A. Benoit

University Joseph Fourier - Grenoble 1, Grenoble, Rhône-Alpes, France

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Publications (336)560.8 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: The LUMINEU is designed to investigate the possibility to search for neutrinoless double beta decay in $^{100}$Mo by means of a large array of scintillating bolometers based on ZnMoO$_4$ crystals enriched in $^{100}$Mo. High energy resolution and relatively fast detectors, which are able to measure both the light and the heat generated upon the interaction of a particle in a crystal, are very promising for the recognition and rejection of background events. We present the LUMINEU concepts and the experimental results achieved aboveground and underground with large-mass natural and enriched crystals. The measured energy resolution, the $\alpha/\beta$ discrimination power and the radioactive internal contamination are all within the specifications for the projected final LUMINEU sensitivity. Simulations and preliminary results confirm that the LUMINEU technology can reach zero background in the region of interest (around 3 MeV) with exposures of the order of hundreds kg$\times$years, setting the bases for a next generation $0\nu2\beta$ decay experiment capable to explore the inverted hierarchy region of the neutrino mass pattern.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2016
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    ABSTRACT: The Lumped Element Kinetic Inductance Detectors (LEKID)demonstrated full maturity in the NIKA (New IRAM KID Arrays)instrument. These results allow directly comparing LEKID performance with other competing technologies (TES, doped silicon) in the mm and sub-mm range. A continuing effort is ongoing to improve the microfabrication technologies and concepts in order to satisfy the requirements of new instruments. More precisely, future satellites dedicated to CMB (Cosmic Microwave Background) studies will require the same focal plane technology to cover, at least, the frequency range of 60 to 600 GHz. Aluminium LEKID developed for NIKA have so far demonstrated, under real telescope conditions, performance approaching photon-noise limitation in the band 120-300 GHz. By implementing superconducting bi-layers we recently demonstrated LEKID arrays working in the range 80-120 GHz and with sensitivities approaching the goals for CMB missions. NIKA itself (350 pixels) is followed by a more ambitious project requiring several thousands (3000-5000) pixels. NIKA2 has been installed in October 2015 at the IRAM 30-m telescope. We will describe in detail the technological improvements that allowed a relatively harmless 10-fold up-scaling in pixels count without degrading the initial sensitivity. In particular we will briefly describe a solution to simplify the difficult fabrication step linked to the slot-line propagation mode in coplanar waveguide.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2016 · Journal of Low Temperature Physics
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    ABSTRACT: NIKA2 (New IRAM KID Array 2) is a camera dedicated to millimeter wave astronomy based upon kilopixel arrays of Kinetic Inductance Detectors (KID). The pathfinder instrument, NIKA, has already shown state-of-the-art detector performance. NIKA2 builds upon this experience but goes one step further, increasing the total pixel count by a factor $\sim$10 while maintaining the same per pixel performance. For the next decade, this camera will be the resident photometric instrument of the Institut de Radio Astronomie Millimetrique (IRAM) 30m telescope in Sierra Nevada (Spain). In this paper we give an overview of the main components of NIKA2, and describe the achieved detector performance. The camera has been permanently installed at the IRAM 30m telescope in October 2015. It will be made accessible to the scientific community at the end of 2016, after a one-year commissioning period. When this happens, NIKA2 will become a fundamental tool for astronomers worldwide.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2016
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    ABSTRACT: This work intends to give the state-of-the-art of our knowledge of the performance of LEKIDs at millimetre wavelengths (from 80 to 180~GHz). We evaluate their optical sensitivity under typical background conditions and their interaction with ionising particles. Two LEKID arrays, originally designed for ground-based applications and composed of a few hundred pixels each, operate at a central frequency of 100, and 150~GHz ($\Delta \nu / \nu$ about 0.3). Their sensitivities have been characterised in the laboratory using a dedicated closed-circle 100~mK dilution cryostat and a sky simulator, allowing for the reproduction of realistic, space-like observation conditions. The impact of cosmic rays has been evaluated by exposing the LEKID arrays to alpha particles ($^{241}$Am) and X sources ($^{109}$Cd) with a readout sampling frequency similar to the ones used for Planck HFI (about 200~Hz), and also with a high resolution sampling level (up to 2~MHz) in order to better characterise and interpret the observed glitches. In parallel, we have developed an analytical model to rescale the results to what would be observed by such a LEKID array at the second Lagrangian point.
    Preview · Article · Nov 2015
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    ABSTRACT: NIKA, the prototype of the NIKA2 camera, is an instrument operating at the IRAM 30m telescope that can observe the sky simultaneously at 150 and 260GHz. One of the main goals of NIKA is to measure the pressure distribution in galaxy clusters at high angular resolution using the Sunyaev-Zel'dovich (SZ) effect. Such observations have already proved to be an excellent probe of cluster pressure distributions even at high redshifts. However, an important fraction of clusters host submm and/or radio point sources that can significantly affect the reconstructed signal. Here we report <20arcsec angular resolution observations at 150 and 260GHz of the cluster MACSJ1424, which hosts both radio and submm point sources. We examine the morphological distribution of the SZ signal and compare it to other datasets. The NIKA data are combined with Herschel satellite data to study the SED of the submm point source contaminants. We then perform a joint reconstruction of the ICM electronic pressure and density by combining NIKA, Planck, XMM-Newton and Chandra data, focussing on the impact of the radio and submm sources on the reconstructed pressure profile. We find that the large-scale pressure distribution is unaffected by the point sources due to the resolved nature of the NIKA observations. The reconstructed pressure in the inner region is slightly higher when the contribution of point sources are removed. We show that it is not possible to set strong constraints on the central pressure distribution without removing accurately these contaminants. The comparison with Xray only data shows good agreement for the pressure, temperature and entropy profiles, all indicating that MACSJ1424 is a dynamically relaxed cool core system. The present observations illustrate the possibility of measuring these quantities with a relatively small integration time, even at high redshift and without Xray spectroscopy.
    No preview · Article · Oct 2015
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    ABSTRACT: We update the all-sky Planck catalogue of 1227 clusters and cluster candidates (PSZ1) published in March 2013, derived from detections of the Sunyaev-Zeldovich (SZ) effect using the first 15.5 months of Planck satellite observations. As an addendum, we deliver an updated version of the PSZ1 catalogue, reporting the further confirmation of 86 Planck-discovered clusters. In total, the PSZ1 now contains 947 confirmed clusters, of which 214 were confirmed as newly discovered clusters through follow-up observations undertaken by the Planck Collaboration. The updated PSZ1 contains redshifts for 913 systems, of which 736 (similar to 80.6%) are spectroscopic, and associated mass estimates derived from the Y-z mass proxy. We also provide a new SZ quality flag for the remaining 280 candidates. This flag was derived from a novel artificial neural-network classification of the SZ signal. Based on this assessment, the purity of the updated PSZ1 catalogue is estimated to be 94%. In this release, we provide the full updated catalogue and an additional readme file with further information on the Planck SZ detections.
    Full-text · Article · Sep 2015
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    ABSTRACT: NIKA is a dual-band camera operating with 315 frequency multiplexed LEKIDs cooled at 100 mK. NIKA is designed to observe the sky in intensity and polarisation at 150 and 260 GHz from the IRAM 30-m telescope. It is a test-bench for the final NIKA2 camera. The incoming linear polarisation is modulated at four times the mechanical rotation frequency by a warm rotating multi-layer Half Wave Plate. Then, the signal is analysed by a wire grid and finally absorbed by the LEKIDs. The small time constant (< 1ms ) of the LEKID detectors combined with the modulation of the HWP enables the quasi-simultaneous measurement of the three Stokes parameters I, Q, U, representing linear polarisation. In this pa- per we present results of recent observational campaigns demonstrating the good performance of NIKA in detecting polarisation at mm wavelength.
    Full-text · Article · Aug 2015 · Journal of Low Temperature Physics
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    ABSTRACT: This paper presents the Planck 2015 likelihoods, statistical descriptions of the 2-point correlation functions of CMB temperature and polarization. They use the hybrid approach employed previously: pixel-based at low multipoles, $\ell$, and a Gaussian approximation to the distribution of cross-power spectra at higher $\ell$. The main improvements are the use of more and better processed data and of Planck polarization data, and more detailed foreground and instrumental models. More than doubling the data allows further checks and enhanced immunity to systematics. Progress in foreground modelling enables a larger sky fraction, contributing to enhanced precision. Improvements in processing and instrumental models further reduce uncertainties. Extensive tests establish robustness and accuracy, from temperature, from polarization, and from their combination, and show that the {\Lambda}CDM model continues to offer a very good fit. We further validate the likelihood against specific extensions to this baseline, such as the effective number of neutrino species. For this first detailed analysis of Planck polarization, we concentrate at high $\ell$ on E modes. At low $\ell$ we use temperature at all Planck frequencies along with a subset of polarization. These data take advantage of Planck's wide frequency range to improve the separation of CMB and foregrounds. Within the baseline cosmology this requires a reionization optical depth $\tau=0.078\pm0.019$, significantly lower than without high-frequency data for explicit dust monitoring. At high $\ell$ we detect residual errors in E, typically at the {\mu}K$^2$ level; we thus recommend temperature alone as the high-$\ell$ baseline. Nevertheless, Planck high-$\ell$ polarization spectra are already good enough to allow a separate high-accuracy determination of the {\Lambda}CDM parameters, consistent with those established from temperature alone.
    Full-text · Article · Jul 2015
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    ABSTRACT: The Second Planck Catalogue of Compact Sources is a catalogue of sources detected in single-frequency maps from the full duration of the Planck mission and supersedes previous versions of the Planck compact source catalogues. It consists of compact sources, both Galactic and extragalactic, detected over the entire sky. Compact sources detected in the lower frequency channels are assigned to the PCCS2, while at higher frequencies they are assigned to one of two sub-catalogues, the PCCS2 or PCCS2E, depending on their location on the sky. The first of these catalogues covers most of the sky and allows the user to produce subsamples at higher reliabilities than the target 80% integral reliability of the catalogue. The PCCS2E contains sources detected in sky regions where the diffuse emission makes it difficult to quantify the reliability of the detections. Both the PCCS2 and PCCS2E include polarization measurements, in the form of polarized flux densities, or upper limits, and orientation angles for all seven polarization-sensitive Planck channels. The improved data-processing of the full-mission maps and their reduced noise levels allow us to increase the number of objects in the catalogue, improving its completeness for the target 80 % reliability as compared with the previous versions, the PCCS and ERCSC catalogues.
    Full-text · Article · Jul 2015
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    ABSTRACT: (abridged) We discuss the Galactic foreground emission between 20 and 100GHz based on observations by Planck/WMAP. The Commander component-separation tool has been used to separate the various astrophysical processes in total intensity. Comparison with RRL templates verifies the recovery of the free-free emission along the Galactic plane. Comparison of the high-latitude Halpha emission with our free-free map shows residuals that correlate with dust optical depth, consistent with a fraction (~30%) of Halpha having been scattered by high-latitude dust. We highlight a number of diffuse spinning dust morphological features at high latitude. There is substantial spatial variation in the spinning dust spectrum, with the emission peak ranging from below 20GHz to more than 50GHz. There is a strong tendency for the spinning dust component near many prominent HII regions to have a higher peak frequency, suggesting that this increase in peak frequency is associated with dust in the photodissociation regions around the nebulae. The emissivity of spinning dust in these diffuse regions is of the same order as previous detections in the literature. Over the entire sky, the commander solution finds more anomalous microwave emission than the WMAP component maps, at the expense of synchrotron and free-free emission. This can be explained by the difficulty in separating multiple broadband components with a limited number of frequency maps. Future surveys (5-20GHz), will greatly improve the separation by constraining the synchrotron spectrum. We combine Planck/WMAP data to make the highest S/N ratio maps yet of the intensity of the all-sky polarized synchrotron emission at frequencies above a few GHz. Most of the high-latitude polarized emission is associated with distinct large-scale loops and spurs, and we re-discuss their structure...
    Full-text · Article · Jun 2015
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    ABSTRACT: We present a description of the pipeline used to calibrate the Planck Low Frequency Instrument (LFI) timelines into thermodynamic temperatures for the Planck 2015 data release, covering 4 years of uninterrupted operations. As in the 2013 data release, our calibrator is provided by the spin-synchronous modulation of the CMB dipole, exploiting both the orbital and solar components. Our 2015 LFI analysis provides an independent Solar dipole estimate in excellent agreement with that of HFI and within $1\sigma$ (0.3 % in amplitude) of the WMAP value. This 0.3 % shift in the peak-to-peak dipole temperature from WMAP and a global overhaul of the iterative calibration code increases the overall level of the LFI maps by 0.45 % (30 GHz), 0.64 % (44 GHz), and 0.82 % (70 GHz) in temperature with respect to the 2013 Planck data release, thus reducing the discrepancy with the power spectrum measured by WMAP. We estimate that the LFI calibration uncertainty is at the level of 0.20 % for the 70 GHz map, 0.26 % for the 44 GHz map, and 0.35 % for the 30 GHz map. We provide a detailed description of the impact of all the changes implemented in the calibration since the previous data release.
    Full-text · Article · May 2015
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    ABSTRACT: The LUMINEU (Luminescent Underground Molybdenum Investigation for NEUtrino mass and nature) project envisages a high-sensitivity search for neutrinoless double beta (0ν 2β) decay of 100Mo with the help of scintillating bolometers based on zinc molybdate (ZnMoO4) crystals. One of the crucial points for the successful performance of this experiment is the development of a protocol for producing high quality large mass ZnMoO4 crystal scintillators with extremely high internal radiopurity. Here we report a significant progress in the development of large volume ZnMoO4 crystalline boules (with mass up to 1 kg) from deeply purified materials. We present and discuss the results achieved with two ZnMoO4 samples (with mass of about 0.3 kg each): one is a precursor of the LUMINEU project, while the other one was produced in the framework of LUMINEU with an improved purification / crystallization procedure. The two crystals were measured deep underground as scintillating bolometers in the EDELWEISS dilution refrigerator at the Laboratoire Souterrain de Modane (France) protected by a rock overburden corresponding to 4800 m w.e. The results indicate that both tested crystals are highly radiopure. However, the advanced LUMINEU sample shows a clear improvement with respect to the precursor, exhibiting only a trace internal contamination related with 210Po at the level of 1 mBq/kg, while the activity of 226Ra and 228Th is below 0.005 mBq/kg. This demonstrates that the LUMINEU purification and crystal-growth procedures are very efficient and leads to radiopurity levels which exceedingly satisfy not only the LUMINEU goals but also the requirements of a next-generation 0ν 2β experiment.
    No preview · Article · May 2015 · Journal of Instrumentation
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    ABSTRACT: We have developed Lumped Element Kinetic Inductance Detectors (LEKID) sensitive in the frequency band from 80 to 120~GHz. In this work, we take advantage of the so-called proximity effect to reduce the superconducting gap of Aluminium, otherwise strongly suppressing the LEKID response for frequencies smaller than 100~GHz. We have designed, produced and optically tested various fully multiplexed arrays based on multi-layers combinations of Aluminium (Al) and Titanium (Ti). Their sensitivities have been measured using a dedicated closed-circle 100 mK dilution cryostat and a sky simulator allowing to reproduce realistic observation conditions. The spectral response has been characterised with a Martin-Puplett interferometer up to THz frequencies, and with a resolution of 3~GHz. We demonstrate that Ti-Al LEKID can reach an optical sensitivity of about $1.4$ $10^{-17}$~$W/Hz^{0.5}$ (best pixel), or $2.2$ $10^{-17}$~$W/Hz^{0.5}$ when averaged over the whole array. The optical background was set to roughly 0.4~pW per pixel, typical for future space observatories in this particular band. The performance is close to a sensitivity of twice the CMB photon noise limit at 100~GHz which drove the design of the Planck HFI instrument. This figure remains the baseline for the next generation of millimetre-wave space satellites.
    Preview · Article · Apr 2015 · Astronomy and Astrophysics
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    No preview · Article · Mar 2015
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    ABSTRACT: We present foreground-reduced CMB maps derived from the full Planck data set in both temperature and polarization. Compared to the corresponding Planck 2013 temperature sky maps, the total data volume is larger by a factor of 3.2 for frequencies between 30 and 70 GHz, and by 1.9 for frequencies between 100 and 857 GHz. In addition, systematic errors in the forms of temperature-to-polarization leakage, analogue-to-digital conversion uncertainties, and very long time constant errors have been dramatically reduced, to the extent that the cosmological polarization signal may now be robustly recovered on angular scales $\ell\gtrsim40$. On the very largest scales, instrumental systematic residuals are still non-negligible compared to the expected cosmological signal, and modes with $\ell < 20$ are accordingly suppressed in the current polarization maps by high-pass filtering. As in 2013, four different CMB component separation algorithms are applied to these observations, providing a measure of stability with respect to algorithmic and modelling choices. The resulting polarization maps have rms instrumental noise ranging between 0.21 and 0.27$\,\mu\textrm{K}$ averaged over 55 arcmin pixels, and between 4.5 and 6.1$\,\mu\textrm{K}$ averaged over 3.4 arcmin pixels. The cosmological parameters derived from the analysis of temperature power spectra are in agreement at the $1\sigma$ level with the Planck 2015 likelihood. Unresolved mismatches between the noise properties of the data and simulations prevent a satisfactory description of the higher-order statistical properties of the polarization maps. Thus, the primary applications of these polarization maps are those that do not require massive simulations for accurate estimation of uncertainties, for instance estimation of cross-spectra and cross-correlations, or stacking analyses.
    Full-text · Article · Feb 2015
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    ABSTRACT: Within ten nearby (d < 450 pc) Gould Belt molecular clouds we evaluate statistically the relative orientation between the magnetic field projected on the plane of sky, inferred from the polarized thermal emission of Galactic dust observed by Planck at 353 GHz, and the gas column density structures, quantified by the gradient of the column density, $N_H$. The relative orientation is evaluated pixel by pixel and analyzed in bins of column density using the novel statistical tool Histogram of Relative Orientations. Within most clouds we find that the relative orientation changes progressively with increasing $N_H$ from preferentially parallel or no preferred orientation to preferentially perpendicular. In simulations of magnetohydrodynamic turbulence in molecular clouds this trend in relative orientation is a signature of Alfv\'enic or sub-Alfv\'enic turbulence, implying that the magnetic field is significant for the gas dynamics at the scales probed by Planck. We compare the deduced magnetic field strength with estimates we obtain from other methods and discuss the implications of the Planck observations for the general picture of molecular cloud formation and evolution.
    Full-text · Article · Feb 2015
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    ABSTRACT: We present the implications for cosmic inflation of the Planck measurements of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) anisotropies in both temperature and polarization based on the full Planck survey. The Planck full mission temperature data and a first release of polarization data on large angular scales measure the spectral index of curvature perturbations to be $n_\mathrm{s} = 0.968 \pm 0.006$ and tightly constrain its scale dependence to $d n_s/d \ln k =-0.003 \pm 0.007$ when combined with the Planck lensing likelihood. When the high-$\ell$ polarization data is included, the results are consistent and uncertainties are reduced. The upper bound on the tensor-to-scalar ratio is $r_{0.002} < 0.11$ (95% CL), consistent with the B-mode polarization constraint $r< 0.12$ (95% CL) obtained from a joint BICEP2/Keck Array and Planck analysis. These results imply that $V(\phi) \propto \phi^2$ and natural inflation are now disfavoured compared to models predicting a smaller tensor-to-scalar ratio, such as $R^2$ inflation. Three independent methods reconstructing the primordial power spectrum are investigated. The Planck data are consistent with adiabatic primordial perturbations. We investigate inflationary models producing an anisotropic modulation of the primordial curvature power spectrum as well as generalized models of inflation not governed by a scalar field with a canonical kinetic term. The 2015 results are consistent with the 2013 analysis based on the nominal mission data.
    Full-text · Article · Feb 2015
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    ABSTRACT: We present the all-sky Planck catalogue of Sunyaev-Zeldovich (SZ) sources detected from the 29 month full-mission data. The catalogue (PSZ2) is the largest SZ-selected sample of galaxy clusters yet produced and the deepest all-sky catalogue of galaxy clusters. It contains 1653 detections, of which 1203 are confirmed clusters with identified counterparts in external data-sets, and is the first SZ-selected cluster survey containing > 103 confirmed clusters. We present a detailed analysis of the survey selection function in terms of its completeness and statistical reliability, placing a lower limit of 83% on the purity. Using simulations, we find that the Y5R500 estimates are robust to pressure-profile variation and beam systematics, but accurate conversion to Y500 requires. the use of prior information on the cluster extent. We describe the multi-wavelength search for counterparts in ancillary data, which makes use of radio, microwave, infra-red, optical and X-ray data-sets, and which places emphasis on the robustness of the counterpart match. We discuss the physical properties of the new sample and identify a population of low-redshift X-ray under- luminous clusters revealed by SZ selection. These objects appear in optical and SZ surveys with consistent properties for their mass, but are almost absent from ROSAT X-ray selected samples.
    Full-text · Article · Feb 2015
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    ABSTRACT: We predict and investigate four types of imprint of a stochastic background of primordial magnetic fields (PMFs) on the cosmic microwave background (CMB) anisotropies: the impact of PMFs on the CMB spectra; the effect on CMB polarization induced by Faraday rotation; magnetically-induced non-Gaussianities; and the magnetically-induced breaking of statistical isotropy. Overall, Planck data constrain the amplitude of PMFs to less than a few nanogauss. In particular, individual limits coming from the analysis of the CMB angular power spectra, using the Planck likelihood, are $B_{1\,\mathrm{Mpc}}< 4.4$ nG (where $B_{1\,\mathrm{Mpc}}$ is the comoving field amplitude at a scale of 1 Mpc) at 95% confidence level, assuming zero helicity, and $B_{1\,\mathrm{Mpc}}< 5.6$ nG when we consider a maximally helical field. For nearly scale-invariant PMFs we obtain $B_{1\,\mathrm{Mpc}}<2.1$ nG and $B_{1\,\mathrm{Mpc}}<0.7$ nG if the impact of PMFs on the ionization history of the Universe is included in the analysis. From the analysis of magnetically-induced non-Gaussianity we obtain three different values, corresponding to three applied methods, all below 5 nG. The constraint from the magnetically-induced passive-tensor bispectrum is $B_{1\,\mathrm{Mpc}}< 2.8$ nG. A search for preferred directions in the magnetically-induced passive bispectrum yields $B_{1\,\mathrm{Mpc}}< 4.5$ nG, whereas the the compensated-scalar bispectrum gives $B_{1\,\mathrm{Mpc}}< 3$ nG. The analysis of the Faraday rotation of CMB polarization by PMFs uses the Planck power spectra in $EE$ and $BB$ at 70 GHz and gives $B_{1\,\mathrm{Mpc}}< 1380$ nG. In our final analysis, we consider the harmonic-space correlations produced by Alfv\'en waves, finding no significant evidence for the presence of these waves. Together, these results comprise a comprehensive set of constraints on possible PMFs with Planck data.
    Full-text · Article · Feb 2015
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    ABSTRACT: We present the most significant measurement of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) lensing potential to date (at a level of 40 sigma), using temperature and polarization data from the Planck 2015 full-mission release. Using a polarization-only estimator we detect lensing at a significance of 5 sigma. We cross-check the accuracy of our measurement using the wide frequency coverage and complementarity of the temperature and polarization measurements. Public products based on this measurement include an estimate of the lensing potential over approximately 70% of the sky, an estimate of the lensing potential power spectrum in bandpowers for the multipole range 40<L<400 and an associated likelihood for cosmological parameter constraints. We find good agreement between our measurement of the lensing potential power spectrum and that found in the best-fitting LCDM model based on the Planck temperature and polarization power spectra. Using the lensing likelihood alone we obtain a percent-level measurement of the parameter combination Sigma_8 Omega_m^{0.25} = 0.591+-0.021. We combine our determination of the lensing potential with the E-mode polarization also measured by Planck to generate an estimate of the lensing B-mode. We show that this lensing B-mode estimate is correlated with the B-modes observed directly by Planck at the expected level and with a statistical significance of 10 sigma, confirming Planck's sensitivity to this known sky signal. We also correlate our lensing potential estimate with the large-scale temperature anisotropies, detecting a cross-correlation at the 3 sigma level, as expected due to dark energy in the concordance LCDM model.
    Full-text · Article · Feb 2015

Publication Stats

8k Citations
560.80 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2009-2015
    • University Joseph Fourier - Grenoble 1
      • Institut Néel
      Grenoble, Rhône-Alpes, France
  • 2014
    • Imperial College London
      Londinium, England, United Kingdom
  • 2011-2014
    • University of Grenoble
      Grenoble, Rhône-Alpes, France
  • 1980-2014
    • French National Centre for Scientific Research
      • • Institut Néel
      • • Institut d'astrophysique spatiale (IAS)
      Lutetia Parisorum, Île-de-France, France
    • Institut Laue-Langevin
      Grenoble, Rhône-Alpes, France
  • 2013
    • University of Milan
      Milano, Lombardy, Italy
  • 1974-2012
    • Université Paris-Sud 11
      • Laboratoire de Physique des Solides
      Orsay, Île-de-France, France
    • Laboratory of Plasma Physics
      Paliseau, Île-de-France, France
  • 2008-2010
    • Institut Néel
      Grenoble, Rhône-Alpes, France
  • 2007
    • Claude Bernard University Lyon 1
      • Institut de physique nucléaire de Lyon (IPNL)
      Villeurbanne, Rhône-Alpes, France
    • Karlsruhe Institute of Technology
      • Institute of Experimental Nuclear Physics
      Carlsruhe, Baden-Württemberg, Germany
  • 2004
    • Atomic Energy and Alternative Energies Commission
      Fontenay, Île-de-France, France
  • 1998
    • Institut d'Astrophysique Spatiale
      Lutetia Parisorum, Île-de-France, France
  • 1985
    • Hiroshima University
      • Faculty of Science
      Hirosima, Hiroshima, Japan