[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Calculation of evaporative heat loss is essential to heat balance calculations. Despite recognition that the value for latent heat of evaporation, used in these calculations, may not always reflect the real cooling benefit to the body, only limited quantitative data on this is available which has found little use in recent literature. In this experiment a thermal manikin (MTNW, Seattle) was used to determine the effective cooling power of moisture evaporation. The manikin measures both heat loss and mass loss independently allowing a direct calculation of an effective latent heat of evaporation (λ(eff)). The location of the evaporation was varied: from the skin or from the underwear or from the outerwear. Outerwear of different permeabilities was used and different numbers of layers were used. Tests took place in 20°C, 0.5 m.s(-1) at different humidities and were performed both dry and with a wet layer allowing the breakdown of heat loss in dry and evaporative components. For evaporation from the skin λ(eff) is close to the theoretical value (2430J.g(-1)), but starts to drop when more clothing is worn, e.g. by 11% for underwear and permeable coverall. When evaporation is from the underwear, λ(eff) reduction is 28% wearing a permeable outer. When evaporation is from the outermost layer only, the reduction exceeds 62% (no base-layer) increasing towards 80% with more layers between skin and wet outerwear. In semi- and impermeable outerwear the added effect of condensation in the clothing opposes this effect. A general formula for the calculation of λ(eff) was developed.
Full-text · Article · Jan 2013 · Journal of Applied Physiology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Heat strain in chemical protective clothing is an important factor in industrial and military practice. Various improvements to the clothing to alleviate strain while maintaining protection have been attempted. More recently, selectively permeable membranes have been introduced to improve protection, but questions are raised regarding their effect on heat strain. In this paper the use of selectively permeable membranes with low vapour resistance was compared to textile-based outer layers with similar ensemble vapour resistance. For textile-based outer layers, the effect of increasing air permeability was investigated. When comparing ensembles with a textile vs. a membrane outer layer that have similar heat and vapour resistances measured for the sum of fabric samples, a higher heat strain is observed in the membrane ensemble, as in actual wear, and the air permeability of the textile version improves ventilation and allows better cooling by sweat evaporation. For garments with identical thickness and static dry heat resistance, but differing levels of air permeability, a strong correlation of microclimate ventilation due to wind and movement with air permeability was observed. This was reflected in lower values of core and skin temperatures and heart rate for garments with higher air permeability. For heart rate and core temperature the two lowest and the two highest air permeabilities formed two distinct groups, but they did not differ within these groups. Based on protection requirements, it is concluded that air permeability increases can reduce heat strain levels allowing optimisation of chemical protective clothing.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The heat transferred through protective clothing under long wave radiation compared to a reference condition without radiant stress was determined in thermal manikin experiments. The influence of clothing insulation and reflectivity, and the interaction with wind and wet underclothing were considered. Garments with different outer materials and colours and additionally an aluminised reflective suit were combined with different number and types of dry and pre-wetted underwear layers. Under radiant stress, whole body heat loss decreased, i.e., heat gain occurred compared to the reference. This heat gain increased with radiation intensity, and decreased with air velocity and clothing insulation. Except for the reflective outer layer that showed only minimal heat gain over the whole range of radiation intensities, the influence of the outer garments' material and colour was small with dry clothing. Wetting the underclothing for simulating sweat accumulation, however, caused differing effects with higher heat gain in less permeable garments.
Full-text · Article · Jan 2010 · International journal of occupational safety and ergonomics: JOSE
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: For wearers of protective clothing in radiation environments there are no quantitative guidelines available for the effect of a radiative heat load on heat exchange. Under the European Union funded project ThermProtect an analytical effort was defined to address the issue of radiative heat load while wearing protective clothing. As within the ThermProtect project much information has become available from thermal manikin experiments in thermal radiation environments, these sets of experimental data are used to verify the analytical approach. The analytical approach provided a good prediction of the heat loss in the manikin experiments, 95% of the variance was explained by the model. The model has not yet been validated at high radiative heat loads and neglects some physical properties of the radiation emissivity. Still, the analytical approach provides a pragmatic approach and may be useful for practical implementation in protective clothing standards for moderate thermal radiation environments.
Full-text · Article · Jan 2010 · International journal of occupational safety and ergonomics: JOSE
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In order to assess the non-evaporative components of the reduced thermal insulation of wet clothing, experiments were performed with a manikin and with human subjects in which two layers of underwear separated by an impermeable barrier were worn under an impermeable overgarment at 20 degrees C, 80% RH and 0.5 ms(-1) air velocity. By comparing manikin measurements with dry and wetted mid underwear layer, the increase in heat loss caused by a wet layer kept away from the skin was determined, which turned out to be small (5-6 W m(-2)), irrespective of the inner underwear layer being dry or wetted, and was only one third of the evaporative heat loss calculated from weight change, i.e. evaporative cooling efficiency was far below unity. In the experiments with eight males, each subject participated in two sessions with the mid underwear layer either dry or wetted, where they stood still for the first 30 min and then performed treadmill work for 60 min. Reduced heat strain due to lower insulation with the wetted mid layer was observed with decreased microclimate and skin temperatures, lowered sweat loss and cardiac strain. Accordingly, total clothing insulation calculated over the walking period from heat balance equations was reduced by 0.02 m(2) degrees C W(-1) (16%), while for the standing period the same decrease in insulation, representing 9% reduction only showed up after allowing for the lower evaporative cooling efficiency in the calculations. As evaporation to the environment and inside the clothing was restricted, the observed small alterations may be attributed to the wet mid layer's increased conductivity, which, however, appears to be of minor importance compared to the evaporative effects in the assessment of the thermal properties of wet clothing.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of moisture on the heat transfer through clothing in relation to the water vapour resistance, type of underwear, location of the moisture and climate. This forms part of the work performed for work package 2 of the European Union THERMPROTECT project. Thermal manikin results of dry and wet heat loss are presented from different laboratories for a range of 2-layer clothing with similar dry insulations but different water vapour permeabilities and absorptive properties. The results obtained from the different manikins are generally consistent with each other. For each climate, total wet heat loss is predominately dependent on the permeability of the outer layer. At 10 degrees C, the apparent evaporative heat loss is markedly higher than expected from evaporation alone (measured at 34 degrees C), which is attributed to condensation within the clothing and to increased conductivity of the wet clothing layers.
Full-text · Article · Feb 2008 · International journal of occupational safety and ergonomics: JOSE
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Investigating claims that a clothed person's mass loss does not always represent their evaporative heat loss (EVAP), a thermal manikin study was performed measuring heat balance components in more detail than human studies would permit. Using clothing with different levels of vapor permeability and measuring heat losses from skin controlled at 34 degrees C in ambient temperatures of 10, 20, and 34 degrees C with constant vapor pressure (1 kPa), additional heat losses from wet skin compared with dry skin were analyzed. EVAP based on mass loss (E(mass)) measurement and direct measurement of the extra heat loss by the manikin due to wet skin (E(app)) were compared. A clear discrepancy was observed. E(mass) overestimated E(app) in warm environments, and both under and overestimations were observed in cool environments, depending on the clothing vapor permeability. At 34 degrees C, apparent latent heat (lambda(app)) of pure evaporative cooling was lower than the physical value (lambda; 2,430 J/g) and reduced with increasing vapor resistance up to 45%. At lower temperatures, lambda(app) increases due to additional skin heat loss via evaporation of moisture that condenses inside the clothing, analogous to a heat pipe. For impermeable clothing, lambda(app) even exceeds lambda by four times that value at 10 degrees C. These findings demonstrate that the traditional way of calculating evaporative heat loss of a clothed person can lead to substantial errors, especially for clothing with low permeability, which can be positive or negative, depending on the climate and clothing type. The model presented explains human subject data on EVAP that previously seemed contradictive.
Full-text · Article · Feb 2008 · Journal of Applied Physiology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cold protective clothing was studied in 2 European Union projects. The objectives were (a) to examine different insulation calculation methods as measured on a manikin (serial or parallel), for the prediction of cold stress (IREQ); (b) to consider the effects of cold protective clothing on metabolic rate; (c) to evaluate the movement and wind correction of clothing insulation values. Tests were carried out on 8 subjects. The results showed the possibility of incorporating the effect of increases in metabolic rate values due to thick cold protective clothing into the IREQ model. Using the higher thermal insulation value from the serial method in the IREQ prediction, would lead to unacceptable cooling of the users. Thus, only the parallel insulation calculation method in EN 342:2004 should be used. The wind and motion correction equation (No. 2) gave realistic values for total resultant insulation; dynamic testing according to EN 342:2004 may be omitted.
Full-text · Article · Feb 2007 · International journal of occupational safety and ergonomics: JOSE
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The SensorTouch thermometer performs an infrared measurement of the skin temperature above the Superficial Temporal Artery (STA). This study evaluates the validity and the accuracy of the SensorTouch thermometer. Two experiments were performed in which the body temperature was measured with a rectal sensor, with an oesophageal sensor and with the SensorTouch. After entering a warm chamber the SensorTouch underestimated the core temperature during the first 10 minutes. After that, the SensorTouch was not significantly different from the core temperature, with an average difference of 0.5 degrees C (SD 0.5 degrees C) in the first study and 0.3 degrees C (SD 0.2 degrees C) in the second study. The largest differences between the SensorTouch and the core temperature existed 15 minutes after the start of the exercise. During this period the SensorTouch was significantly higher than the core temperature. The SensorTouch did not provide reliable values of the body temperature during periods of increasing body temperature, but the SensorTouch might work under stable conditions.
No preview · Article · Jul 2006 · Journal of Medical Engineering & Technology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Due to more stringent requirements to protect personnel against hazardous gasses, the inspiratory resistance of the present generation of respiratory protective devices tends to increase. Therefore an important question is to what extent inspiratory resistance may increase without giving problems during physical work. In this study the effects of three levels (0.24; 1.4 and 8.3 kPa s l(-1)) of inspiratory resistance were tested on maximal voluntary performance. Nine male subjects performed a graded exercise test on a cycle ergometer with and without these three levels of inspiratory resistance. Oxygen consumption, heart rate, time to exhaustion and external work were measured. The results of these experiments showed that increasing inspiratory resistance led to a reduction of time to exhaustion (TTE) on a graded exercise test(GXT). Without inspiratory resistance the mean TTE was 11.9 min, the three levels of resistance gave the following mean TTE's: 10.7, 7.8 and 2.7 min. This study showed that TTE on a GXT can be predicted when physical fitness (VO2-max) of the subject and inspiratory resistance are known. The metabolic rate of the subjects was higher with inspiratory resistance, but no differences were found between the three selected inspiratory loads. Other breathing parameters as minute ventilation, tidal volume, expiration time and breathing frequency showed no or minor differences between the inspiratory resistances. The most important conclusion of these experiments is that the overall workload increases due to an increase in inspiratory resistance by wearing respiratory protective devices.
No preview · Article · Dec 2004 · Applied Ergonomics
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Moisture accumulation in sleeping bags during extended periods of use is detrimental to thermal comfort of the sleeper, and in extreme cases may lead to sleep loss and hypothermia. As sub-zero temperatures were expected to affect vapour resistance of microporous membranes, the effect of using semipermeable and impermeable rain covers for sleeping bags on the accumulation of moisture in the bags during 6 days of use at - 7 degrees C and 5 days at - 20 degrees C were investigated. In addition, the routine of shaking off hoarfrost from the inside of the cover after the sleep period as a preventive measure for moisture accumulation was studied. Moisture accumulation (ranging from 92 to 800 grams) was found to be related to the vapour resistance of the materials used. The best semipermeable material gave the same moisture build-up as no cover at - 7 degrees C, though build-up increased substantially at - 20 degrees C. Shaking off the hoarfrost from the inside of the cover after each use was beneficial in preventing a high moisture build-up. It was concluded that semi-permeable cover materials reduce moisture accumulation in sleeping bags at moderate sub-zero temperatures, but in more extreme cold (- 20 degrees C) the benefits are reduced in comparison to routinely shaking frost from impermeable covers. Compared to fixed impermeable covers, the benefits of all semi-permeable covers are large. For long-term use without drying facilities, the differences observed do favour the semi-permeable covers above impermeable ones, even when regularly removing the hoarfrost from the inside in the latter.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In the Netherlands most murder victims are found 2-24 h after the crime. During this period, body temperature decrease is the most reliable method to estimate the postmortem time (PMT). Recently, two murder cases were analysed in which currently available methods did not provide a sufficiently reliable estimate of the PMT. In both cases a study was performed to verify the statements of suspects. For this purpose a finite-element computer model was developed that simulates a human torso and its clothing. With this model, changes to the body and the environment can also be modelled; this was very relevant in one of the cases, as the body had been in the presence of a small fire. In both cases it was possible to falsify the statements of the suspects by improving the accuracy of the PMT estimate. The estimated PMT in both cases was within the range of Henssge's model. The standard deviation of the PMT estimate was 35 min in the first case and 45 min in the second case, compared to 168 min (2.8 h) in Henssge's model. In conclusion, the model as presented here can have additional value for improving the accuracy of the PMT estimate. In contrast to the simple model of Henssge, the current model allows for increased accuracy when more detailed information is available. Moreover, the sensitivity of the predicted PMT for uncertainty in the circumstances can be studied, which is crucial to the confidence of the judge in the results.
No preview · Article · Oct 2004 · Arbeitsphysiologie
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The requirements to maintain a positive pressure with respiratory protection during heavy exercise and the effects on ventilation and feelings of discomfort were investigated. Eight male subjects participated, using the respirator system during rest and exercise at about 80% of their individual maximum power. A blower was used at maximum and medium capacity and at two pressure levels (3 and 15 mbar). Additionally, the mouth pressure was used as a feedback for the blower. The blower decreased the fraction of the breathing cycle with negative pressures from 50% (SD 4%) to 15% (SD 10%) during exercise. Negative pressures occurred at all settings of the blower during exercise. Thus, the currently available commercial blower systems do not supply a sufficient airflow to maintain a positive pressure during heavy exercise. Positive pressure breathing did not affect the ventilation and the circulation. But the oxygen consumption was higher with the blower and respirator than without.
No preview · Article · Apr 2003 · Applied Ergonomics
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: At the request of the European Commission and in the framework of the European Machinery Directive, research was conducted jointly in five different laboratories to develop specifications for surface temperature limit values for the gripping and handling of cold items.
Four hundred and fourteen experiments were run where male and female subjects were invited to grip for up to 20 min cold bars of different contact coefficients, i.e. polished wood, nylon, stone, steel and aluminium. The air temperature and the bars' initial surface temperatures ranged between 0 and -30 degrees C for the various experiments. While gripping the bars, either only the hand or the whole body was exposed to cold.
The data were used to develop a prediction formula and a graph of the surface temperature limit values in order for the skin contact temperature not to reach <15 degrees C. This duration is shown to offer a significant degree of safety with respect to the minimal surface temperature spontaneously tolerated by the subjects.
Experiments and modelling must be pursued to extend these data to other conditions of exposure.
Full-text · Article · Mar 2002 · Annals of Occupational Hygiene
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Eight laboratories participated in a concerted research project on the assessment of hot working conditions. The objectives were, among others, to co-ordinate the work of the main European research teams in the field of thermal factors and to improve the methods available to assess the risks of heat disorders at the workplace, and in particular the "Required Sweat Rate" model as presented in International Standard ISO 7933 Standard (1989). The scientific bases of this standard were thoroughly reviewed and a revised model, called "Predicted Heat Strain" (PHS), was developed. This model was then used to predict the minute by minute sweat rates and rectal temperatures during 909 laboratory and field experiments collected from the partners. The Pearson correlation coefficients between observed and predicted values were equal to 0.76 and 0.66 for laboratory experiments and 0.74 and 0.59 for field experiments, respectively, for the sweat rates and the rectal temperatures. The change in sweat rate with time was predicted more accurately by the PHS model than by the required sweat rate model. This suggests that the PHS model would provide an improved basis upon which to determine allowable exposure times from the predicted heat strain in terms of dehydration and increased core temperature.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Clothing heat and vapour resistance are important inputs for standards and models dealing with thermal comfort, heat- and cold-stress. A vast database of static clothing heat resistance values is available, and this was recently expanded with correction equations to account for effects of movement and wind on the static value of heat resistance in order to obtain the dynamic heat resistance of clothing ensembles. For clothing vapour resistance, few data were available so far. Indices for vapour permeability (im) and reduction factors for vapour transfer (Fpcl) of clothing were used instead, using a relation between heat and vapour resistance to derive the clothing vapour resistance from the value for clothing heat resistance. This paper reviews the two commonly used approaches (im and Fpcl), as well as five alternative approaches to the problem. The different approaches were evaluated for their accuracy and their usability. The present paper shows that the currently used relations are not adequate when the wearer of the clothing starts moving, or is exposed to wind. Alternative approaches are shown to improve the determination of dynamic clothing vapour resistance, though some are thought to be too complex. An empirical description of the relation between the clothing permeability index (im) and the changes in clothing heat resistance due to wind and movement was selected as the most promising method for deriving clothing vapour resistance. For this method the user needs to know the static heat resistance, the static im value of the clothing and the wind- and movement-speed of the wearer. This method results in a predicted maximal decrease in clothing vapour resistance by 78%, when clothing heat resistance is reduced by 50%, which is consistent with theoretical expectations and available data.
Full-text · Article · Aug 1999 · Annals of Occupational Hygiene