[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A significant knowledge gap exists concerning the geographical distribution of nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) isolation worldwide.To provide a snapshot of NTM species distribution, global partners in the NTM-NET framework (www.ntm-net.org), a branch of TBNET, provided identification results of the total number of patients in 2008 in whom NTM were isolated from pulmonary samples. From these data, we visualized the relative distribution of the different NTM found per continent and country.We received species identification data for 20182 patients, from 62 laboratories in 30 countries across six continents. Ninety-one different NTM species were isolated. Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) bacteria predominated in most countries, followed by M. gordonae and M. xenopi. Important differences in geographical distribution of MAC species as well as M. xenopi, M. kansasii, and rapid growing mycobacteria were observed.This snapshot demonstrates that the species distribution among NTM isolates from pulmonary specimens in the year 2008 differed by continent and differs by countries within these continents. These differences in species distribution may partly determine the frequency and manifestations of pulmonary NTM disease in each geographical location.
Full-text · Article · Apr 2013 · European Respiratory Journal
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Interferon gamma release assays (IGRAs) are used to diagnose latent tuberculosis infection. Two IGRAs are commercially available: the Quantiferon TB Gold In Tube (QFT-IT) and the T-SPOT.TB. There is debate as to which test to use in HIV+ individuals. Previous publications from high TB burden countries have raised concerns that the sensitivity of the QFT-IT assay, but not the T-SPOT.TB, may be impaired in HIV+ individuals with low CD4+ T-cell counts. We sought to compare the tests in a low TB burden setting.
T-SPOT.TB, QFT-IT, and tuberculin skin tests (TST) were performed in HIV infected individuals. Results were related to patient characteristics. McNemar's test, multivariate regression and correlation analysis were carried out using SPSS (SPSS Inc). 256 HIV infected patients were enrolled in the study. The median CD4+ T-cell count was 338 cells/µL (range 1-1328). 37 (14%) patients had a CD4+ T-cell count of <100 cells/µL. 46/256 (18% ) of QFT-IT results and 28/256 (11%) of T-SPOT.TB results were positive. 6 (2%) of QFT-IT and 18 (7%) of T-SPOT.TB results were indeterminate. An additional 9 (4%) of T-SPOT.TB results were unavailable as tests were not performed due to insufficient cells or clotting of the sample. We found a statistically significant association between lower CD4+ T-cell count and negative QFT-IT results (OR 1.055, p = 0.03), and indeterminate/unavailable T-SPOT.TB results (OR 1.079, p = 0.02).
In low TB prevalence settings, the QFT-IT yields more positive and fewer indeterminate results than T-SPOT.TB. Negative results on the QFT-IT and indeterminate/unavailable results on the T-SPOT.TB were more common in individuals with low CD4+ T-cell counts.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Mycobacterial interspersed repetitive-unit-variable-number tandem repeat typing alone was used to investigate the genetic lineages among 361 Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains circulating in Ireland over a two-year period, 2010 and 2011. The majority of isolates, 63% (229/361), belonged to lineage 4 (Euro-American), while lineages 1 (Indo-Oceanic), 2 (East-Asian) and 3 (East-African–Indian) represented 12% of isolates each (42/361, 45/361, and 45/361, respectively). Sub-lineages Beijing (lineage 2), East-African–Indian (lineage 1) and Delhi/central-Asian (lineage 3) predominated among foreign-born cases, while a higher proportion of Euro-American lineages were identified among cases born in Ireland. Eighteen molecular clusters involving 63 tuberculosis (TB) cases were identified across four sub-lineages of lineage 4. While the mean cluster size was 3.5 TB cases, the largest cluster (involving 12 Irish-born cases) was identified in the Latin American–Mediterranean sub-lineage. Clustering of isolates was higher among Irish-born TB cases (47 of 63 clustered cases), whereas only one cluster (3/63) involved solely foreign-born individuals. Four multidrug-resistant cases identified during this period represented lineages 2 and 4. This study provides the first insight into the structure of the M. tuberculosis population in Ireland.
Full-text · Article · Jan 2013 · Eurosurveillance: bulletin europeen sur les maladies transmissibles = European communicable disease bulletin
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Multi-drug resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) is associated with increased morbidity and mortality compared to drug-sensitive disease. Although MDR-TB is infrequent in Ireland, cases continue to be diagnosed in both Irish and foreign-born people. We conducted a clinical audit of 13 MDR-TB patients treated in two tertiary referral centers, the Mercy Hospital, Cork and St James's Hospital, Dublin between 2004 and 2009. The median age was 37 years. Eight patients (61.5%) were foreign-born, five (38.5%) were Irish-born. Seven patients (54%) have now stopped treatment; 6 (86%) were treated successfully and one (14%) defaulted. Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates were resistant to a median of seven drugs. Eight patients (61.5%) developed ototoxicity from long-term aminoglycoside use. Our patients' treatment outcomes compare favourably with international reports despite a high degree of drug resistance. However, the high incidence of otoxicity is concerning.
No preview · Article · Jun 2011 · Irish medical journal
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We sought to establish if smokers on anti-tuberculosis treatment are more likely to have a prolonged period of infectivity, compared to non-smoking tuberculosis patients, in a low tuberculosis prevalence country. We conducted a cross-sectional, retrospective study in Ireland that recruited 53 microbiologically confirmed cases of pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB). The age-sex adjusted odds ratios (AOR) suggest that the infectivity status of PTB on treatment was four times more likely to be prolonged beyond 6-8 weeks, if the cases had a smoking history (AOR: 4.42; 95% CI: 1.23; 15.9). Smoking was associated with delayed sputum smear conversion in PTB patients on treatment.
Full-text · Article · Oct 2010 · Irish medical journal
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We describe a case of a 25 year old female from Lithuania who presented with a productive cough. Chest radiograph demonstrated an infiltrate in the left upper lobe and a cavitating lesion in the right middle lobe. Sensitivity testing of her sputum led to a diagnosis of extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis (XDR-TB). This is the first case in Ireland and highlights the need for physicians to be aware of the possibility of XDR-TB. Moreover it underlines the need for improvement in service provision in terms of a TB reference laboratory and TB clinics.
Preview · Article · Feb 2007 · The Open Respiratory Medicine Journal