[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Primary breast diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (PB-DLBCL) is a rare disease comprising <3% of extranodal lymphomas. It frequently reveals an activated B-cell (ABC)-like phenotype. ABC-like DLBCL was reported to have gain-of-function mutations in MYD88, CD79B, CARD11, and TNFAIP3, resulting in constitutive activation of the NFκB pathway. Because of the rare occurrence of PB-DLBCL, the frequency of MYD88 and CD79B mutations is still unknown. We used Sanger sequencing to study these mutations from 46 breast DLBCL cases and also investigated the associated clinicopathologic factors. MYD88 L265P was confirmed by allele-specific polymerase chain reaction and compared with the Sanger sequencing results. MYD88 L265P and CD79B mutations were detected in 27/46 (58.7%) and 11/33 (33.3%) cases, respectively. Twenty-eight of 46 cases met the criteria for PB-DLBCL, and the latter 18 cases were further classified as clinical breast DLBCL (CLB-DLBCL). The frequency of MYD88 L265P and CD79B mutations was 16/28 (57.1%) and 9/23 (39.1%), respectively, in PB-DLBCL and 11/18 (61.1%) and 2/10 (20%), respectively, in CLB-DLBCL. When the cutoff value was set at ΔCt≤1, the result of allele-specific polymerase chain reaction for MYD88 corresponded to those of the Sanger sequence at 92.6% sensitivity and 100% specificity. According to Choi's algorithm, 16/27 (59.3%) demonstrated an ABC-like phenotype in PB-DLBCL, and 15/18 (83.3%) demonstrated an ABC-like phenotype in CLB-DLBCL. In conclusion, MYD88 L265P and CD79B mutations were frequently detected in PB-DLBCL, and they may be key molecules associated with PB-DLBCL lymphomagenesis. Further analysis will be required to clarify the mechanism of its pathogenesis.
No preview · Article · Jan 2016 · The American journal of surgical pathology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objective Due to their rarity, the endoscopic features and clinical backgrounds of colorectal follicular lymphoma lesions have not yet been fully investigated. The aim of this study was to reveal the characteristics of this disease entity. Methods A database search performed at the Department of Pathology of our institute identified 12 follicular lymphoma patients with involvement in the cecum, colon, and/or rectum. Data regarding the endoscopic, radiological, biological, and pathological examinations performed were retrospectively reviewed from their clinical records. Results The mean age of the patients (5 men, 7 women) was 58.7 years. Five patients were classified as being Lugano system stage I, while the other seven patients were stage IV. In all of the patients, colorectal follicular lymphoma presented with papular (n=4), polypoid (n=4), and flat elevated lesions (n=4). No erosions or ulcers were seen in any of the lesions. The initial pathological diagnoses included extranodal marginal zone lymphoma of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (n=2) and colitis/proctitis with infiltration of inflammatory cells (n=3), in addition to the correct diagnosis of follicular lymphoma (n=7). Conclusion Colorectal involvement of follicular lymphoma shows no erosions or ulcers. These lesions could be macroscopically observed as papular, polypoid and flat elevated lesions. Making a correct diagnosis of this disease based on the findings of biopsied samples is sometimes challenging. In such cases, multiple biopsies and/or endoscopic mucosal resection is required, in addition to appropriate consultation with pathologists.
Full-text · Article · Jan 2016 · Internal Medicine
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A rare case of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) possibly induced by IgG4-related disease is described. A 78-year-old woman presented with a mass of the right lacrimal sac that extended to the inferior nasal meatus through the nasolacrimal duct. Pathological diagnosis was DLBCL with diffuse distribution of IgG4+ cells in the background of this lesion. The chronic inflammatory state of IgG4-related disease could have caused the development of DLBCL.
No preview · Article · Dec 2015 · Modern Rheumatology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Proinflammatory cytokines that are produced by helper T cells (Th) regulate immune reactions, facilitate class switching of B cells, and prolong the lifespan of B and T cells. Eradication therapy using antibiotics is sometimes effective against gastrointestinal (GI) malignant lymphoma, suggesting that the tumor development or progression is affected by the inflammatory microenvironment. In the present study, serum samples from 148 patients with various subtypes of malignant lymphoma were tested for 11 proinflammatory Th1/Th2 cytokines. In the comparison by subtype or GI lesions, serum interleukin (IL)-8 (P = 6.7E-05), IL-4 (P = 7.5E-05), and IL-1β (P = 0.0043) levels showed significant differences among subtypes, being particularly elevated in follicular lymphomas (FL) and mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphomas. Serum IL-8 levels were elevated in GI-FL and MALT lymphomas, and serum IL-4 and IL-1 β levels were elevated in MALT lymphomas. These findings show that GI low-grade B-cell lymphoma could develop against the background of an inflammatory microenvironment. Thus, these cytokines may be useful as diagnostic markers and could provide new insights into tumor development.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Malignant syphilis or lues maligna is a severe form of secondary syphilis that was commonly reported in the pre-antibiotic era, and has now reemerged with the advent of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) epidemic. However, the characteristic histopathological findings of malignant syphilis remain controversial. The aim of this case report was to clarify the clinical and histopathological findings of HIV-positive malignant secondary syphilis. A Japanese man in his forties complained of fever, skin lesions, headache, and myalgia without lymphadenopathy during the previous 4 weeks. The skin lesions manifested as erythematous, nonhealing, ulcerated papules scattered on his trunk, extremities, palm, and face. Although the skin lesions were suspected to be cutaneous T-cell lymphomas on histological analyses, they lacked T-cell receptor Jγ rearrangement; moreover, immunohistochemical analyses confirmed the presence of spirochetes. The patient was administered antibiotics and anti-retroviral therapy, which dramatically improved the symptoms. On the basis of these observations of the skin lesions, we finally diagnosed the patient with HIV-associated secondary syphilis that mimicked cutaneous T-cell lymphoma. The patient’s systemic CD4+ lymphocyte count was very low, and the infiltrate was almost exclusively composed of CD8+ atypical lymphocytes; therefore, the condition was easily misdiagnosed as cutaneous lymphoma. Although the abundance of plasma cells is a good indicator of malignant syphilis on skin histological analyses, in some cases, the plasma cell count may be very low. Therefore, a diagnosis of malignant secondary syphilis should be considered before making a diagnosis of primary cutaneous peripheral T-cell lymphoma or lymphoma associated with HIV infection.
Preview · Article · Dec 2015 · Diagnostic Pathology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Backgroud:
In advanced gastric cancer (AGC), most clinical trials are designed on the basis of protein expression or gene amplification of specific genes. Recently, next-generation sequencing (NGS) allowed us to comprehensively profile the tumor gene status. This study aimed to elucidate the profiling between gene alterations and protein expression in AGC to aid in future clinical trials on AGC.
Patients and methods:
Formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tumor samples from 121 stage III/IV gastric cancer patients were examined for protein expression of tyrosine kinase receptors (RTKs; ERBB2, EGFR, c-MET, and FGFR2) using immunohistochemistry (IHC). Furthermore, 409 cancer-related genes were sequenced to detect mutations and copy number variations using NGS.
Most ERBB2 overexpression (IHC 3+) cases (80.0%) had ERBB2 amplification and did not have other RTK amplification or oncogene mutations. However, one-fourth of MET overexpression cases (25.0%) had ERBB2 alterations. EGFR and FGFR2 overexpression cases had ERBB2 alterations or other gene alterations such as KRAS or PIK3CA. On the other hand, most of the four RTK amplification cases (88.2%) were mutually exclusive with each amplification. However, RTK amplification did not simply correlate with protein overexpression, while cases with RTK high-level amplification had protein overexpression and rarely showed other co-existing gene alterations.
AGC involves a complicated arrangement of protein expression and gene alterations. Comprehensive analyses of NGS and IHC will be necessary to design the optimal therapy for treating the appropriate population of patients in future clinical trials.
No preview · Article · Oct 2015 · Annals of Oncology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Plasmablastic lymphoma (PBL) is an aggressive lymphoma commonly associated with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. Herein we describe a rare case of PBL that spontaneously regressed. An 80-year-old man was referred to our hospital owing to an exophytic gingival tumor in the right maxillary second molar region. He had no significant past medical history, and a screening test for HIV was negative. Imaging showed that the tumor measured 26 × 23 × 16 mm and was confined in the alveolar bone. The tumor was histologically comprised of highly proliferative immunoblastic cells positive for CD138 and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-encoded RNA. Monoclonal IgH chain gene rearrangement was detected via polymerase chain reaction. After biopsy and diagnosis of PBL, the tumor began to decrease in size and had apparently disappeared at the time of surgery. There was no histological evidence of a residual lesion in the surgical specimen. In conclusion, a minority of immunosenescence-associated PBLs in the elderly should be recognized as a unique clinicopathological entity distinct from common aggressive PBL.
Full-text · Article · Oct 2015 · Diagnostic Pathology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A 41-year-old woman was diagnosed with duodenal follicular lymphoma. She had no other lesions and was assigned to a "watch and wait" policy. Swelling of the inguinal lymph nodes appeared 45 months later, and rituximab monotherapy resulted in complete remission. However, follicular lymphoma recurred in the stomach, rectum and mesenteric and external iliac lymph nodes 81 months after the therapy. The patient received rituximab monotherapy again and has remained in complete remission in the fifteenth year after the initial diagnosis. This case suggests the usefulness of rituximab monotherapy in the long-term management of intestinal follicular lymphoma.
No preview · Article · Oct 2015 · Acta medica Okayama
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background:
The purpose of this study is to determine the effects of anti-high mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) monoclonal antibody (mAb) on ischemia/reperfusion injury (IRI) and the mode of liver regeneration.
Rats underwent 70% hepatectomy with IRI caused by clamping the hepatoduodenal ligament for 20 minutes, followed by the administration of anti-HMGB1 mAb immediately before declamping the hepatoduodenal ligament. Five animals were used for each time point. We then evaluated IRI, regeneration parameters and the status of HMGB1 in remnant livers.
The anti-HMGB1 mAb significantly ameliorated the degree of IRI in the remnant livers in association with the downregulation of HMGB1 protein. The ratio of Ki67-positive hepatocytes at 48 hours after 70% hepatectomy was significantly improved. Mean hepatocyte size was significantly reduced and cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 1 expression was significantly attenuated.
Anti-HMGB1 mAb ameliorated IRI and improved the mode of liver regeneration after IRI followed by 70% hepatectomy in rats.
No preview · Article · Sep 2015 · American journal of surgery
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objective:
There is no consensus regarding the best treatment for intestinal follicular lymphoma (FL). We used "watch and wait" for patients with intestinal FL with low-tumor-burden (LTB) criteria and without mass formation causing bowel obstruction. We investigated the overall survival (OS) and time to treatment required (TTR).
Thirty-three intestinal FL patients [clinical stage (CS) I:16, II1:0, II2:7, IV:10; median observation period: 45.5 months, range: 13-110 months] were diagnosed via endoscopy. Detailed clinical and pathological examinations were performed, and neoplastic process behavior was monitored.
All of the 33 patients were WHO grade 1. FL lesions in the digestive tract were found frequently in the second-fourth portion of the duodenum in 91% of the patients; 87% of those patients had lesions in a broader area including the small intestine. Two patients had an enlargement of the area of the lesions and a worsening of the macroscopic findings. Three patients had CS progression; however, these remained within the indication for "watch and wait." Two patients with transformation into diffuse large B-cell lymphoma received rituximab and chemotherapy, which led to complete remission. The OS was 100%. The time to treatment required (TTR) was 49 months in one patient and 37 months in one patient.
Intestinal FL in CS I-IV with broad infiltration of the digestive tract meeting the criteria for LTB had a remarkably slow course. This study suggests that "watch and wait" is appropriate for the treatment of LTB intestinal FL even in the era of rituximab.
No preview · Article · Sep 2015 · Scandinavian Journal of Gastroenterology