed. Northern analysis was used to confirm the results of microarray hybridization. Eighty-three genes (0.65%), whose ratios of Cy5/Cy3 were greater than 4.0 or less than 0.25, were screened out after 10 groups of hybridization. In the cancerous tissues 28 of them showed higher expression and 55 lower. Twenty-three genes are unregistered in GenBank. These differentially expressed genes are always involved in the physiological processes such as signal transduction, apoptosis and cell cycle, etc. This technique provides a powerful method for quantitative analysis of the expression levels of thousands of genes in parallel, and is used to identify genes involved in TCC carcinogenesis. The data obtained by this means are comparable to those obtained by other methods. Using cDNA microarrays to define alterations in gene expression associated with a specific cancer may be an efficient way to uncover the clues to specific molecular derangements that account for its pathogenesis and thus identify potential targets for therapeutic intervention.