J. Borrego

Instituto Madrileño de Investigación y Desarrollo Rural, Agrario y Alimentario, Madrid, Madrid, Spain

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Publications (34)16.8 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Background and Aims The identification of the genes involved in traits of interest is one of the main aims of current plant genetic studies. Although berry texture is a quality trait of great importance in table grapes, no quantitative trait loci or related gene has been described for this trait so far. Methods and Results In this work, the gene VvPel, which codes for a pectate lyase in the grapevine, was selected as a candidate gene for an association study. This gene was sequenced in a core collection of 96 table grape accessions, which was also characterised for several bunch and berry morphological traits, including diverse texture parameters measured by means of a texture meter. The population structure, the nucleotide and haplotype diversity, the protein structure, the existence of selection, and the linkage disequilibrium (LD) were evaluated. Thirty-two single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and 15 haplotypes were identified in the VvPel sequence, and LD was low enough to provide a high-resolution power. Some of the polymorphisms associated significantly with texture parameters and with bunch size, explaining part of the variation found for those traits. Conclusions Among the polymorphisms found in the gene VvPel, S1027 and S405/S441 in relation to berry texture, and S48/S1030 in relation to bunch size, are the most promising and would need to be investigated further as putative causal polymorphisms or markers for the respective traits. Significance of the Study The present work is the first genetic study on berry texture in the grapevine, and constitutes a starting point for a deeper understanding of the genetic basis of the natural variation for berry texture and bunch size.
    No preview · Article · Jun 2013 · Australian Journal of Grape and Wine Research
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    ABSTRACT: "Malvasia" is a common name for different grape cultivars that have long been grown in Spain. In many cases, these cultivars are noted as being aromatic, sweet, and similar to Muscat in flavour. However, not all grapes that share this name exhibit these characteristics. This study compares the Malvasia cultivars in the Spanish Denominations of Origin with those grape cultivars grown in the grapevine collection of El Encin (Alcala de Henares, Spain) using morphological, isoenzymatic, and microsatellite analysis as well as a large bibliographic search of the studied cultivars. Despite their Malvasia denomination, some cultivars have been identified as synonyms of 'Macabeo', 'Alarije', 'Doha Blanca', 'Chasselas', or 'Planta Nova', all included on the official Spanish list of commercial grape cultivars. 'Malvasia de Sitges' and 'Malvasia de Lanzarote' have the characteristic flavour of Malvasia grapes and no synonyms were found among the cultivars grown in Spain, whereas 'Malvasia Rosada' resulted from a colour mutation in 'Malvasia de Sitges'.
    No preview · Article · Sep 2009
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    ABSTRACT: "Malvasia" is a common name for different grape cultivars that have long been grown in Spain. In many cases, these cultivars are noted as being aromatic, sweet, and similar to Muscat in flavour. However, not all grapes that share this name exhibit these characteristics. This study compares the Malvasia cultivars in the Spanish Denominations of Origin with those grape cultivars grown in the grapevine collection of El Encin (Alcala de Henares, Spain) using morphological, isoenzymatic, and microsatellite analysis as well as a large bibliographic search of the studied cultivars. Despite their Malvasia denomination, some cultivars have been identified as synonyms of 'Macabeo', 'Alarije', 'Doha Blanca', 'Chasselas', or 'Planta Nova', all included on the official Spanish list of commercial grape cultivars. 'Malvasia de Sitges' and 'Malvasia de Lanzarote' have the characteristic flavour of Malvasia grapes and no synonyms were found among the cultivars grown in Spain, whereas 'Malvasia Rosada' resulted from a colour mutation in 'Malvasia de Sitges'.
    No preview · Article · Sep 2009 · SPANISH JOURNAL OF AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH
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    ABSTRACT: A nuclear microsatellite analysis has been done using the collection of seedless and seeded table grape cultivars available at the Finca El Encín (IMIDRA). A total of 398 accessions have been genotyped using 25 microsatellite loci. The average of alleles per locus was of 10.64 and the PI was of 1.26 x 10-21. A comparison between genotypes, and morphology when needed, has allowed defining synonyms, homonyms, sports, and mistakes among the plant material. In this study, some light has been brought to groups of varieties like ‘Chasselas’, ‘Alphonse Lavallée’, and ‘Roseti’. Also a parentage analysis with table grape cultivars has been carried out using the unique genotype table, which included 309 accessions, accompanied by a thorough search in literature. In most cases, the information available about the crosses originating these cultivars was correct, particularly in seedless cultivars. Nevertheless, some cultivars like ‘Cardinal’ or ‘Ohanes’ could not arise from the crosses described or suggested in the literature, and alternative parents have been proposed. In other cases, where previous information could not be found or was incomplete, some light has been brought on the genetic origin of some cultivars; for instance, the ancestors for ‘Admirable de Courtiller’ or ‘Calmeria’ have been suggested. A mathematical analysis, in the form of likelihood ratios has been done to determine the reliability of the suggested crosses.
    No preview · Chapter · May 2009
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    ABSTRACT: Malvasía es un nombre usado para designar diferentes variedades de vid que, desde antiguo, se cultivan en España. En muchos casos corresponde al patrón de variedad aromática, dulce y con sabor amoscatelado, pero en algunas ocasiones no supone más que un nombre que no asegura dichas características.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2009

  • No preview · Article · Jan 2008
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    ABSTRACT: More than 6,000 plants have been analyzed to evaluate a system based on 9 microsatellites that could be useful for most of the issues related to the genotyping of grapevine varieties: variety identification, DUS testing, and identification of Essentially Derived Varieties (EDVs). The 9 microsatellite markers selected are: VVS2, VVMDS, VVMD27, VVMD28, ssrVrZAG29, ssrVrZAG62, ssrVrZAG67, ssrVrZAG83 and ssrVrZAG112. The selection of these markers was based on different criteria: availability (public), map position (genetically independent), polymorphism (high), allele size range (that allows multiplexing), and 'quality' (ease of amplification, absence of known null alleles, absence of alleles differing only in 1 bp). A genotyping system was optimized, including the design of a multiplex PCR with the 9 markers, and capillary electrophoresis and fluorescence analysis in an automatic sequencer. More than 1,300 accessions (2,600 plants) of Vitis vinifera L. from the collection of grapevine varieties at the "EI Endn" state have been analyzed with this system. Until now, the conclusion reached for all those accessions studied that presented the same genotype at the 9 microsatellite Ioci is that they arise from the same embryo. Once the genotype table has been built up, any plant belonging to any of these varieties can be easily and unequivocally identified, with the exception of the sports and EDVs, which require a morphological description. Regarding the technical exams for legal protection of new varieties (DUS test), the lower number of different alleles between different varieties, and the higher number of different alleles within a variety (mutations) have been used to determine a minimum distance that allows the establishing of Distinction. Uniformity and Stability have been evaluated by studying about 4,000 plants of 19 different varieties.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2007
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    ABSTRACT: The cultivated variety Pedro Ximenes is a seeded winegrape and Corinto bianco is a parthenocarpic seedless variety maintained in collection. To date, the two varieties have not been considered as related. In this study, identical DNA profiles were observed in both varieties for 25 microsatellite loci. Among morphological characteristics, they only differed in the presence or absence of seeds and in seed-related characteristics such as berry size, cluster density, and cluster size. These results suggest that both varieties arose from the same original embryo and one is a mutation of the other. Parentage analysis revealed the cultivar Gibi as a probable parent of Pedro Ximenes.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2007 · American Journal of Enology and Viticulture

  • No preview · Article · Jan 2006
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    Full-text · Conference Paper · Jan 2006

  • No preview · Article · Jan 2006

  • No preview · Book · Jan 2006

  • No preview · Article · Jan 2005
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    ABSTRACT: In order to investigate the comparability of microsatellite profiles obtained in different laboratories, ten partners in seven countries analyzed 46 grape cultivars at six loci (VVMD5, VVMD7, VVMD27, VVS2, VrZAG62, and VrZAG79). No effort was made to standardize equipment or protocols. Although some partners obtained very similar results, in other cases different absolute allele sizes and, sometimes, different relative allele sizes were obtained. A strategy for data comparison by means of reference to the alleles detected in well-known cultivars was proposed. For each marker, each allele was designated by a code based on the name of the reference cultivar carrying that allele. Thirty-three cultivars, representing from 13 to 23 alleles per marker, were chosen as references. After the raw data obtained by the different partners were coded, more than 97% of the data were in agreement. Minor discrepancies were attributed to errors, suboptimal amplification and visualization, and misscoring of heterozygous versus homozygous allele pairs. We have shown that coded microsatellite data produced in different laboratories with different protocols and conditions can be compared, and that it is suitable for the identification and SSR allele characterization of cultivars. It is proposed that the six markers employed here, already widely used, be adopted as a minimal standard marker set for future grapevine cultivar analyses, and that additional cultivars be characterized by means of the coded reference alleles presented here. The complete database is available at http://www.genres.de/eccdb/vitis/. Cuttings of the 33 reference cultivars are available on request from the Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique Vassal collection ([email protected] /* */).
    Full-text · Article · Dec 2004 · Theoretical and Applied Genetics
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    ABSTRACT: El ajo (Allium sativum L.) es una planta utilizada desde la antigüedad como condimento, potencia el sabor de otros alimentos, y como medicina. Se cree que su cultivo se inició hace 10.000 años en Asia Central (Kazastan, Uzbekistán, Kirgistan, Turkmenistán, Tayikistán, Oeste de China), y desde aquí se extendió en épocas tempranas hacia China y la India por el este, y la Cuenca del Mediterráneo y el Norte de Europa por el oeste (Engeland 1995). Existen pruebas arqueológicas y escritas del cultivo de ajos en el Egipto de los Faraones (Tackholm y Drar 1954). Griegos y Romanos conocían bien los secretos del cultivo y los usos alimentarios y medicinales de los ajos, según se desprende de los escritos de, por ejemplo, Teofrasto de Eresos (372- 287 a.C.), Columela (S.I), Plinio el Viejo (23-79 d.C.) o Dioscórides (20-70 d.C.). Posteriormente, los europeos difundieron el ajo por todo el resto del mundo, de forma que actualmente se cultiva en todas las regiones excepto las zonas boreales y el ecuador. Originariamente el ajo era una planta con reproducción sexual a través de semillas y asexual a partir de dientes (Etoh y Simon 2002). Durante milenios de cultivo, el ajo se ha sometido a una selección en contra de la reproducción sexual, pues el desarrollo de los órganos florales reduce el crecimiento del bulbo. En consecuencia, la casi totalidad de las variedades cultivadas actuales son estériles. A pesar de la carencia de reproducción sexual existe una importante variabilidad genética dentro de la especie, lo que se traduce en la existencia de variedades con caracteres morfológicos y fisiológicos bien diferenciados. En ajo, se han realizado varias clasificaciones infraespecíficas, probablemente, la más completa sea la de Maab y Klaas (1995), en la que se consideran marcadores isoenzimáticos, RAPD y características morfológicas. En esta clasificación se distinguen cuatro grandes grupos y un subgrupo. El objetivo de este trabajo es estudiar la variabilidad existente dentro de la variedad local ajo blanco fino de Chinchón mediante marcadores RAPD. Para ello se realizó un “screening” de 140 cebadores decámeros, de los cuales se eligieron 20 que producían bandas polimórficas al amplificar ADN de diferentes variedades de ajo (blanco, rosa, chino, gigante). Estos 20 cebadores se han utilizado para estudiar 7 accesiones, todas ellas catalogadas como ajo blanco fino de Chinchón de acuerdo a criterios morfológicos, con objeto de obtener su perfil característico de bandas y observar su posible variabilidad. En el futuro está previsto usar esta metodología con el propósito de diferenciar el ajo blanco fino de Chinchón de otras variedades de ajo.
    Full-text · Conference Paper · Sep 2004
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    ABSTRACT: The on-farm conservation of landraces is necessary to avoid genetic erosion and preserve materials which will guarantee food security in the future. Besides ex situ conservation in germplasm banks, in situ conservation by local farmers is also advisable. Many landraces have an added value for historic and traditional reasons or for their organoleptic properties. To promote the production and use of landraces, together with commercial measures, it is necessary to increase research on technologies for optimising the production quality, and for formally identifying these products to avoid fraud.
    No preview · Chapter · Jul 2003

  • No preview · Article · Apr 2003 · Acta horticulturae
  • J P Martín · J Borrego · F Cabello · J M Ortiz
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    ABSTRACT: A broad germplasm bank collection containing most of the autochthonous Spanish grapevine cultivars was analyzed using six sequence-tagged microsatellite site (STMS) loci: VVS2, VVMD5, VVMD7, ssrVrZAG47, ssrVrZAG62, and ssrVrZAG79. The number of alleles obtained ranged from 9 in ssrVrZAG47 to 13 in VVS2, and the observed genotypes per locus varied between 24 (ssrVrZAG47) and 41 (VVSS2). A total of 57 unique genotypes were obtained considering all 6 loci, and 40 varieties presented at least 1 of these specific genotypes. The genotypic combinations for the 6 loci have generated 163 different profiles in the 176 cultivars. Ten pairs of accessions and one group of four Garnacha's cultivars can not be differentiated. The observed heterozygosity varied between 75.6 (VVMD7) and 90.9% (VVMD5), without significant differences from the expected values for any loci. The VVMD5 locus was the most informative, and also showed the highest discrimination power. The cumulative discrimination power for all six loci was practically 1; however, in fact, these STMS loci have differentiated only about 93% of the accessions, probably owing to high relatedness of the plant material. Usefulness of this STMS set for characterization of a Spanish grapevine collection is emphasized, as well as the elaboration of databases with these molecular markers.
    No preview · Article · Mar 2003 · Genome
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    ABSTRACT: Representative grapevine accessions (Vitis vinifera) cultivated in Spain under the names Garnacha and Garnacha Tintorera, as well as their synonyms, were analyzed to determine genetic diversity and relationships. Both varieties are characterized by high levels of intravarietal morphological variation. Results confirmed the monophyletic origin of the Garnacha variety, which is represented by a main genotype with several phenotypic variants, likely corresponding to somatic mutations. In contrast, Garnacha Tintorera was characterized as a genetically heterogeneous group, which included three different teinturier genotypes. Possible parentage relationships among the teinturier varieties were identified and further confirmed using microsatellites, showing that all are derived from crosses performed in the nineteenth century to improve color intensity of well-known red wine varieties.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2003 · American Journal of Enology and Viticulture
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    ABSTRACT: A population genetics approach was used to assess the role of local wild-vine populations (Vitis vinifera ssp. sylvestris) in the domestication and breeding of central and west European grapevine cultivars. The-genetic differentiation detected among seven grapevine gene pools (cultivars from Austria and Germany, France, Italy, Croatia, Greece, Spain, and Portugal) was low but significant in the nuclear genome (F-ST of 0.05) and substantial for a chloroplast marker (F-ST Of 0.30). Genetic distances correlate with geographic distances among regions. The significant differentiation indicates that the rate of gene flow caused by dissemination of cultivated grapevine plants was not sufficient to genetically homogenize the cultivars grown in different regions and suggests that local domestication and introgression of wild vines predominated over the introduction of cultivars from more advanced wine-producing regions.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2003 · American Journal of Enology and Viticulture