Francisco J. Gracia

University of Valencia, Valenza, Valencia, Spain

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Publications (29)19.92 Total impact

  • José M. Peiró · Francisco J. Gracia · Mario Martínez-Córcoles
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    ABSTRACT: Assessing safety culture is a key element in the strategies of reliability assurance in nuclear facilities. A diagnosis that provides a return on investment (ROI) requires a scientifically based conceptualization of the most relevant variables in safety culture and outcomes expected from it. Furthermore, it is important to develop assessment tools and designs which allow, not only checking the state of safety culture but evaluating the correlates in the different productive levels of analysis, taking into account the temporal dimension that allows us to analyze the change and thereby identify the main determinants and mechanisms for improvement.
    No preview · Article · Feb 2015
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    Susana Schmitz · Teresa Rebelo · Francisco J. Gracia · Inés Tomás
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    ABSTRACT: In the contemporary context of high competitiveness between organizations, organizational learning culture and knowledge management (KM) have been considered key concepts in both academic and managerial settings. This study aims to provide empirical support for the relationship between organizational learning culture and knowledge management, specifically concerning the prediction of learning culture on KM processes. Data collection was carried out through questionnaires in 50 Portuguese manufacturing firms. Data was analyzed at the organizational level using standard multiple regressions. The results showed a significant and positive relationship between learning culture and KM practices. Concerning the two dimensions of learning culture, internal integration was the main predictor for KM formal practices, KM informal practices and strategic management of knowledge, whereas the external adaptation dimension was shown to predict only the strategic management of knowledge. The present study contributes to theoretical and empirical findings concerning the relationship between learning culture and knowledge management processes.
    Full-text · Article · Sep 2014 · Revistade Psicologiadel Trabajoydelas Organizaciones
  • I. Breso · V. Orengo · F. J. Gracia · Jose M. Peiro
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    ABSTRACT: Teams are central work units in organizations. One of the processes that are receiving attention is team learning. The focus is on those processes that can predict team learning and its evolution over time. This study has two objectives. First, analyze team climate effect on team learning development. Second, test the moderator role of team stressors (work overload and time pressure) in the relationship between tem climate and team learning. Results obtained shows that team climate have concurrent and differed effects on team learning. On the other hand, work overload moderates the relationship between support for innovation and team learning at the beginning of teamwork, but time pressure does not have effects in the relationship between team climate and team learning.
    No preview · Article · Apr 2014 · Universitas Psychologica
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    ABSTRACT: Safety compliance is of paramount importance in guaranteeing the safe running of nuclear power plants. However, it depends mostly on procedures that do not always involve the safest outcomes. This article introduces an empirical model based on the organizational role theory to analyze the influence of legitimate sources of expectations (procedures formalization and leadership) on workers' compliance behaviors. The sample was composed of 495 employees from two Spanish nuclear power plants. Structural equation analysis showed that, in spite of some problematic effects of proceduralization (such as role conflict and role ambiguity), procedure formalization along with an empowering leadership style lead to safety compliance by clarifying a worker's role in safety. Implications of these findings for safety research are outlined, as well as their practical implications.
    No preview · Article · Feb 2014 · Risk Analysis
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    ABSTRACT: This paper takes the first steps to empirically validate the widely used model of safety culture of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), composed of five dimensions, further specified by 37 attributes. To do so, three independent and complementary studies are presented. First, 290 students serve to collect evidence about the face validity of the model. Second, 48 experts in organizational behavior judge its content validity. And third, 468 workers in a Spanish nuclear power plant help to reveal how closely the theoretical five-dimensional model can be replicated. Our findings suggest that several attributes of the model may not be related to their corresponding dimensions. According to our results, a one-dimensional structure fits the data better than the five dimensions proposed by the IAEA. Moreover, the IAEA model, as it stands, seems to have rather moderate content validity and low face validity. Practical implications for researchers and practitioners are included.
    No preview · Article · Aug 2013 · Accident; analysis and prevention
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    ABSTRACT: Despite the large body of work on team leadership, hardly any literature has dealt with team leadership in safety performance settings. The goal of the present study is to analyze how team leader behaviors influence team members’ safety performance in nuclear power plants. For this purpose, an empowering leadership approach was assessed. We consider a multilevel model in which safety performance is divided into three types of behaviors. The sample was composed of 479 workers in 54 groups from two Spanish nuclear power plants. The results suggested that leaders’ empowering behaviors generated higher safety compliance behaviors and higher safety participation behaviors by team members, whereas risky behaviors were reduced. Empirical support was found for hierarchical linear modeling linking leadership and safety performance behaviors. Practical implications, study limitations and directions for future research are discussed.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2013 · Safety Science
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    ABSTRACT: Safety participation is of paramount importance in guaranteeing the safe running of nuclear power plants. The present study examined the effects of empowering leadership on safety participation. Based on a sample of 495 employees from two Spanish nuclear power plants, structural equation modeling showed that empowering leadership has a significant relationship with safety participation, which is mediated by collaborative team learning. In addition, the results revealed that the relationship between empowering leadership and collaborative learning is partially mediated by the promotion of dialogue and open communication. The implications of these findings for safety research and their practical applications are outlined. An empowering leadership style enhances workers' safety performance, particularly safety participation behaviors. Safety participation is recommended to detect possible rule inconsistencies or misunderstood procedures and make workers aware of critical safety information and issues.
    Full-text · Article · Jul 2012 · Journal of safety research
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    ABSTRACT: Résumé. Cette étude empirique sur quatre types de travailleurs temporaires (et un groupe de travailleurs permanents aux fins de comparaison) utilise une typologie innovante basée sur la préférence pour le travail temporaire et la perception de l'employabilité. Sur un échantillon de 1 300 salariés de six pays, et au moyen de variables comprenant des caractéristiques démographiques et relatives à l'emploi, le comportement et l'insécurité, les auteurs observent des différences significatives entre les quatre types, mais pas sur la satisfaction personnelle et le bien-être. Ils argumentent contre l'idée reçue du travail temporaire affectant des travailleurs peu qualifiés incapables de trouver un travail permanent, et soulignent l'intérêt de recherches plus fines sur les politiques de flexicurité.
    No preview · Article · Dec 2011 · Revue internationale du Travail
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    ABSTRACT: Resumen. Valiéndose de una tipología novedosa, los autores analizan empíricamente cuatro tipos de trabajadores temporales y los comparan con un grupo de trabajadores fijos. En la muestra, que comprende 1.300 personas de seis países, hallan diferencias significativas en numerosas variables —como características demográficas y del puesto de trabajo, actitudes e inseguridad laboral—, pero no en la satisfacción vital y el bienestar. Es erróneo considerar que los trabajadores eventuales son personas poco cualificadas incapaces de encontrar un empleo fijo; ahora bien, conviene afinar las investigaciones al respecto para perfeccionar las políticas de «flexiseguridad».
    No preview · Article · Dec 2011 · Revista Internacional del Trabajo
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    ABSTRACT: . Applying an innovative typology based on preference for temporary employment and perceived employability, the authors empirically examine four types of temporary workers (and a group of permanent workers for comparison). In a sample of 1,300 employees from six countries, they find significant differences between the four types on a broad set of variables – including demographic and job characteristics, attitude and insecurity – but not in life satisfaction and well-being. They conclude with an argument against the equation of temporary employment with low-skilled workers unable to find a permanent job, stressing the valuable implications of more sensitive research for policy-making on flexicurity.
    Full-text · Article · Dec 2011 · International Labour Review
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    ABSTRACT: Leadership is considered an essential element in guaranteeing the safe running of organizations. The purpose of the present study is to find out how leader behaviours influence employees’ safety behaviours (perceived safety behaviours) in the nuclear field. In an attempt to answer this question, the authors of this research have considered the way this influence is exercised, taking into consideration some important factors like safety culture and safety climate. To achieve this, the empowerment leadership model, based on a behavioural approach to leadership, was used. The sample was made up of 566 employees from a Spanish nuclear power plant. The results indicated that when safety culture was strong, leader behaviour generated a higher safety climate among the members, which predicted their perceived safety behaviours. Support was found for a structural model linking leadership and safety behaviour to safety culture and safety climate. The implications of these findings for the theory of safety and the way they can be put into practice are outlined.
    No preview · Article · Oct 2011 · Safety Science
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    ABSTRACT: A great amount of research has illustrated the evident prevalence of job insecurity in working life and its harmful outcomes for employees and organizations. Some authors have identified factors that can reduce this negative influence. However, up until now, most of these factors have only been studied at an individual level, without taking into account the fact that contextual conditions can play a moderating role in organizations. Following this perspective, this article analyses the moderator role of organizational justice and organizational justice climate in the relationship between job insecurity and its outcomes. The study was carried out with a sample of 942 employees from 47 Spanish organizations and a subsample composed of 597 employees from 29 of these organizations. The results showed that both organizational justice and organizational justice climate moderated the relationship between job insecurity and job satisfaction and intention to leave the organization.
    Full-text · Article · Nov 2010 · Economic and Industrial Democracy
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    ABSTRACT: A key feature of the research is the inclusion of employers' representatives from all organizations in the study. This chapter outlines their reported reasons for employing temporary workers and shows that it is primarily to provide flexibility when covering absences or peaks in demand. It compares their treatment of permanent and temporary workers and reveals a more limited and more transactional relationship with temporary workers. And it describes their assessment of the performance of both categories of worker, finding that employers report slightly higher levels of satisfaction with the performance of temporary workers. However policy and practice associated with the employment of temporary workers is, for the most part, not strongly related to employers' accounts of the performance of permanent and temporary workers.
    No preview · Chapter · Jul 2010
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    ABSTRACT: One of the distinctive features of this study is the opportunity to compare the responses of employers and employees. The aim of this chapter is to determine the level of agreement about the content and fulfilment of the psychological contract. A second aim is to determine whether higher levels of agreement are associated with more positive outcomes. The results reveal relatively modest levels of agreement about promises made, agreement being somewhat higher with respect to permanent rather than temporary workers. With respect to fulfilment of promises, there is a fair degree of reciprocity with both parties tending to report moderate fulfilment. Higher levels of agreement about promises made and fulfilled are not strongly associated with more positive outcomes; rather it is the measure of fairness that is more important in determining outcomes. This raises questions about the role of mutuality in the exchange at the heart of the psychological contract.
    No preview · Chapter · Jul 2010
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    Inmaculada Silla · Francisco J. Gracia · Miguel Angel Manas · José M. Peiró
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to examine the relationships between both job insecurity and fairness and employees' attitudes (job satisfaction, organisational commitment and turnover intention). Moreover, of even greater interest, it aims to test whether fairness mitigates the negative correlates associated with job insecurity. Design/methodology/approach – The aproach takes the form of a cross-sectional study based on self-reported data. The sample was composed of 697 employees from a Spanish public organisation. Findings – The findings showed that job insecurity is detrimental to employees' attitudes, whereas fairness is beneficial. Moreover, the results showed the negative correlates of job insecurity to be less strong in the presence of fairness. Research limitations/implications – First, this is a cross-sectional study, and therefore no causal relationships can be assumed. Second, the study is based on self-reported data, which could lead to common variance source and method problems. Practical implications – Job insecurity is a widespread concern in contemporary societies. Thus, research on how to palliate its negative correlates is valued. This study suggests fairness judgements might buffer the negative correlates associated with job insecurity. Originality/value – Previous research has shown job insecurity to be detrimental to both individuals and organisations (e.g. job satisfaction, organisational commitment and turnover intention). Nonetheless, differences observed across studies in the strength of these relationships suggest the presence of moderating factors. The study provides evidence on the moderating role of fairness judgements.
    Full-text · Article · Jul 2010 · International Journal of Manpower
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    ABSTRACT: As employers respond to intensive global competition through the deregulation of labor, job insecurity has become a widespread problem. It has been shown to have significant health impacts in a growing number of workers, but less is known about its social distribution, the mechanisms through which it may act, and the moderating effects of gender, socioeconomic position, and company size. Utilizing data from a national survey of a representative sample of paid employees in Taiwan, we examined the prevalence of job insecurity and its associations with psychosocial work characteristics and health status. A total of 8705 men and 5986 women aged between 25 and 65 years old were studied. Information on perceived job insecurity, industrial and occupational types, psychosocial work characteristics as assessed by the Job Strain model, and various measures of health status were obtained by a self-administered questionnaire. The overall prevalence of job insecurity was high (50%). Job insecurity was more prevalent among employees with lower education attainment, in blue-collar and construction workers, those employed in smaller companies, and in older women. Insecure employees also reported lower job control, higher job demands, and poor workplace social support, as compared with those who held secure positions. Regression analyses showed that job insecurity was strongly associated with poor health, even with adjustment of age, job control, job demands, and work place social support. The deleterious effects of job insecurity appeared to be stronger in men than women, in women who held managerial or professional jobs than women in other employment grades, and in those working in larger companies than smaller ones. The findings of this study suggest that perceived job insecurity is an important source of stress, and it is accompanied with adverse psychosocial work conditions and poor health. High-risk groups were identified for further investigation.
    Full-text · Article · Dec 2009 · Journal of Happiness Studies
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    ABSTRACT: In a changing and flexible labour market it is important to clarify the role of environmental and personal variables that contribute to obtaining adequate levels of job satisfaction. The aim of the present study is to analyze the direct effects of employability and personal initiative on intrinsic, extrinsic and social job satisfaction, clarifying their cumulative and interactive effects. The study has been carried out in a sample of 1319 young Spanish workers. Hypotheses were tested by means of the moderated hierarchical regression analysis. Results show that employability and personal initiative predict in a cumulative way the intrinsic, extrinsic and social job satisfaction. Moreover, the interaction between employability and personal initiative increases the prediction of these two variables on intrinsic and extrinsic job satisfaction. Results also indicate that higher values of employability when initiative is also high are associated to higher levels of intrinsic and extrinsic satisfaction. These results have implications for theory and practice in a context of new employment relations.
    Full-text · Article · Nov 2009 · The Spanish Journal of Psychology
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    Irene Bresó · Francisco Javier Gracia · Felisa Latorre · José María Peiró

    Full-text · Article · Oct 2008
  • Francisco Javier Gracia · Inmaculada Silla · José María Peiró · Lina Fortes-Ferreira
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    ABSTRACT: In the present paper the role of the state of the psychological contract to predict psychological health results is studied in a sample of 385 employees of different Spanish companies. Results indicate that the state of the psychological contract significantly predicts life satisfaction, work-family conflict and well-being beyond the prediction produced by the content of the psychological contract. In addition, trust and fairness, two dimensions of the state of psychological contract, all together contribute to explain these psychological health variables adding value to the role as predictor of fulfillment of the psychological contract. The results support the approach argued by Guest and colleagues.
    No preview · Article · Jun 2006 · Psicothema
  • Amparo Caballer · Francisco Gracia · José-María Peiró
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose – To analyze the direct and combined effects of the communication media and time pressure in group work on the affective responses of team members while performing intellective tasks Design/methodology/approach – A laboratory experiment was carried out with 124 subjects working in 31 groups. The task performed by the groups was an intellective one. A 2?×?3 factorial design with three media (face-to-face, video-conference, and e-mail) and time pressure (with and without time pressure) was used to determine the direct and combined effects of these two variables on group members' satisfaction with the process and with the results, and on members' commitment with the decision. Findings – Results show a direct effect of communication media on satisfaction with the process, which confirms the prediction of the media-task fit model, and a negative effect of time pressure on satisfaction with group results and commitment to those results. Most interestingly, the interaction effects for the three dependent variables are significant and show that the most deleterious effects of time pressure are produced in groups working face-to-face, while groups mediated by video-conference improve their affective responses under time pressure. Research limitations/implications – Some limitations are the use of a student sample, so generalizability of the findings is limited, and the use of only one task type. Practical implications – It can help one to know how to design work to improve satisfaction and implication of workers. Originality/value – This paper shows some innovations as the combined effects of media and time pressure, controlling for the task type on group members' affective responses to their work and achievements.
    No preview · Article · Mar 2005 · Journal of Managerial Psychology