Kazuhisa Miwa

Nagoya University, Nagoya, Aichi, Japan

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Publications (77)10.3 Total impact

  • Akihiro Maehigashi · Kazuhisa Miwa
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    ABSTRACT: When people engage in a task, they often take preliminary actions (preprocessing) to simplify primary processing. Usually, a trade-off is made between the costs of preprocessing and primary processing. We conducted three experiments to find out whether people could adaptively estimate the utility of preprocessing depending on the task situation. The result demonstrated that in performing a high-complexity task, almost all the participants reduced their overall task performance cost by conducting cost-adaptive preprocessing. However, for a low-complexity task, participants tended to conduct preprocessing even though this increased overall task performance cost. Based on these results, we discuss human nature from the viewpoint of the influence of cognitive effort.
    No preview · Article · Jul 2015 · Japanese Psychological Research
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    Kazuaki Kojima · Kazuhisa Miwa · Tatsunori Matsui
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    ABSTRACT: When using mathematics to solve problems in everyday life, problem solvers must recognize and formulate problems by themselves because structured problems are not provided. Therefore, in general education, fostering learner problem posing is an important task. Because novice learners have difficulty in composing mathematical structures (solutions) in problem posing, learning support to improve the composition of solutions is required. Although learning by solving examples is adopted in general education, it may not be sufficiently effective in fostering learner problem posing because cognitive skills differ between problem solving and problem posing. This study discusses and experimentally investigates the effects of learning from examples on composing solutions when problem posing. We studied three learning activities: learning by solving an example, learning by reproducing an example, and learning by evaluating an example. In our experiment, undergraduates were asked to pose their own new, unique problems from a base problem initially presented after the students learned an example by solving, reproducing, or evaluating it. The example allowed the undergraduates to gain ideas for composing a novel solution. The results indicated that learning by reproducing the example was the most effective in fostering the composition of solutions.
    Preview · Article · Jun 2015
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    ABSTRACT: Data interpretation based on theory is one of most important skills in scientific discovery learning, but to achieve this process is difficult for learners. In this study, we propose that model construction and execution could support data interpretation based on theory. We used the web-based production system ``DoCoPro'' as an environment for model construction and execution, and we designed and evaluated class practice in cognitive science domain to confirm our ideas. Fifty-three undergraduate students attended the course in Practice 1 in 2012. During class, students constructed a computational model on the process of semantic memory and conducted simulations using their model from which we evaluated any changes in learner interpretation of experimental data from pretest to posttest. The results of comparing pretest with posttest showed that the number of theory-based interpretations increase from pretest to posttest. However, we could not confirm the relationship between students' interpretations and their mental models acquired through learning activities and whether the students could transfer their understanding of theory to other different experimental data. Therefore, we conducted Practice 2 in 2013, in which 39 undergraduate students attended the course. Instruction in Practice 2 was same as in Practice 1. We improved pretest and posttest to assess students' mental model of theory and whether they transfer their understanding to another experiment. Comparing the pretest and posttest results showed that students acquired more sophisticated mental models from pretest to posttest, and they could apply their understanding of theory to their interpretations of near transfer experimental data. The results also indicated that students who shifted their interpretations from non theory-based to theory-based acquired more superior mental models on theory. Finally, we discuss applicability of our findings to scientific education.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2015 · Transactions of the Japanese Society for Artificial Intelligence
  • Jun Ichikawa · Kazuhisa Miwa · Hitoshi Terai
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    ABSTRACT: For skill acquisition that needs periodic body movements as cascade juggling, the establishment of stable body movements seems crucial. We investigated them in each of the learning stages defined by the Beek and van Santvoord (1992) framework. In addition, we investigated participants' verbal reports about what was intentionally concerned for achieving optimum learning in practice. In the experiment, novices practiced three-ball cascade juggling over a period of one week. We focused on two types of stabilities: the stability of chest movement representing torso movement, and another stability of wrist movement representing arm swing. The result revealed that the skills for establishing stabilities of torso movement and arm swing were acquired sequentially. In this case, the stability of arm swing emerged between Stage 2 (by 50 successive catches) and Stage 3 (by over 100 successive catches), and another stability of torso movement emerged between Stage 3 and the expert stage in which jugglers had acquired complete skills for performing five-ball cascade juggling. The result also showed that in the establishment of stable arm swing, the development of the stability occurred only in passive catching behavior, but did not in active tossing behavior. Additionally, we found that the participants who did not develop beyond Stage 1 (by 10 successive catches) trained themselves while focusing on their specific physical movements.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2015 · Transactions of the Japanese Society for Artificial Intelligence
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    Kazuhisa Miwa · Hitoshi Terai · Shoma Okamoto
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    ABSTRACT: We developed a learning environment to support participants' problem posing in a formal logic system, natural deduction, by combining problem-posing and problem-solving activities. In the problem posing-phase, the participants posed original problems and presented them on a shared problem database called ``Forum,'' which was accessible to other group members. During the problem-solving phase, the participants solved the problems presented on Forum. This first round of problem posing and solving was followed by a second round of problem posing. We performed two practices: one for undergraduates in a liberal arts college and the other for graduates in a graduate school of information science. The results showed that the participants successfully posed more advanced problems in the second round of problem posing as compared to the first. The empirical data gathered from the two practices indicated a significant relationship between problem-solving and problem-posing abilities.
    Preview · Article · Jan 2015 · Transactions of the Japanese Society for Artificial Intelligence
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    ABSTRACT: When people understand an object, they construct a mental model of the object. A mental model is a structural, behavioral, or functional analog representation of a real-world or imaginary situation, event, or process. We conducted a class practice in which newcomers to cognitive science constructed a mental model by implementing and simulating a computational model of cognitive information processing, i.e., a cognitive model. We quantitatively evaluated the learning outcomes of the class. The participants were required to implement a complete cognitive model of subtraction processing. Furthermore, they were required to implement bug models, which are cognitive models with bug rules that cause several types of errors. Pre- and post-tests were performed before and after implementing and using these models, respectively. The results indicate that the class intervention led to the increase of the number of the participants who constructed the correct mental model and promoted more accurate mental simulations. However, the significant effects were confirmed only with participants who correctly completed the bug model, but the effects were limited with those who failed.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2015 · Transactions of the Japanese Society for Artificial Intelligence
  • Hitoshi TERAI · Kazuhisa MIWA · Ayumi TAJIMA

    No preview · Article · Jan 2014
  • Kazuhisa Miwa · Hitoshi Terai · Nana Kanzaki · Ryuichi Nakaike
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    ABSTRACT: We present an intelligent tutoring system that teaches natural deduction to undergraduate students. An expert problem solver in the system provides basic instructional help, such as suggesting the use of a rule in the next step of solving a problem and indicating the inference drawn by applying the rule. The system provides help by using a complete problem solver as an expert instructor. Students learning with our tutoring system can vary the degree of help they receive (from low to high and vice versa). Empirical evaluation showed that the system enhanced the problem-solving performance of participants during the learning phase, and these performance gains were carried over to the post-test phase. The analysis of participants' interactions with the system revealed the between-participants adaptation of students, meaning that participants with lower scores learned using higher levels of assistance than those with higher scores. In addition, the analysis revealed the within-participants adaptation of students, meaning that they adaptively changed levels of support according to their learning progress and the degree of difficulty of the problem.
    No preview · Article · Nov 2013 · Transactions of the Japanese Society for Artificial Intelligence
  • Hitoshi Terai · Kazuhisa Miwa · Kazuaki Asami
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    ABSTRACT: The Remote Associates Test (RAT) is one of the most popular tasks in experimental studies of insight in psychological and neuroscience studies. Since the RAT was originally developed for English-speaking countries, we developed a Japanese version of the RAT. This paper provides a brief overview of the structure of the task based on chunk decomposition using Japanese kanji characters and a list of sets of words as experimental stimuli, with representative data for experimental studies of insight.
    No preview · Article · Oct 2013 · Shinrigaku kenkyu: The Japanese journal of psychology
  • Kazuaki Kojima · Kazuhisa Miwa · Tatsunori Matsui
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    ABSTRACT: Problem posing, by which learners create new problems by themselves, is an important activity in mathematics education. However, novice learners have difficulty in posing problems, particularly when formulating appropriate solution structures of problems. Although they are provided with example problems that can serve as hints for composing novel problems, they do not necessarily understand the key ideas used to generate the examples. To improve problem posing for novices, this study discusses an approach that supports learning from examples as a production task. We propose a method of learning from examples through imitation, where a learner reproduces problems identical to given examples. We implement a system that presents examples of problem posing and supports learners in understanding the examples by having the learners reproduce them. We conducted an experimental evaluation in which learners learned from an example that embeds useful ideas to alter solution structures in the system. The results demonstrated that the learners successfully adapted the example when posing their own problems if they learned the example by the reproduction method. Thus, learning from examples through reproduction appears to be effective in the domain of problem posing as a production task.
    No preview · Article · Oct 2013 · International Journal of Artificial Intelligence in Education
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    ABSTRACT: This study investigated the relationship between human use of automation and their sensitivity to changes in automation and manual performance. In the real world, automation and manual performance change dynamically with changes in the environment. However, a few studies investigated whether changes in automation or manual performance have more effect on whether users choose to use automation. We used two types of experimental tracking tasks in which the participants had to select whether to use automation or conduct manual operation while monitoring the variable performance of automation and manual operation. As a result, we found that there is a mutual relationship between human use of automation and their sensitivity to automation and manual performance changes. Also, users do not react equally to both automation and manual performance changes although they use automation adequately. Copyright © 2013 The Institute of Electronics, Information and Communication Engineers.
    No preview · Article · Jul 2013 · IEICE Transactions on Fundamentals of Electronics Communications and Computer Sciences
  • Nana Kanzaki · Kazuhisa Miwa
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    ABSTRACT: Many published studies of graph comprehension have indicated that information gleaned from a graph is greatly influenced by the representation in the graph. Graphical representations of data should be consistent with the contents of the verbal explanation of those data. The present study investigated whether individuals who were engaging daily in academic activities using graphs (expert graph users), science graduates (semi-experts), and liberal arts undergraduates (non-experts) could generate graphs consistent with verbal explanations of data. The results of Experiment 1 suggested that expert graph users and science graduates could generate such graphs. On the other hand, in Experiment 2, undergraduates did not do so. The results of Experiment 3 suggested the possibility that presenting examples of possible graphs might result in improvement in the graph selections by undergraduates.
    No preview · Article · Jun 2013 · Japanese Journal of Educational Psychology
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    Hitoshi Terai · Kazuhisa Miwa
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    ABSTRACT: A chance has two contrary aspects: suddenness as an acci-dental finding and gradualness as the result of a prepared mind. Such duality of chance discovery resembles the insight process treated by prob-lem solving researches. In this paper, we focus on the insight process in human problem solving, present a broad overview of its suddenness and the gradualness, and introduce our experimental results from the view-point of the duality of insight. We believe that our research findings will contribute to studies of chance discovery.
    Preview · Article · Jan 2013
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    ABSTRACT: Interpreting experimental data based on a psychological theory requires understanding the mechanisms or factors underlying cognitive processes and acquiring an attitude for interpreting evidence from a theoretical perspective. In this study, we designed and practiced teaching and learning activities using cognitive models to foster both requirements in an introductory course of cognitive science. Fifty-three undergraduate students attended the course. During practice, students constructed a computational model on the process of semantic memory and conducted simulations using their model. We evaluated changes in learner interpretation of experimental data from pretest to posttest. The results of the practice showed that students' interpretations of experimental results for semantic memory changed from pretest to posttest. However, their interpretations of the results of other experiments did not show much difference between pretest and posttest.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2013
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    Nana Kanzaki · Kazuhisa Miwa
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    ABSTRACT: The comprehension of graphs is achieved through interaction between bottom-up and top-down processing. This study experimentally investigated the interaction between the graph representations determining bottom-up processing and the reader's perspective relating to top-down processing. Different representations on graphs generated from an identical data set elicited different interpretations of the graphs. We call this the "representation effect" on graph comprehension. In Experiment 1, we confirmed the characteristic of the bottom-up process of graph comprehension by using a set of line graphs which were identical in perceptual characteristics. In Experiments 2A and 2B, the participants were given a perspective for reading the graphs, and then they interpreted the graphs. The results showed that this perspective affected their comprehension of the graphs. Previous studies have shown that top-down processing may not be compatible with bottom-up processing in graph comprehension. However, our result indicated that top-down processing controlled by a perspective for reading the graph was not inconsistent with bottom-up processing, and therefore does not violate bottom-up processing.
    Preview · Article · Aug 2012 · Shinrigaku kenkyu: The Japanese journal of psychology
  • Kazuhisa Miwa · Hitoshi Terai
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    ABSTRACT: Participants engaged in the Prisoner’s dilemma game with a partner through a computer terminal. We define two types of partner: a perceived partner and an actual partner, and manipulated the two factors independently. A perceived partner means a partner with whom participants imagined themselves to be interacting; instruction given by an experimenter controls the image of the perceived partner. An actual partner can change its behavior. In one scenario participants actually interacted with a human partner, in another scenario their partner was either a mostly cooperating computer agent or a mostly defecting computer agent. Three experiments were performed. The result suggested that the participants’ selection behavior was largely influenced by the instruction given about the partner by the experimenter and not influenced by the partner’s actual behavior. The analysis of the participants’ impressions of the partner showed that the effect of instruction about the partner disappeared. Individual likeability for a partner was very influenced by the partner’s behavior; as the participants incurred more defect actions from the partner, individual likeability for the partner decreased. On the other hand, social likeability for a partner was not so influenced by the partner’s behavior, but rather related to the participants’ own behavior. The participants who made more defect actions rated their partner’s social likeability lower.
    No preview · Article · Jul 2012 · Computers in Human Behavior
  • Kazuhisa Miwa · Hitoshi Terai · Nana Kanzaki · Ryuichi Nakaike
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    ABSTRACT: We investigated whether students behave adaptively in hint-seeking from the viewpoint of self-fading. To let students effectively learn, scaffolding should be eliminated gradually with the progress of learning. We define self-fading as fading behavior lowing the levels of support by students themselves. We investigated the relation between such metacognitive behavior and learning effects through two experiments in a laboratory setting and in actual class activities. The results showed that our participants successfully faded help supports, and also confirmed that those who lowered the levels of support and learned with their own efforts gained larger learning effects.
    No preview · Conference Paper · Jun 2012
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    Kazuhisa Miwa · Junya Morita · Ryuichi Nakaike · Hitoshi Terai
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    ABSTRACT: Cognitive modelling is one of the representative research methods in cognitive science. It is believed that creating cognitive models promotes learners’ meta-cognitive activities such as self-monitoring and reflecting on their own cognitive processing. Preceding studies have confirmed that such meta-cognitive activities actually promote learning effects. However, there are some difficulties in bringing about learning by creating cognitive models in an educational context. To overcome the difficulties, we propose an innovative learning design, ‘learning through intermediate problems’ and also developed a web-based production system called DoCoPro that can be used anywhere and anytime in an environment connected to the Internet. We performed three introductory cognitive science classes in which the participants learned cognitive modelling and constructed running computer models using our system. In the first and second classes, the participants were required to construct production system models that solve pulley problems. They also posed their original pulley problems that their own models were subsequently able to solve. These generated problems were distributed to the other members. The participants were able to find incompleteness in their cognitive models, revise them to remove the incompleteness, and improve their models while solving the given problems. The participants, by successfully creating sophisticated models, acquired a deeper knowledge of the learning domain. The class practices confirmed the utility of ‘learning through intermediate problems’ when constructing an educational environment for learning creating cognitive models. In the third class, the participants constructed cognitive models solving addition and subtraction problems using DoCoPro. The cognitive processing underlying such problem solving is automated, therefore it may be difficult to verbalize and externalize such cognitive processes. The post-questionnaire showed evidence that the participants actually performed meta-cognitive activities while monitoring their own internal information processing.
    Preview · Article · May 2012 · Interactive Learning Environments
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    ABSTRACT: We constructed an innovative experimental platform to study cross-situational consistency in driving behavior, conducted behavioral experiments, and reported the data obtained in the experiment. To discuss cross-situational consistency, we separated situations in which people use some systems to conduct tasks into three independent conceptual factors: environment, context, and system. We report the experimental results with the following systems: a laboratory system with a gaming controller and steering/pedal controllers and a real system, COMS an instrumented vehicle. The results are summarized as follows. 1) The individual behaviors in each system were stable, and consistency was retained. 2) The consistency of the behaviors was also confirmed when the participants drove using different interfaces in identical systems. 3) However, only slight correlation was observed across different systems in a specific situation where a strong high-order cognitive constraint (i.e., rapid driving) and a weak low-order cognitive constraint (driving with easy handling toward a straight-line course) were given.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2012 · Work
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    ABSTRACT: Recent intelligent tutoring systems function with higher interactive futures and provide various types of instructional support. For such learning support, a crucial issue arises regarding the valance of the degree of support, that is, the degree by which the support continues and the point at which it is terminated. This issue, called “the assistance dilemma”, is drawn from a duality of cognitive activities: learning-oriented and performance-oriented activities. Learners have to assign their limited working memory capacity to both activities in order to perform tasks (performance-oriented activities) and to construct schema for learning (learning-oriented activities). The present paper discusses the assistance dilemma from the viewpoints of goal achievement theory, which was developed in educational psychology, and cognitive load theory, which was established in cognitive science and cognitive psychology. Literature relating to these two theories is reviewed.
    Preview · Article · Jan 2012 · Japanese Journal of Educational Psychology

Publication Stats

190 Citations
10.30 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2001-2015
    • Nagoya University
      • Graduate School of Information Science
      Nagoya, Aichi, Japan
  • 2008
    • Tokyo Denki University
      • School of Information Environment
      Edo, Tōkyō, Japan