[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: After the Erika oil spill in December 1999, several thousand tons of heavy fuel were released in marine environment and polluted the Atlantic French coast. DNA adducts were used as a biomarker of the Erika genotoxic impact on DNA of mussel digestive gland sampled at 15 locations from Finistère to Vendée county during a period of 11 months after the accident. Mussels collected in the impacted sites in December 1999 and January 2000 showed the highest total DNA adduct level (165 adducts/108 nucleotides). The level decreased dramatically in February 2000 to a stable level through the rest of the year. The site considered as reference zone was also impacted just after the Erika oil spill. The DNA adduct patterns are similar at all locations, indicating a common genotoxic impact along the coast. Two adducts persisted and were used to characterize and follow the Erika genotoxic impact. The analysis revealed that mussels from three sites (respectively Finistére, Loire Atlantique, and Vendée counties) have been highly impacted by the Erika oil spill.
Preview · Article · Aug 2010 · Polycyclic Aromatic Compounds
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Thiophenes, a class of polycyclic aromatic compound (PAC), which contain a sulfur in one of the rings, are components of petroleum. The Erika oil spill (December 1999) impacted 400 km of Atlantic French coast. The Erika fuel is an heavy fuel containing 3–4% sulfur and sulfur compounds such as thiophenes. It has been reported that water and sediments were contaminated by dibenzothiophene (DBT). Analysis of DNA adducts in fish liver and mussel digestive gland, living in sites impacted by Erika oil spill, has revealed DNA adduct pattern different from a classical PAH contamination. Few studies report biological activities of thiophenes in the environment (11.
Kropp , K. G. and Fedorak , P. M. 1998 . A Review of the Occurrence, Toxicity, and Biodegradation of Condensed Thiophenes Found in Petroleum . Canadian Journal of Microbiology , 44 : 605 – 622 . [CrossRef], [PubMed], [Web of Science ®], [CSA]View all references). In this study, we have analyzed the cytotoxicity and the genotoxicity of six thiophenes [benzo(b)]thiophene (BT), dibenzothiophene (DBT), benzo(b)naphtha(2,1-d)thiophene (BNT), 6-methylbenzo(b)naphtha(2,1-d)thiophene (6-CH3BNT), dinaptho(2,1-b;1′,2′-d)thiophene (DNT), and diphenanthro(9,10-b;9′,10′-d)thiophene (DPT) in liver human cell line (HepG2). Whatever the doses, BT, DPT, and DNT do not form DNA adducts in HepG2 cell line. On the contrary, DBT, BNT, and 6-CH3 BNT induced DNA adduct formation. Two individual adducts are formed with DBT and one with BNT. The 6-CH3BNT which is the alkylated homologue of BNT also forms two adducts which are persistent after 48 h of treatment. Our results show that some thiophenes are genotoxic for HepG2 cells.
No preview · Article · Aug 2010 · Polycyclic Aromatic Compounds
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: On 12 December 1999, one third of the load of the Erika tanker, amounting to about 10,000 t crude oil flowed into sea waters close to the French Atlantic Coast. This oil contained polycyclic aromatic compounds (PAC) that are known to be genotoxic. Genotoxic effects induce DNA adducts formation, which can thus be used as pollution biomarkers. Here, we assessed the genotoxic impact of the “Erika” oil spill by DNA adducts detection in the liver of immature fishes (Solea solea) from four locations of the French Brittany coasts. Two months after the spill, a high amount of DNA adducts was found in samples from all locations, amounting to 92–290 DNA adduct per 109 nucleotides. Then total DNA adduct levels decreased to reach about 50 adducts per 109 nucleotides nine months after the spill. In vitro experiments using human cell cultures and fish liver microsomes evidence the genotoxicity of the Erika fuel. They also prove the formation of reactive species able to create DNA adducts. Furthermore, in vitro and in vivo DNA adducts fingerprints are similar, thus confirming that DNA adducts are a result of the oil spill.
Full-text · Article · May 2006 · Environmental Chemistry Letters
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: On 12 December 1999, one third of the load of the tanker ‘Erika’, amounting to about 10 000 t crude oil flowed into sea waters close to the French Atlantic Coast (Finistère region). The spilled oil was fuel No. 6, a heavy or residual fuel that is a complex mixture of polycyclic aromatic compounds (PAC) of high molecular weight. Some polycyclic aromatic compounds are genotzoxic substances that induce carcinogenic lesions in laboratory animals. DNA adducts, reflecting genotoxic effects, are used as biomarker of early pollution. In this study, the genotoxic impact of the ‘Erika’ oil was assessed by studying the presence of DNA adduct in the liver of immature fishes (Solea solea) from four locations of the French Brittany coasts, two, six and nine months after the disaster. Two months after the spill, a high amount of DNA adducts was found in samples from all locations (92 to 290 DNA adduct/109 nucleotides). DNA adducts were more persistent in the North than in the South of the affected French Brittany coasts. In September, no significant difference was observed between the locations. When incubated in presence of an ‘Erika’ fuel extract, DNA adduct patterns similar to those obtained from the liver of Solea solea liver are observed both, in cell culture (HePG2) and, in presence of fish liver microsomes.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Seasonal variations of six mussel (Mytilus galloprovincialis) biomarkers at two sites in the Mediterranean Sea were compared with physiological indices (condition, growth and gonad maturation), environmental parameters (temperature, salinity and turbidity), and chemical contamination levels. The basal levels of acetylcholinesterase (AChE), DNA adducts, benzo[a]pyrene hydroxylase (BPH), heat-shock proteins (HSP70), metallothioneins (MT) and P-glycoprotein (P-gp)-mediated multixenobiotic resistance (MXR) were estimated as early warning signals in caged mussels sampled at Carteau (native site) and La Fourcade (transplantation site) over a 2-year period. The Carteau and La Fourcade mussels have specific chemical contamination profiles but a similar range of values. For example, both are highly contaminated by heavy metals (201 and 258.4 mg kg(-1) dw, respectively) and considered as moderately impacted for polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). However, contamination levels at Carteau are twice as high for PAHs (101.5 mg g(-1) dw) and PCBs (90.2 mg g(-1) dw) than La Fourcade. The seasonal contamination trend at Carteau showed six-fold higher levels of pyrolytic pollutants in winter. Although few tissue lesions were detected in individuals studied at either site, greater parasitic infestation was observed at Carteau. The results of findings from the two Mediterranean pilot studies support the adaptability of transplanted mussels to be used as biomarkers and to establish physiological endpoints for chemical contaminant exposure.
Full-text · Article · Aug 2004 · Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology Part C Toxicology & Pharmacology