[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The widely-used Brief Self-Control Scale (BSCS) is usually applied as a unidimensional measure of trait self-control. However, there is no clear empirical evidence for the scale's unidimensional structure, while different multidimensional conceptualizations of the BSCS have recently been suggested. The authors of those multidimensional models used different BSCS item subsets to specify distinct facets of self-control in order to enhance the representation of the scale's internal structure or to increase the instrument's efficiency in predicting various outcomes. Up until now, little is known about the relative performance of these conceptualizations. In this article, we compare three two-dimensional representations of the BSCS with the unidimensional measure in two samples of university students (N = 205) and apprentices in vocational education and training (N = 1951). Of the two-dimensional models only the one that separates positively and negatively worded items showed a consistent improvement in model fit in both samples, compared to the unidimensional model. However, in comparison to the unidimensional measure, the two-dimensional measures did not substantially enhance the predictive power concerning outcome variables in either sample. We conclude that the BSCS's total score is a viable option for assessing trait self-control and for studying its relationship with achievement-related outcome variables
Full-text · Article · Nov 2015 · Personality and Individual Differences
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The present study examines the relationship of cognitive and scholastic abilities, vocational interests, and personality traits with vocational success in the first phase of the vocational career. Drawing on large samples of technicians and industrial clerks, the effects of the covariates on satisfaction and dropout intention in the first months of vocational education and training (VET) were examined. Results show that the sets of predictor variables, especially personality traits and vocational interests, had a large proportion of variance in common, but exhibited different patterns of effects. Whereas in the case of personality traits the predictor-outcome relationships were largely invariant across different fields of VET, vocational interests exhibited a non-invariant pattern of effects that was in line with the congruence hypothesis (Holland, 1997). Vocational interests in the dominant domain characterizing the field of VET were the strongest predictors, whereas interests in the non-dominant VET domains were less important for predicting success. Abilities did not turn out to be important predictors of the markers of success under study. The results underscore the crucial role of personality traits and vocational interests in securing success in the first phase of vocational career.
No preview · Article · Aug 2015 · Journal of Vocational Behavior
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Diese Arbeit untersucht die Rolle beruflicher Interessen sensu Holland (1997) beim Übergang von der SekundarstufeI in die Profiloberstufe allgemeinbildender Gymnasien in Schleswig-Holstein. Ausgehend vom Circumplexmodell beruflicher Interessen wurde die Vorhersageleistung der daraus abgeleiteten Parameter individueller Interessenprofile für die in Klassenstufe 11 gewählten Oberstufenprofile untersucht. Die Ergebnisse unterstützen die Validität der Profilmodellierung. Insbesondere zeigt sich, dass (1) die Interessenstruktur am Ende der Sekundarstufe I den von Holland postulierten Vorgaben entspricht, (2) die Interessenprofile mit der Wahl des Profils der Oberstufe assoziiert sind und (3) den betrachteten Parametern individueller Interessenprofile auch nach Kontrolle von Noten und des Geschlechts ein eigenständiger Beitrag zur Vorhersage späterer Wahlentscheidungen zukommt. In ihrer Gesamtheit liefern die Befunde robuste Hinweise dafür, dass berufliche Interessen bereits in der 9. Klasse eine wichtige handlungsleitende Funktion beim Treffen innerschulischer Wahlentscheidungen übernehmen.
No preview · Article · May 2015 · Zeitschrift für Pädagogische Psychologie
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: J.L. Hollands entwickeltes Person-Umwelt-Modell hat in den 50 Jahren nach seiner erstmaligen Publizierung weltweit eine dominante Position in Theorie und Praxis der beruflichen Beratung erreicht. Dieser Band stellt die theoretischen Grundlagen und Annahmen dieses Modells dar, fokussiert einzelne Modellkomponenten, charakterisiert seine bisherige Rezeption im deutschsprachigen Raum und weist auf Fragen und offene Punkte hin. Das Modell bildet einerseits eine empirisch abgesicherte Basis für berufliche Beratung, ist aber gleichzeitig auch ein Generator für eine fast unerschöpfliche Zahl möglicher Forschungsfragen, die sich nicht nur auf das Modell selbst, sondern vor allem auf seine Anwendbarkeit unter den verschiedensten regionalen, sozialen, oder auch globalen Bedingungen beziehen.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objective
Though it is frequently assumed that the college experience can influence our life goals, this claim has been relatively understudied. The current study examined the role of goals on college major selection, as well as whether major selection influences later goal change. In addition, we examined whether a person's perceptions of his or her peers’ goals influences goal-setting.Method
Using a sample of German students (Mage = 19 years, n = 3023 at Wave 1), we assessed life goal levels and changes from high school into college across three assessment occasions. Participants reported their current aspirations, along with the perceived goals of their peers during the college assessments.ResultsUsing latent growth curve models, findings suggest that life goals entering college significantly predict the majors students select. However, this major selection had limited influence on later changes in life goals. Stronger effects were found with respect to perceptions of peers’ goals, with students tending to change their goals to better align with their peers.Conclusions
The current study provides evidence that life goals are relatively stable and yet can change during the emerging adult years, in ways that demonstrate the potential influence of the college experience.
Full-text · Article · Nov 2014 · Journal of Personality
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study examined predictors of the quality of parental homework involvement and reciprocal relations between the quality of parental homework involvement and students’ reading achievement and academic functioning in a reading-intensive subject (German). Data from 2,830 students in nonacademic tracks and their parents who were surveyed in both Grades 5 and 7 were analyzed. The quality of parental homework involvement was assessed via student reports. It was conceptualized as a multidimensional construct and measured by 3 dimensions proposed by self-determination theory: parental control, parental responsiveness, and parental structure. Whereas students’ academic functioning in Grade 5 predicted the way parents became involved in the homework process in Grade 7, the quality of parents’ help with homework did not depend on their socioeconomic background. Reciprocal relations between the quality of parental homework involvement and children’s academic functioning were observed: Low academic functioning of students in Grade 5 resulted in more parental control in Grade 7, and more parental control in Grade 5 was associated with lower academic functioning in Grade 7. Similarly, high academic functioning in Grade 5 resulted in more parental responsiveness and structure in Grade 7, and more parental responsiveness and structure in Grade 5 were associated with better academic functioning in Grade 7. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved)
No preview · Article · Feb 2014 · Journal of Educational Psychology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Abstract Science, technology, engineering, and mathematics university majors are critical pathways toward prestigious careers, yet women are still underrepresented in many of these domains. In this chapter, we review the role that self-beliefs play in the development of educational aspirations and attempts to realize those aspirations at the end of secondary school. In particular, we use the internal/external frame of reference model to explore the potential of achievement and self-concept profiles as predictors of university major aspirations and attainment as one possible explanation for gender differences in these domains. After reviewing previous research in this area, we provide a research example using a large longitudinal database from Germany (N = 1,881). Results suggest that (a) high math achievement and self-concept predicted math-intensive university major choice and lower likelihood of entering verbal-intensive majors (and vice versa); (b) there appeared to be a continuum of university majors such that strong mathematics achievement and self-concept profiles predicted entry into hard sciences, while the opposite profile predicted entry into the humanities with biology and medicine displaying more mixed patterns; and (c) after controlling for achievement and self-concept there were still important gender differences in university majors. Implications for theory and practice are discussed.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background. Vocational interests play a central role in the vocational decision-making process and are decisive for the later job satisfaction and vocational success. Based on Ackerman's (1996) notion of trait complexes, specific interest profiles of gifted high-school graduates can be expected.
Aims. Vocational interests of gifted and highly achieving adolescents were compared to those of their less intelligent/achieving peers according to Holland's (1997) RIASEC model. Further, the impact of intelligence and achievement on interests were analysed while statistically controlling for potentially influencing variables. Changes in interests over time were investigated.
Sample. N= 4,694 German students (age: M= 19.5, SD= .80; 54.6% females) participated in the study (TOSCA; Köller, Watermann, Trautwein, & Lüdtke, 2004).
Method. Interests were assessed in participants’ final year at school and again 2 years later (N= 2,318).
Results. Gifted participants reported stronger investigative and realistic interests, but lower social interests than less intelligent participants. Highly achieving participants reported higher investigative and (in wave 2) higher artistic interests. Considerable gender differences were found: gifted girls had a flat interest profile, while gifted boys had pronounced realistic and investigative and low social interests. Multilevel multiple regression analyses predicting interests by intelligence and school achievement revealed stable interest profiles. Beyond a strong gender effect, intelligence and school achievement each contributed substantially to the prediction of vocational interests.
Conclusions. At the time around graduation from high school, gifted young adults show stable interest profiles, which strongly differ between gender and intelligence groups. These differences are relevant for programmes for the gifted and for vocational counselling.
No preview · Article · Jun 2013 · British Journal of Educational Psychology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Using the theoretical framework of achievement goal theory, this study investigated the accuracy of teachers' judgments of their students' motivation. Self-report data were gathered on the mastery, performance-approach, and performance-avoidance goals of 1140 German secondary school students (mean age = 14.24) in five academic subjects (English, Mathematics, German, second foreign language, and Biology). Their teachers in each of the five subjects (N = 176) were asked to judge students' achievement goals. Multilevel regression analyses revealed that teacher ratings of students' motivation statistically significantly predicted student ratings in all five subjects for mastery and performance-approach motivation, but not for performance-avoidance motivation. Assessment of differences in teachers' judgment accuracy across classrooms revealed some variability in teachers' ability to judge their students' mastery and performance-approach goals. Exploratory analyses showed that teaching experience, teacher gender, student age, and student gender did not systematically explain variation in judgment accuracy. Future research should examine other characteristics potentially influencing teachers' judgment accuracy and investigate the effect of teachers' judgment accuracy on students' motivation.
No preview · Article · Dec 2012 · Learning and Individual Differences
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In Deutschland kann man an verschiedenen Hochschultypen studieren. Die vorliegende Studie widmet sich der Frage, wie sich die Wahl eines bestimmten Hochschultyps auf zentrale Persönlichkeitsmerkmale (berufliche Interessen, berufliche Motive und die Big Five) auswirkt. Bereits vorliegende Befunde machen deutlich, dass die einzelnen Hochschultypen Studierende mit unterschiedlichen Eingangsvoraussetzungen rekrutieren. Ob differenzielle Entwicklungen während des Studiums und Berufseintritts eine Konsequenz des Besuchs unterschiedlicher Hochschultypen sind (also im weiteren Sinne Sozialisationseffekte) oder ob sie eher die Folge oder eine Fortschreibung von Eingangsunterschieden darstellen (also Selektionseffekte), wurde erstmals mithilfe des Propensity-Score-Matchings untersucht. Dazu wurden Daten einer großen Längsschnittstudie in Baden-Württemberg genutzt und 1568 Studierende an Universitäten, Fachhochschulen und Berufsakademien zwei, vier und sechs Jahre nach dem Abitur verglichen. Zur Prüfung der Sozialisationseffekte wurden mithilfe des Propensity-Score-Matchings parallelisierte Substichproben (N = 622) gebildet. Die Ergebnisse zeigen, dass Unterschiede zwischen den Hochschultypgruppen hauptsächlich auf Selektionseffekte zurückgeführt werden können und der Besuch der Hochschultypen selbst kaum differenzielle Effekte hatte.
No preview · Article · Dec 2012 · Zeitschrift für Erziehungswissenschaft
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In modern expectancy–value theory (EVT) in educational psychology, expectancy and value beliefs additively predict performance, persistence, and task choice. In contrast to earlier formulations of EVT, the multiplicative term Expectancy × Value in regression-type models typically plays no major role in educational psychology. The present study used latent moderated structural equation modeling to explore whether there is empirical support for a multiplicative effect in a sample of 2,508 students at the end of secondary education. Expectancy and four facets of value beliefs (attainment, intrinsic, and utility value as well as cost) predicted achievement when entered separately into a regression equation. Moreover, in models with both expectancy and value beliefs as predictor variables, the expectancy component as well as the multiplicative term Expectancy × Value were consistently found to predict achievement positively.
No preview · Article · Aug 2012 · Journal of Educational Psychology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In this article, the authors develop and test a differential effects model of university entry versus major selection using a set of common predictors, including background factors (gender and socioeconomic status), academic achievement, and academic self-concept. The research used data from 2 large longitudinal databases from Germany (N = 5,048) and England (N = 15,995) to explore the generalizability of the hypothesized model in 2 cultural contexts. For both countries, the results suggested that (a) socioeconomic status was a key predictor of university entry, whereas gender was a key predictor of major selection; (b) achievement and self-concept in both math and English were positive predictors of university entry; and (c) math achievement and self-concept predicted math-intensive major choice and lower likelihood of entering verbal-intensive majors (and vice versa). Implications for theory and practice are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved).
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This article examines the development of social and ethnic disparities in academic achievement in elementary schooling. It investigated whether reading and mathematics development in 136 mixed-ability classes shows path-dependent processes of cumulative advantage (Matthew effects) from Grades 4 to 6 (Grade 4 mean age = 10.62, SD = 0.57) resulting in growing inequality. Status-dependent processes of cumulative advantage, their interaction with path-dependent processes, and consequences for the degree of social and ethnic inequality are examined. Two complementary methods for analyzing multilevel data are used: growth curve and quasi-simplex models. No evidence for a Matthew effect was found in either domain. A compensation effect emerged for reading, to the benefit of ethnic minorities. A fan-spread effect was found for mathematics, partly attributable to status-dependent processes of cumulative advantage.
No preview · Article · May 2012 · Child Development
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In Germany, the . Abitur grades awarded at the end of upper secondary education are critical in the allocation of sought-after university places. Drawing on a representative sample of 3526 grade 13 . Abitur students in the German state of Baden-Württemberg, this article examines whether and to what extent grading is affected by the mean achievement of the school serving as frame of reference (" group-referenced grading" ), and to what extent this influence differs for coursework and examination grades in mathematics and English as a foreign language. Overall, the results indicate that the higher level of standardization of the central . Abitur examinations makes examination grades less susceptible to frame-of-reference effects than are coursework grades.
No preview · Article · Dec 2011 · Studies In Educational Evaluation