Publications (84)10.3 Total impact
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: When people engage in a task, they often take preliminary actions (preprocessing) to simplify primary processing. Usually, a trade-off is made between the costs of preprocessing and primary processing. We conducted three experiments to find out whether people could adaptively estimate the utility of preprocessing depending on the task situation. The result demonstrated that in performing a high-complexity task, almost all the participants reduced their overall task performance cost by conducting cost-adaptive preprocessing. However, for a low-complexity task, participants tended to conduct preprocessing even though this increased overall task performance cost. Based on these results, we discuss human nature from the viewpoint of the influence of cognitive effort.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We investigated how creating cognitive models enhances learners’ construction of mental models on human cognitive information processing. Two class practices for undergraduates and graduates were performed, in which participants were required to construct a computational running model of solving subtraction problems and then develop a bug model that simulated students’ arithmetic errors. Analyses showed that by creating cognitive models, participants learned to identify buggy procedures that produce systematic errors and predict expected erroneous answers by mentally simulating the mental model. The limitation is that this benefit of creating cognitive models was observed only in participants who successfully programmed a computational model.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: When using mathematics to solve problems in everyday life, problem solvers must recognize and formulate problems by themselves because structured problems are not provided. Therefore, in general education, fostering learner problem posing is an important task. Because novice learners have difficulty in composing mathematical structures (solutions) in problem posing, learning support to improve the composition of solutions is required. Although learning by solving examples is adopted in general education, it may not be sufficiently effective in fostering learner problem posing because cognitive skills differ between problem solving and problem posing. This study discusses and experimentally investigates the effects of learning from examples on composing solutions when problem posing. We studied three learning activities: learning by solving an example, learning by reproducing an example, and learning by evaluating an example. In our experiment, undergraduates were asked to pose their own new, unique problems from a base problem initially presented after the students learned an example by solving, reproducing, or evaluating it. The example allowed the undergraduates to gain ideas for composing a novel solution. The results indicated that learning by reproducing the example was the most effective in fostering the composition of solutions.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Data interpretation based on theory is one of most important skills in scientific discovery learning, but to achieve this process is difficult for learners. In this study, we propose that model construction and execution could support data interpretation based on theory. We used the web-based production system ``DoCoPro'' as an environment for model construction and execution, and we designed and evaluated class practice in cognitive science domain to confirm our ideas. Fifty-three undergraduate students attended the course in Practice 1 in 2012. During class, students constructed a computational model on the process of semantic memory and conducted simulations using their model from which we evaluated any changes in learner interpretation of experimental data from pretest to posttest. The results of comparing pretest with posttest showed that the number of theory-based interpretations increase from pretest to posttest. However, we could not confirm the relationship between students' interpretations and their mental models acquired through learning activities and whether the students could transfer their understanding of theory to other different experimental data. Therefore, we conducted Practice 2 in 2013, in which 39 undergraduate students attended the course. Instruction in Practice 2 was same as in Practice 1. We improved pretest and posttest to assess students' mental model of theory and whether they transfer their understanding to another experiment. Comparing the pretest and posttest results showed that students acquired more sophisticated mental models from pretest to posttest, and they could apply their understanding of theory to their interpretations of near transfer experimental data. The results also indicated that students who shifted their interpretations from non theory-based to theory-based acquired more superior mental models on theory. Finally, we discuss applicability of our findings to scientific education.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: For skill acquisition that needs periodic body movements as cascade juggling, the establishment of stable body movements seems crucial. We investigated them in each of the learning stages defined by the Beek and van Santvoord (1992) framework. In addition, we investigated participants' verbal reports about what was intentionally concerned for achieving optimum learning in practice. In the experiment, novices practiced three-ball cascade juggling over a period of one week. We focused on two types of stabilities: the stability of chest movement representing torso movement, and another stability of wrist movement representing arm swing. The result revealed that the skills for establishing stabilities of torso movement and arm swing were acquired sequentially. In this case, the stability of arm swing emerged between Stage 2 (by 50 successive catches) and Stage 3 (by over 100 successive catches), and another stability of torso movement emerged between Stage 3 and the expert stage in which jugglers had acquired complete skills for performing five-ball cascade juggling. The result also showed that in the establishment of stable arm swing, the development of the stability occurred only in passive catching behavior, but did not in active tossing behavior. Additionally, we found that the participants who did not develop beyond Stage 1 (by 10 successive catches) trained themselves while focusing on their specific physical movements.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We developed a learning environment to support participants' problem posing in a formal logic system, natural deduction, by combining problem-posing and problem-solving activities. In the problem posing-phase, the participants posed original problems and presented them on a shared problem database called ``Forum,'' which was accessible to other group members. During the problem-solving phase, the participants solved the problems presented on Forum. This first round of problem posing and solving was followed by a second round of problem posing. We performed two practices: one for undergraduates in a liberal arts college and the other for graduates in a graduate school of information science. The results showed that the participants successfully posed more advanced problems in the second round of problem posing as compared to the first. The empirical data gathered from the two practices indicated a significant relationship between problem-solving and problem-posing abilities.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: When people understand an object, they construct a mental model of the object. A mental model is a structural, behavioral, or functional analog representation of a real-world or imaginary situation, event, or process. We conducted a class practice in which newcomers to cognitive science constructed a mental model by implementing and simulating a computational model of cognitive information processing, i.e., a cognitive model. We quantitatively evaluated the learning outcomes of the class. The participants were required to implement a complete cognitive model of subtraction processing. Furthermore, they were required to implement bug models, which are cognitive models with bug rules that cause several types of errors. Pre- and post-tests were performed before and after implementing and using these models, respectively. The results indicate that the class intervention led to the increase of the number of the participants who constructed the correct mental model and promoted more accurate mental simulations. However, the significant effects were confirmed only with participants who correctly completed the bug model, but the effects were limited with those who failed.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We propose a new concept, disuse atrophy in cognitive abilities, i.e., cognitive disuse atrophy. Generally, the term “disuse atrophy” has been used to describe physical atrophy, such as muscle wasting. We advance the idea that disuse atrophy appears not only as physical loss but also as a loss of cognitive abilities. To understand the mechanisms underlying cognitive disuse atrophy, we note the duality of cognitive activities such as performance- and learning-oriented activities when engaging in tasks. It is crucial to investigate the balancing of these two types of activities as the assistance dilemma in learning science. We explored principles for controlling this balance based on two theories: cognitive load theory and goal achievement theory. Cognitive load theory distinguishes three types of cognitive loads. This theory proposes to suppress the extraneous load to the minimum, while assigning adequate amounts of the germane load for learning-oriented activities into working memory, and still leave enough resources for the intrinsic load of performance-oriented activities. Goal achievement theory assumes principles from the viewpoint of goal setting. Specifically, orientation to a performance goal activates performance-oriented activities, and orientation to a learning goal causes learners to direct their efforts to learning-oriented activities.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We developed a cognitive simulator of the dual storage model of the human memory system that simulates the serial position effect of a traditional memory recall experiment. In a cognitive science class, participants learned cognitive information processing while observing the memory processes visualized by the simulator. Through the practice, we confirmed that participants learned to predict experimental results in assumed situations implying that participants successfully constructed a mental model and performed mental simulations while running the mental model in various settings. We discuss the possibility that a cognitive model can be used as a learning tool and, more specifically, as a mediator tool connecting theory and empirical data.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study investigated how participants would reject an initial rule when they faced positive and negative instances of an initial rule. Using eye movement data, we analyzed a perspective that indicated the type of rules that participants consider. Our experiments yielded the following results. A tendency to consider rules from the perspective that participants used for finding and confirming the initial rule was retained in the phase in which both positive and negative instances of the initial rule were given. This tendency was observed only when participants faced negative instances. We concluded that, when participants faced negative instances, they tried to change the initial rule peripherally to explain them.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We present an intelligent tutoring system that teaches natural deduction to undergraduate students. An expert problem solver in the system provides basic instructional help, such as suggesting the use of a rule in the next step of solving a problem and indicating the inference drawn by applying the rule. The system provides help by using a complete problem solver as an expert instructor. Students learning with our tutoring system can vary the degree of help they receive (from low to high and vice versa). Empirical evaluation showed that the system enhanced the problem-solving performance of participants during the learning phase, and these performance gains were carried over to the post-test phase. The analysis of participants' interactions with the system revealed the between-participants adaptation of students, meaning that participants with lower scores learned using higher levels of assistance than those with higher scores. In addition, the analysis revealed the within-participants adaptation of students, meaning that they adaptively changed levels of support according to their learning progress and the degree of difficulty of the problem.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The Remote Associates Test (RAT) is one of the most popular tasks in experimental studies of insight in psychological and neuroscience studies. Since the RAT was originally developed for English-speaking countries, we developed a Japanese version of the RAT. This paper provides a brief overview of the structure of the task based on chunk decomposition using Japanese kanji characters and a list of sets of words as experimental stimuli, with representative data for experimental studies of insight.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Problem posing, by which learners create new problems by themselves, is an important activity in mathematics education. However, novice learners have difficulty in posing problems, particularly when formulating appropriate solution structures of problems. Although they are provided with example problems that can serve as hints for composing novel problems, they do not necessarily understand the key ideas used to generate the examples. To improve problem posing for novices, this study discusses an approach that supports learning from examples as a production task. We propose a method of learning from examples through imitation, where a learner reproduces problems identical to given examples. We implement a system that presents examples of problem posing and supports learners in understanding the examples by having the learners reproduce them. We conducted an experimental evaluation in which learners learned from an example that embeds useful ideas to alter solution structures in the system. The results demonstrated that the learners successfully adapted the example when posing their own problems if they learned the example by the reproduction method. Thus, learning from examples through reproduction appears to be effective in the domain of problem posing as a production task.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We developed a learning environment to combine problem-posing and problem-solving activities. The participants learned a formal logic system, natural deduction, by alternating between the problem-posing and problem-solving phases. In the problem posing-phase, the participants posed original problems and presented them on a shared problem database called “Forum,” which was accessible to other group members. During the problem-solving phase, the participants solved the problems presented on Forum. This first round of problem posing and solving was followed by a second round of problem posing. We performed two practices for evaluation. The results showed that the participants successfully posed more advanced problems in the second round of problem posing as compared to the first. The empirical data gathered from the two practices indicated a significant relationship between problem-solving and problem-posing abilities.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study investigated the relationship between human use of automation and their sensitivity to changes in automation and manual performance. In the real world, automation and manual performance change dynamically with changes in the environment. However, a few studies investigated whether changes in automation or manual performance have more effect on whether users choose to use automation. We used two types of experimental tracking tasks in which the participants had to select whether to use automation or conduct manual operation while monitoring the variable performance of automation and manual operation. As a result, we found that there is a mutual relationship between human use of automation and their sensitivity to automation and manual performance changes. Also, users do not react equally to both automation and manual performance changes although they use automation adequately. Copyright © 2013 The Institute of Electronics, Information and Communication Engineers.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Many published studies of graph comprehension have indicated that information gleaned from a graph is greatly influenced by the representation in the graph. Graphical representations of data should be consistent with the contents of the verbal explanation of those data. The present study investigated whether individuals who were engaging daily in academic activities using graphs (expert graph users), science graduates (semi-experts), and liberal arts undergraduates (non-experts) could generate graphs consistent with verbal explanations of data. The results of Experiment 1 suggested that expert graph users and science graduates could generate such graphs. On the other hand, in Experiment 2, undergraduates did not do so. The results of Experiment 3 suggested the possibility that presenting examples of possible graphs might result in improvement in the graph selections by undergraduates.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A chance has two contrary aspects: suddenness as an acci-dental finding and gradualness as the result of a prepared mind. Such duality of chance discovery resembles the insight process treated by prob-lem solving researches. In this paper, we focus on the insight process in human problem solving, present a broad overview of its suddenness and the gradualness, and introduce our experimental results from the view-point of the duality of insight. We believe that our research findings will contribute to studies of chance discovery.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Interpreting experimental data based on a psychological theory requires understanding the mechanisms or factors underlying cognitive processes and acquiring an attitude for interpreting evidence from a theoretical perspective. In this study, we designed and practiced teaching and learning activities using cognitive models to foster both requirements in an introductory course of cognitive science. Fifty-three undergraduate students attended the course. During practice, students constructed a computational model on the process of semantic memory and conducted simulations using their model. We evaluated changes in learner interpretation of experimental data from pretest to posttest. The results of the practice showed that students' interpretations of experimental results for semantic memory changed from pretest to posttest. However, their interpretations of the results of other experiments did not show much difference between pretest and posttest.
Nagoya, Aichi, Japan
- Graduate School of Information Science
Tokyo Denki University
Edo, Tōkyō, Japan
- School of Information Environment