P. Lomas

Culham Centre for Fusion Energy, Abingdon-on-Thames, England, United Kingdom

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Publications (330)491.59 Total impact

  • No preview · Article · Feb 2016 · Nuclear Fusion
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    ABSTRACT: New experiments in 2013–2014 have investigated the physics responsible for the decrease in H-mode pedestal confinement observed in the initial phase of JET-ILW operation (2012 Experimental Campaigns). The effects of plasma triangularity, global beta and neutrals on pedestal confinement and stability have been investigated systematically. The stability of JET-ILW pedestals is analysed in the framework of the peeling–ballooning model and the model assumptions of the pedestal predictive code EPED. Low D neutrals content in the plasma, achieved either by low D2 gas injection rates or by divertor configurations with optimum pumping, and high beta are necessary conditions for good pedestal (and core) performance. In such conditions the pedestal stability is consistent with the peeling–ballooning paradigm. Moderate to high D2 gas rates, required for W control and stable H-mode operation with the ILW, lead to increased D neutrals content in the plasma and additional physics in the pedestal models may be required to explain the onset of the ELM instability. The changes in H-mode performance associated with the change in JET wall composition from C to Be/W point to D neutrals and low-Z impurities playing a role in pedestal stability, elements which are not currently included in pedestal models. These aspects need to be addressed in order to progress towards full predictive capability of the pedestal height.
    No preview · Article · Sep 2015 · Nuclear Fusion
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    ABSTRACT: Disruptions are a major operational concern for next generation tokamaks, including ITER. They may generate excessive heat loads on plasma facing components, large electromagnetic forces in the machine structures and several MA of multi-MeV runaway electrons. A more complete understanding of the runaway generation processes and methods to suppress them is necessary to ensure safe and reliable operation of future tokamaks. Runaway electrons were studied at JET-ILW showing that their generation dependencies (accelerating electric field, avalanche critical field, toroidal field, MHD fluctuations) are in agreement with current theories. In addition, vertical stability plays a key role in long runaway beam formation. Energies up to 20 MeV are observed. Mitigation of an incoming runaway electron beam triggered by massive argon injection was found to be feasible provided that the injection takes place early enough in the disruption process. However, suppressing an already accelerated runaway electron beam in the MA range was found to be difficult even with injections of more than 2 kPa.m 3 high-Z gases such as krypton or xenon. This may be due to the presence of a cold background plasma weakly coupled to the runaway electron beam which prevents neutrals from penetrating in the electron beam core. Following unsuccessful mitigation attempts, runaway electron impacts on beryllium plasma-facing components were observed, showing localized melting with toroidal asymmetries.
    Full-text · Article · Aug 2015 · Nuclear Fusion
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    ABSTRACT: Wall conditioning will be required in ITER to control fuel and impurity recycling, as well as tritium (T) inventory. Analysis of conditioning cycle on the JET, with its ITER-Like Wall is presented, evidencing reduced need for wall cleaning in ITER compared to JET–CFC. Using a novel 2D multi-fluid model, current density during Glow Discharge Conditioning (GDC) on the in-vessel plasma-facing components (PFC) of ITER is predicted to approach the simple expectation of total anode current divided by wall surface area. Baking of the divertor to 350 °C should desorb the majority of the co-deposited T. ITER foresees the use of low temperature plasma based techniques compatible with the permanent toroidal magnetic field, such as Ion (ICWC) or Electron Cyclotron Wall Conditioning (ECWC), for tritium removal between ITER plasma pulses. Extrapolation of JET ICWC results to ITER indicates removal comparable to estimated T-retention in nominal ITER D:T shots, whereas GDC may be unattractive for that purpose.
    Full-text · Article · Aug 2015 · Journal of Nuclear Materials
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    ABSTRACT: The impact of the divertor geometry on global plasma confinement in type I ELMy H-mode has been investigated in the JET tokamak equipped with ITER-Like Wall. Discharges have been performed in which the position of the strike-points was changed while keeping the bulk plasma equilibrium essentially unchanged. Large variations of the global plasma confinement have been observed, the H98 factor changing from typically 0.7 when the outer strike-point is on the vertical or horizontal targets to 0.9 when it is located in the pump duct entrance. Profiles are mainly impacted in the pedestal but core gradient lengths, especially for the density, are also modified. Although substantial differences are observed in the divertor conditions, none seem to correlate directly with the confinement. Modelling with the EDGE2D-EIRENE and SOLEDGE2D-EIRENE transport codes exhibits differences in the energy losses due to neutrals inside the separatrix, but orders of magnitude are too low to explain simply the impact on the confinement.
    No preview · Article · Aug 2015 · Journal of Nuclear Materials
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    ABSTRACT: Runaway electrons have been created using injections of high-Z noble gases at JET. Their features are close to runaways created in the same way the carbon wall. Runaway beam suppression was achieved with massive gas injection only if fired before the beginning of the current quench. Injections of up to 4300 Pa.m3 on an already accelerated runaway beam were ineffective
    No preview · Conference Paper · Jun 2015
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    ABSTRACT: The Joint European Torus (JET) is the largest tokamak currently in operation in the world. One of the greatest challenges of JET is the integrated commissioning of all its major plant systems. This is driven, partially, by the size and complexity of its operational infrastructure and also by the fact that, being an international environment, it has to address the issues of integrating, commissioning and maintaining plant systems developed by third parties. The ITER tokamak, now in construction, is a fusion device twice the size of JET and, being a joint effort between the European Union, China, India, Japan, South Korea, the Russian Federation and the USA, it will share on a wider scale all of the JET challenges regarding integration and integrated commissioning of very large and complex plant systems. With the scope of taking advantage from the history and experience of JET, Fusion for Energy (F4E) has worked together with the Culham Centre for Fusion Energy (CCFE), the host and operator of JET, for the provision of ITER relevant user experiences related to the integrated commissioning of the tokamak. This work presents and discusses the main results and the methods that were used to extract and translate the commissioning experience information into ITER requirements. © 2015 Elizabeth A. [email protected] /* */ Published by Elsevier B.V. All rightsreserved.
    No preview · Article · Mar 2015
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    ABSTRACT: This paper reports the progress made at JET-ILW on integrating the requirements of the reference ITER baseline scenario with normalized confinement factor of 1, at a normalized pressure of 1.8 together with partially detached divertor whilst maintaining these conditions over many energy confinement times. The 2.5 MA high triangularity ELMy H-modes are studied with two different divertor configurations with D-gas injection and nitrogen seeding. The power load reduction with N seeding is reported. The relationship between an increase in energy confinement and pedestal pressure with triangularity is investigated. The operational space of both plasma configurations is studied together with the ELM energy losses and stability of the pedestal of unseeded and seeded plasmas. The achievement of stationary plasma conditions over many energy confinement times is also reported.
    No preview · Article · Mar 2015 · Plasma Physics and Controlled Fusion
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    ABSTRACT: The JET tokamak is unique amongst present fusion devices in its capability to operate at high plasma current, providing the closest plasma parameters to ITER. The physics benefits of high current operation have to be balanced against the risks to the integrity of the machine due to high force disruptions. The installation of the ITER-Like Wall (ILW) has added risks due to the thermal characteristics of the metal Plasma Facing Components. This paper describes the operational aspects of the scientific development of high current H-mode plasmas with the ILW, focusing on disruption prediction, avoidance and amelioration. The development yielded baseline H-mode plasmas up to 4 MA/3.74 T, comparable to the maximum current achieved in JET in Carbon-Wall (CFC) conditions with similar divertor geometry.
    No preview · Article · Feb 2015 · Fusion Engineering and Design
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    ABSTRACT: External magnetic perturbations are typically utilized in tokamak devices with two operational or experi- mental purposes: 1) correction of intrinsic 3-D error fields and 2) mitigation or suppression of edge localized modes (ELMs). At Joint European Torus (JET), dedicated coils are used for the generation of these toroidally asymmetric perturbations. While error fields exist even in the absence of plasma, in ELM mitigation experiments, the external fields are meant to slightly ergodize the magnetic topology in the plasma periphery hence reducing the drive for the destabilization of these instabilities. The control of the magnetic field produced by these coils is achieved by controlling the current flowing in them. The real- time system responsible for this control recently underwent a number of functional improvements since its original implemen- tation utilizing the present voltage-controlled voltage sources. This paper describes the overall system, built-in functionality, and control algorithms and presents preliminary experimental results along with performance assessment studies. In particular, the main improvements are: 1) the possibility of automatically reducing the current references in case the plasma amplifies the applied perturbation; 2) a real-time limitation of d I/d t to reduce the electromotive force in machine protection diagnostic systems; 3) implementation of a model predictive controller as an alternative to the proportional integral derivative; and 4) the possibility of adapting the current references, in real time, using an external system. The result is a flexible control system contributing toward state-of-the-art physics research at JET’s international and dynamic scientific environment.
    No preview · Article · Feb 2015 · IEEE Transactions on Plasma Science
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    ABSTRACT: The JET Shape Controller (SC) uses nine distinct circuits, powering the JET poloidal field coils, to control in real time the coil currents, and the plasma shape, current and position. The control scheme presently used [1] is based on a Multiple Input Multiple Output (MIMO) controller, which is designed to decouple the inductive coupling of the different coils. Achieving such a decoupling, the SC allows the user to tune independently the time response of each circuit. As a matter of fact the intended decoupling algorithm has been incorrectly coded in the JET SC system. This paper describes the modelling and experimental activities performed to correct the code error, and to improve the performance on a subset of the controlled parameters.
    No preview · Article · Feb 2015 · Fusion Engineering and Design
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    ABSTRACT: The baseline type-I ELMy H-mode scenario has been re-established in JET with the new tungsten MKII-HD divertor and beryllium on the main wall (hereafter called the ITER-like wall, JET-ILW).The first JET-ILW results show that the confinement is degraded by 20–30% in the baseline scenarios compared to the previous carbon wall JET (JET-C) plasmas. The degradation is mainly driven by the reduction in the pedestal temperature. Stored energies and pedestal temperature comparable to the JET-C have been obtained to date in JET-ILW baseline plasmas only in the high triangularity shape using N2 seeding.This work compares the energy losses during ELMs and the corresponding time scales of the temperature and density collapse in JET-ILW baseline plasmas with and without N2 seeding with similar JET-C baseline plasmas. ELMs in the JET-ILW differ from those with the carbon wall both in terms of time scales and energy losses. The ELM time scale, defined as the time to reach the minimum pedestal temperature soon after the ELM collapse, is ∼2 ms in the JET-ILW and lower than 1 ms in the JET-C. The energy losses are in the range ΔW ELM/W ped ≈ 7–12% in the JET-ILW and ΔW ELM/W ped ≈ 10–20% in JET-C, and fit relatively well with earlier multi-machine empirical scalings of ΔW ELM/W ped with collisionality. The time scale of the ELM collapse seems to be related to the pedestal collisionality. Most of the non-seeded JET-ILW ELMs are followed by a further energy drop characterized by a slower time scale ∼8–10 ms (hereafter called slow transport events), that can lead to losses in the range ΔW slow/W ped ≈ 15–22%, slightly larger than the losses in JET-C. The N2 seeding in JET-ILW significantly affects the ELMs. The JET-ILW plasmas with N2 seeding are characterized by ELM energy losses and time scales similar to the JET-C and by the absence of the slow transport events.
    No preview · Article · Feb 2015 · Nuclear Fusion
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    ABSTRACT: We present the pedestal structure, as determined from the high-resolution Thomson scattering measurements, for a database of low and high triangularity (δ ≈ 0.22–0.39) 2.5 MA, type I ELMy H-mode JET plasmas after the installation of the new ITER-like wall (JET-ILW). The database explores the effect of increasing deuterium fuelling and nitrogen seeding with a view to explain the observed changes in performance (edge and global). The low triangularity JET-ILW plasmas show no significant change in performance and pedestal structure with increasing gas dosing. These results are in good agreement with EPED1 predictions. At high triangularity, for pure deuterium fuelled JET-ILW plasmas, there is a 20–30% reduction in global performance and pressure pedestal height in comparison to JET-C plasmas. This reduction in performance is primarily due to a degradation of the temperature pedestal height. The global performance and pressure pedestal height of JET-ILW plasmas can be partially recovered to that of JET-C plasmas with additional nitrogen seeding (Giroud et al 2013 Nucl. Fusion 53 113025). This observed improvement in performance is predominately due to a significant increase in density pedestal height as well as a small increase in the temperature pedestal height. A key result with increasing deuterium fuelling for JET-ILW plasmas is there is no improvement in pressure pedestal height however the pedestal still widens which is inconsistent with the scaling. Furthermore, a key result with increasing nitrogen seeding is the pressure pedestal widening is due to an increase in the temperature pedestal width whilst the density pedestal shows no clear trend. The comparison of EPED1 predictions with the measurements at high triangularity is complex as, for example, for pure deuterium fuelled plasmas there is very good agreement for the pedestal height but not the width. In addition, current EPED1 runs under-predict the pedestal height and width at high nitrogen seeding for JET-ILW plasmas however further work is required to determine the significance of these deviations. Understanding these deviations is essential as provides an insight to the physical mechanisms governing the pedestal structure and edge performance.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2015 · Nuclear Fusion
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    ABSTRACT: The JET ITER-like Wall (ILW) provides the same plasma facing component configuration as ITER during its active phase: beryllium in the main chamber and tungsten in the divertor. Moving from a carbon-based wall to an all metals wall requires some operational adjustment. The reduction in radiation at the plasma edge and in the divertor can lead to high power loads on the plasma facing components both in steady state and in transients and requires the development of radiative scenarios and the use of massive gas injection to mitigate disruptions. These tools are even more important now because an all metal wall is much less forgiving to thermal overloading the carbon based wall used to be. Here the impact of the first 11 months of operation on the ILW plasma facing components is discussed.
    No preview · Article · Oct 2014 · Fusion Engineering and Design
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    ABSTRACT: The JET scrape-off layer (SOL) has been characterized with a reciprocating probe in inner wall (IW), and outer wall (OW), limited plasmas. Experiments revealed that SOL profiles are substantially broader (by a factor of ∼5–7.5 in the power e-folding length) for IW limited than in OW limited plasmas. Results are consistent with the larger radial turbulent transport found for IW limited plasmas. Major differences are observed between IW and OW limited plasmas on the density and electron temperature e-folding lengths, parallel flow, radial turbulent transport as well as on the temporal and spatial characteristics of the fluctuations. Experimental findings on JET suggest that the differences in the SOL characteristics for both configurations are due to a combination of a poloidal asymmetry in radial transport with a reduced cross-field transport across the last closed flux surface associated with the confinement improvement observed for OW limited plasmas.The dependence of the SOL power e-folding length on the main plasma parameters was also investigated for IW limited plasmas and a modest negative dependence on both the plasma current and the line-averaged density found. Finally, it is shown that the SOL radial transport and the amplitude of the fluctuations increase with plasma current and decrease with line-averaged density for IW limited plasmas.
    Full-text · Article · Aug 2014 · Nuclear Fusion
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    ABSTRACT: The former all-carbon wall on JET has been replaced with beryllium in the main torus and tungsten in the divertor to mimic the surface materials envisaged for ITER. Comparisons are presented between Type I H-mode characteristics in each design by examining respective scans over deuterium fuelling and impurity seeding, required to ameliorate exhaust loads both in JET at full capability and in ITER.
    Full-text · Article · Jun 2014 · Nuclear Fusion
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    Full-text · Conference Paper · Jun 2014
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    Full-text · Conference Paper · Jun 2014
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    ABSTRACT: In order to preserve the integrity of large tokamaks such as ITER, the number of disruptions has to be limited. JET has operated previously with a low frequency of disruptions (i.e., disruption rate) of 3.4% [P. C. de Vries et al., Nucl. Fusion 51, 053018 (2011)]. The start of operations with the new full-metal ITER-like wall at JET showed a marked rise in the disruption rate to 10%. A full survey was carried out to identify the root causes, the chain-of-events and classifying each disruption, similar to a previous analysis for carbon-wall operations. It showed the improvements made to avoid various disruption classes, but also indicated those disruption types responsible for the enhanced disruption rate. The latter can be mainly attributed to disruptions due to too high core radiation but also due to density control issues and error field locked modes. Detailed technical and physics understanding of disruption causes is essential for devising optimized strategies to avoid or mitigate these events.
    Full-text · Article · Apr 2014 · Physics of Plasmas
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    ABSTRACT: Type I ELMy H-mode operation in JET with the ITER-like Be/W wall (JET-ILW) generally occurs at lower pedestal pressures compared to those with the full carbon wall (JET-C). The pedestal density is similar but the pedestal temperature where type I ELMs occur is reduced and below to the so-called critical type I–type III transition temperature reported in JET-C experiments. Furthermore, the confinement factor H98(y,2) in type I ELMy H-mode baseline plasmas is generally lower in JET-ILW compared to JET-C at low power fractions Ploss/Pthr,08 < 2 (where Ploss is (Pin − dW/dt), and Pthr,08 the L–H power threshold from Martin et al 2008 (J. Phys. Conf. Ser. 123 012033)). Higher power fractions have thus far not been achieved in the baseline plasmas. At Ploss/Pthr,08 > 2, the confinement in JET-ILW hybrid plasmas is similar to that in JET-C. A reduction in pedestal pressure is the main reason for the reduced confinement in JET-ILW baseline ELMy H-mode plasmas where typically H98(y,2) = 0.8 is obtained, compared to H98(y,2) = 1.0 in JET-C. In JET-ILW hybrid plasmas a similarly reduced pedestal pressure is compensated by an increased peaking of the core pressure profile resulting in H98(y,2) ≤ 1.25. The pedestal stability has significantly changed in high triangularity baseline plasmas where the confinement loss is also most apparent. Applying the same stability analysis for JET-C and JET-ILW, the measured pedestal in JET-ILW is stable with respect to the calculated peeling–ballooning stability limit and the ELM collapse time has increased to 2 ms from typically 200 µs in JET-C. This indicates that changes in the pedestal stability may have contributed to the reduced pedestal confinement in JET-ILW plasmas. A comparison of EPED1 pedestal pressure prediction with JET-ILW experimental data in over 500 JET-C and JET-ILW baseline and hybrid plasmas shows a good agreement with 0.8 < (measured pped)/(predicted pped,EPED) < 1.2, but that the role of triangularity is generally weaker in the JET-ILW experimental data than in the model predictions
    No preview · Article · Apr 2014 · Nuclear Fusion

Publication Stats

3k Citations
491.59 Total Impact Points


  • 2002-2015
    • Culham Centre for Fusion Energy
      Abingdon-on-Thames, England, United Kingdom
  • 2013
    • Forschungszentrum Jülich
      • Zentralabteilung für Chemische Analysen (ZCH)
      Jülich, North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany
  • 2002-2013
    • Max Planck Institute for Plasma Physics
      • Max Planck Institute for Plasma Physics, Greifswald
      Arching, Bavaria, Germany
  • 2012
    • Technical University of Lisbon
      • Institute for Plasma Research and Nuclear Fusion (IPFN)
      Lisboa, Lisbon, Portugal
  • 1989-2004
    • General Atomics
      San Diego, California, United States
  • 1991-2001
    • University of Toronto
      • Institute for Aerospace Studies
      Toronto, Ontario, Canada
  • 1994
    • University of Milan
      Milano, Lombardy, Italy