[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Well-defined (nearly monodispersed) poly(poly(ethylene glycol)monomethacrylate)-Si hybrids were prepared via surface-initiated atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) of the poly(ethylene glycol)monomethacrylate (PEGMA) macromonomer on the hydrogen-terminated Si(111) surface (Si-H surface). Both the active chloride groups at the chain ends (from the ATRP process) and the chloride groups converted from some ( approximately 32%) of the -OH groups of the Si-C bonded PEGMA polymer, or P(PEGMA), brushes were used as leaving groups for the covalent coupling of heparin. For the heparinized P(PEGMA)-Si hybrid surfaces, protein adsorption and platelet adhesion were significantly suppressed. The well-defined and dense P(PEGMA) brushes, prepared from surface-initiated ATRP, had allowed the immobilization of a relatively high concentration of heparin (about 14 mug/cm(2)). The resulting silicon surface exhibited significantly improved antithrombogenecity with a plasma recalcification time (PRT) of about 150 min. The persistence of high bioactivity for the immobilized heparin on the hybrid surfaces can be attributed to the biocompatibility of the PEGMA units, as well as their role as spacers in providing the immobilized heparin with a higher degree of conformational freedom in a more hydrophilic environment. Thus, the heparin-coupled P(PEGMA)-Si hybrids with anti-fouling and antithrombogenic surfaces are potentially useful in silicon-based implantable devices and tissue engineering.
No preview · Article · May 2005 · Biomacromolecules
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A simple one-step procedure was employed for the covalent immobilization of an atom-transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) initiator, via the robust Si-C bond, on the hydrogen-terminated Si(111) surface (Si-H surface). Well-defined poly(glycidyl methacrylate) [P(GMA)] brushes, tethered directly on the (111)-oriented single-crystal silicon surface, were prepared via surface-initiated ATRP. Kinetics study on the surface-initiated ATRP of glycidyl methacrylate revealed that the chain growth from the silicon surface was consistent with a "controlled" process. A relatively high concentration of glucose oxidase (GOD; above 0.2 mg/cm2) could be coupled directly to the well-defined P(GMA) brushes via the ring-opening reaction of the epoxide groups with the amine moieties of the enzyme. The resultant GOD-functionalized P(GMA) brushes, with the accompanying hydroxyl groups from the ring-opening reaction of the epoxide groups, serves as an effective spacer to provide the GOD with a higher degree of conformational freedom and a more hydrophilic environment. An equivalent enzyme activity above 1.6 units/cm2 [micromoles of beta-D-(+)-glucose oxidized to d-gluconolactone per minute per square centimeter] and a corresponding relative activity of about 60% could be readily achieved. The immobilized GOD also exhibited an improved stability during storage over that of the free enzyme. The GOD-functionalized silicon substrates are potentially useful to the development of silicon-based glucose biosensors.
No preview · Article · Mar 2005 · Biomacromolecules