M.A. Wahab

Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujib Medical University, Mujib City, Dhaka, Bangladesh

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Publications (121)74.73 Total impact

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    N C Roy · A H M Kohinoor · M A Wahab · S H Thilsted

    Full-text · Dataset · Jan 2016
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    Roy N.C · Wahab M.A · Khatoon H · Thilsted S.H

    Full-text · Dataset · Oct 2015
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    Full-text · Dataset · Jul 2015
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    ABSTRACT: Muktagacha, Mymensingh for a period of 4 months (July-October 2003) to assess the potential of increasing pond fish production by growing dhaincha (Sesbania rostrata) in the pond bottom. The experiment consisted of four treatments each with three replications with an object of replacement for the use of fertilizers in fish production. In treatment-I (T1) dhaincha without fertilizer, in treatment-II (T2) dhaincha with 25% fertilizer, in treatment-III dhaincha with 50% fertilizer and in treatment-IV (T4) dhaincha with 100% fertilizer were used. Dhaincha seed was sown at 100 g􀁸40m-2 from bottom to dike. After 50 days of sowing dhaincha on the moist pond bottom, lime and fertilizer were used and fish fry were released after watering the ponds. The stocking density of rohu (Labeo rohita), catla (Catla catla), mrigal (Cirrhinus cirrhihosus), silver carp (Hypophthalmich-thys molitrix) and Thai sarputi (Puntius gonionotus) was 12,350 fish􀁸ha-1 in all treatments. Fertilization was done at 100 g urea + 100 g TSP􀁸40 m-2, 50 g urea + 50 g TSP􀁸40 m-2, 25 g urea + 25 g TSP􀁸40 m-2 in treatments T4, T3 and T2, respectively and no fertilization in T1. Some of the water quality parameters showed significant difference among different treatments, but most parameters were found within the suitable ranges for pond fish culture. Recorded periphyton groups were composed of Bacillariophyceae (9), Chloro-phyceae (10), Euglenophyceae (2), Cyanophyceae (6), Crustacea (2) and Rotifera (3). Among these groups Cyanophyceae was the most abundant in number of which Micro-cystis was most abundant. The mean abundance of Cyanophyceae in treatments T1, T2, T3 and T4 were 62,099±7,159 cells􀁸cm-2, 59,259±7,941 cells􀁸cm-2, 53,827±12,983 cells􀁸cm-2 and 56,419±13,015 cells􀁸cm-2, respectively. The mean survival rate in treatments T1, T2, T3 and T4 were 82.14, 84.53, 82.83 and 83.23%, respectively. The highest growth rate of fish observed after one month of stocking and then growth rate was decreased gradually. Highest total net fish yield was recorded in T2 (1,619 kg􀁸ha-1), where 25% fertilizer was used along with Dhaincha followed by T1 (1,249 kg􀁸ha-1), T3 (1,421 kg􀁸ha-1) and T4 (1,268 kg􀁸ha-1). It can be concluded that use of dhaincha along with 25% fertilizer would be a better environment friendly management system for pond aquaculture than the only fertilizer dependent culture practice.
    Full-text · Dataset · Jul 2015
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    N C Roy · M A Wahab · P C Ray · S H Thilsted
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    ABSTRACT: The optimization of stocking density of mola (Amblypharyngodon mola) in the polyculture with Labeo rohita, Catla catla, Cirrhinus mrigala and Ctenopharyngodon idella was investigated. Four treatments were tried with seven replicates each. Only carp fingerlings were stocked in the treatment 1 (control) and carps with mola were present in treatments 2, 3 and 4. Three stocking densities of brood mola i.e. 100, 150 and 200 fish were tested in treatments 2, 3 and 4, respectively with stocking density of carps fixed at 43 fingerlings per 40 m pond. Most of the water quality parameters were not significant variations (P>0.05), however transparency 2 and chlorophyll-a varied significantly among the treatments. Although water quality parameters showed some variations among treatments but they do not have any definite trend in respect of different stocking densities of mola. Although individual growth of rohu showed variations among treatments, the fish productions in all treatments were not significantly different (P>0.05). Comparatively higher yield was recorded in treatment-1 (without mola), however carp with lowest density of mola (100 mola per 40 m pond area) was recommended for 2 nutritional, socioeconomic and production point of view.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2015
  • M.N. Alam · M.A. Wahab · L. Khondker · M.S.I. Khan
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    ABSTRACT: Objective: To compare the efficacy and safety of topical calcipotriol ointment (0.005%) and betamethasone dipropionate (0.05%) cream, given alone and in combination, in treatment of localized vitiligo. Methods :It was a clinical trial conducted from January 2012 to August 2012. Patients of localized vitiligo attending outpatient department of Dermatology and Venereology, Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujib Medical University, Dhaka were the study population. In group A, 20 patients applied betamethasone dipropionate cream 0.05% in the morning and topical calcipotriene ointment (0.005%) in the evening, in group B, 20 patients applied betamethasone dipropionate cream 0.05% twice daily; In group C, 20 patients used calcipotriene ointment 0.005%. Results :in The vitiligo score in group A, B and C reduced from 26, 25 and 23, respectively to 3, 8 and 6 (p<0.05). The side effects experienced by patients at 5th follow-up were: in group A erythema (15%), dryness (15%), scaling (5%) and pruritus (5%); in group B, erythema (15%), scaling (5%), dryness (5%) and pruritus (5%); and in group C, erythema (10%) [p=0.005]. Conclusion : Both the drugs, calcipotriol and betamethasone dipropionate when used individually as monotherapy, were found to be equally effective in the treatment of vitiligo, but the combination of the two was found to be superior in efficacy. Regarding safety level, calcipotriene and betamethasone dipropionate when used individually, were found to be safer in the treatment of vitiligo, than the combination of the two.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2014 · Journal of Pakistan Association of Dermatologists
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    M M Rahman · M.C.J. Verdegem · M.A. Wahab · M.Y. Hossain · Q. Jo

    Full-text · Dataset · Sep 2013
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    ABSTRACT: An experiment was conducted to determine the effects of stocking density on growth performance and production of Amblypharyngodon mola during 9 July to 9 October, 2011. There were three treatments, each with three replications in nine earthen ponds with an average depth of 1.5 m. Ponds of three treatments T 1, T2 and T3 were stocked with mola at the density of 145000; 73000 and 36500 ind. ha-1. Water temperature, transparency, total alkalinity, pH, dissolved oxygen, Nitrate-nitrogen, nitrite-nitrogen, ammonia-nitrogen, phosphate-phosphorus and chlorophyll-a of the ponds water were measured weekly. Among water quality parameters, significant differences (p<0.05) were observed in case of temperature and dissolved oxygen. The lowest PO4-P and chlorophyll-a concentration were observed in T1. All water quality parameters were in suitable range of fish culture. The numbers of fishes at harvest were 155633.31±11.5; 84200±4 and 45600±7.21 indi. ha-1 in T 1, T2 and T3, respectively. The mean weight of mola during harvest decreased significantly (p<0.05) with increasing stocking density. The net production of mola was significantly higher in treatment T3 (43.22±8.66 kg ha-1) than T2 (34.82±6.53 kg ha-1) and T1 (32.74±6.53 kg ha-1). Considering the highest net production among the three tested densities, the stocking density applied in T3 was found the best.
    Full-text · Article · May 2013 · Sains Malaysiana
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    ABSTRACT: Objective: To observe the safety of parenteral dexamethasone compared with oral prednisolone in the treatment of pemphigus vulgaris. Patients and methods: A clinical trial was carried out in the department of Dermatology and Venereology, Bangabandu Sheikh Mujib Medical University, Dhaka, Bangladesh. Total number of patients was thirty. Among them fifteen patients were treated with injection dexamethasone (group A) and other fifteen were treated with oral prednisolone (group B). Results: Statistically significant improvement was observed in both groups in all clinical parameters after 6 weeks. But dexamethasone group showed statistically more significant improvement than prednisolone group in all clinical parameters except Nikolsky's sign. Most common adverse effects in both groups were weight gain, increased appetite, puffy face and hyperglycemia. In dexamethasone group other side effect was sleep disturbance. In prednisolone group other side effects were gastritis, sleep disturbance, nausea and vomiting, herpes zoster infection, reactivation of tuberculosis and mood change. Conclusion: Parenteral dexamethasone appears to be safer than oral prednisolone in the management of pemphigus vulgaris with an acceptable efficacy profile.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2013 · Journal of Pakistan Association of Dermatologists
  • L Khondker · M A Wahab · S I Khan
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    ABSTRACT: The interventional type of study to assess the efficacy of Pimecrolimus cream in the treatment of patient of localized discoid lupus erythematosus (DLE) was carried out for a period of July 2008 to June 2009. It was observed that before treatment, erythema was severe in 43.2% cases, moderate in 51.4% cases and mild type erythema was present in 5.4% cases. The post- treatment revealed, 29.7% severe type erythema, none evidenced moderate type erythema, only 43.2% had mild type and 27% cases no erythema at all. Before treatment, infiltration was severe in 27% cases, moderate in 54.1% cases and only 18.9% had mild type infiltration. But after treatment, 10.8% had severe type infiltration, 18.9% had moderate, 51.4% had mild and 18.9% had no infiltration at all. Similar response to treatment was noticed with squamation which exhibited a drop from 37.8% to 18.9% in severe cases and from 62.2% to 10.8% in moderate cases. There was a 45.9% mild case and 24.3% had no squamation. The scoring result of photosensitivity, itching, disfigurement evidenced analogously score reduction of 2.0, 3.05 and 3.12 respectively. In conclusion, it was interpreted that score of patients of DLE, before treatment was 6.83 ± 1.30 and after treatment was 3.83 ± 1.18. Unpaired 't' test was found statistically significant (p<0.05) between before and after treatment by drug. Improvement was shown in 26(70.27%) cases and 11(29.73%) cases shown no improvement at all. Marked improvement observed on the 2nd follow up visit at the end of 12 weeks. Response was good in 23(88.46%) cases, fair 2(7.69%) and poor 1(3.85%) cases. The study suggests that pimecrolimus 1% cream has significant efficacy profile for treatment option of cutaneous lupus erythematosus.
    No preview · Article · Apr 2012 · Mymensingh Medical Journal
  • M. A. Wahab · A. Kadir · A. Milstein · M. Kunda
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    ABSTRACT: A sustainable semi-intensive pond aquaculture technology including major carp species as ‘cash-crop’ and small indigenous fish species (SIS) as food for the farmers' families is being optimized in Bangladesh. This is done through manipulations of the fish species combinations stocked, considering the ecological effects produced by bottom feeders on the pond bottom and filter feeders in the water column. The present paper presents results of experiments performed simultaneously in 64 farmers' fish ponds, located in 4 distant agro-ecological regions of Bangladesh. In each region each experiment involved 4 treatments, 4 replicates per treatment. The control polyculture was the traditional stocking of 33 rohu (Labeo rohita), 33 catla (Catla catla), and 34 common carp (Cyprinus carpio) per 100m2, with the addition of 250 SIS and 3 silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix) per 100m2. In previous experiments this silver carp addition was found to have no effects on the other fish and on the environment, compared to the traditional stocking without silver carp. Interferences on the water column (Water treatment) were achieved changing the density of the herbivorous fish (reducing catla density to 24/100m2 and increasing silver carp to 12/100m2), and on the bottom (Bottom treatment) doing so on the benthophagous fish (replacing 10/100m2 common carp by mrigal). Both interferences were simultaneously carried out in the Water and Bottom treatment. Harvesting weight and biomass, growth rate, survival and yield of each species and total yield, food conversion ratio and income obtained in the different treatments and regions are presented and their interactions through the food web are discussed. Performing the same experiment in four distant regions of the country allowed observing if the effects of the Water column and/or Bottom interventions differ among regions, and accelerating the dissemination of the “cash-SIS” technology throughout the country. The manipulations performed did not affect the small fish mola, which reproduced and yielded equally well in all the polycultures. This allowed a continuous mola supply for consumption by the farmers' families throughout the culture season, and opened the option to consume or sell the larger amounts of mola gathered at final harvest. Manipulation of species composition proved to be a useful tool to affect the pond ecosystem towards improving fish yield and corresponding income. Just by substituting almost a third of the catla by silver carp increased total yield by 16%. When also almost a third of the common carp was substituted by mrigal, total yield increased a further 3%. In both cases selling the whole production increased income by 27%, which gives the farmer the option to keep part of the fish for family consumption.
    No preview · Article · Dec 2011 · Aquaculture
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    ABSTRACT: Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a common pruritic, eczematous skin disorder that runs a chronic and relapsing course. Major and minor criteria exist as guideline for arriving at a diagnosis of AD. Minor features vary with ethnicity and genetic background and can be used to aid diagnosis. A descriptive study was conducted including 210 patients of 1-12 years age who had concurrent or past history of AD according to criteria of Hanifin and Rajka. This study was conducted in the department of Dermatology of three different Hospitals of Bangladesh. Out of 33 sub-criteria of Hanifin and Rajka, 20 of which were examined encompassed tendency towards cutaneous infection, environmental factor, high IgE level, intolerance of wool, xerosis, infra-orbital fold, ichthyosis, early age of onset, itch on sweating, palmer hyperlinearity, food hypersensitivity, keratosis pilaris, pityriasis alba, facial erythema, cheilitis, hand eczema, foot eczema, intolerance of lipid solvent, scalp scaling and infra-auricular fissure. Out of 20 examined minor criteria, most common was cutaneous infection in 168(80.0%) patients followed by coursed influenced by environmental factor in 140(66.7%), high IgE level in 126(60.0%), intolerance of wool in 105(50.0%), xerosis in 92(43.8%), infra-orbital fold in 83(39.5%), ichthyosis in 72(34.3%), early age of onset in 65(31.0%), itch on sweating in 56(26.7%), palmary hyperlinearity in 52(24.8%), food hypersensitivity in 40(19.0%), keratosis pilaris in 31(14.8%), pityriasis alba in 30(14.3%), facial erythema in 25(1.9%), cheilitis in 22(10.5%), hand eczema in 19(9.0%), foot eczema in 16(7.6%), intolerance of lipid solvent in 14(6.7% ), scalp scaling in 11(5.2%) and infra-auricular fissure in 10(4.8%). These features were present singly or in combination. The result evidenced that minor criteria are many a times important for the diagnosis where major criteria are uncertain.
    No preview · Article · Jul 2011 · Mymensingh Medical Journal
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    M. Asaduzzaman · M. A. Wahab · M. C. J. Verdegem

    Full-text · Article · Jan 2011
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    ABSTRACT: An on-station trial was conducted to investigate the effects of three C/N ratios (10/1, 15/1 and 20/1) along with substrate presence or absence on natural food communities in freshwater prawn culture ponds. An experiment was carried out in 40 m2 ponds stocked with a stocking density of 2 prawn juveniles (5.023 ± 0.02 g) m―2. A locally formulated and prepared feed containing 30% crude protein with C/N ratio 10 was applied to all ponds. In order to raise the C/N ratio of the feed input to 15 and 20, tapioca starch was applied separately as a source of carbohydrate in addition to the artificial feed. Under substrate treatments, bamboo side shoots were posted vertically in pond bottoms resulting in 100% additional surface area as periphyton substrates. The treatments with different C/N ratios are referred to as "CN10", "CN15" and "CN20". Increasing the C/N ratio from 10 to 20 significantly increased the biovolume of phytoplankton, crustaceans and rotifers in the water column by 15%, 6% and 11%, respectively. The biovolume of periphyton was 50% higher in treatment CN20 compared to treatment CN10. Increasing the C/N ratio from 10 to 20 raised the biovolume of total heterotrophic bacteria (THB) in the water column (70%), sediment (36%) and periphyton (40%). The chironomids biovolume was also significantly higher (28%) in treatment CN20 compared to treatment CN10. The addition of substrates decreased the biovolume of water column plankton by 14% but the combined biovolume (plankton+ periphyton) was almost double in substrate-added ponds. The biovolume of plankton, periphyton and THB increased significantly with culture time duration whereas the biovolume of benthic macroinvertebrates decreased significantly with culture time indicating that freshwater prawn grazed on them. A significant interaction between C/N ratios and substrate presence or absence was only observed for plankton biovolume in the water column. This study demonstrated that plankton, periphyton and microbial biofloc communities were under-utilized by the freshwater prawn in treatment CN20. This leaves room for increasing the stocking density of prawn and/or inclusion of periphyton grazing fish species to improve nutrient utilization efficiency and overall sustainability.
    Full-text · Article · Aug 2010 · Aquaculture
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    Full-text · Article · Jun 2010 · Aquaculture
  • M A Wahab · M I Miah · M A Salam
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    ABSTRACT: A year long survey was conducted along the coast of Bay of Bengal, Bangladesh with the objectives of understanding the abundance, distribution and culture potentials of three commercially important mollusks species viz. green mussel (Perna viridis), clam (Meretrix meretrix) and oyster (Crassostrea madrasensis) along the coast of Bay of Bengal, Bangladesh, to understand the present rate of exploitation and uses and to suggest the potential culture sites and sites for exploitation from the natural stocks from April 2003 to March 2004. Several survey methods were adopted including distribution of questionnaires to the districts and upazilla fishery officers and other stackholders; interviews of coastal inhabitants, use of PRA, RRA tools and direct field visits. The entire coastal belt was divided into four regions; Khulna, Barishal, Noakhali and Chittagong-Cox's Bazar. The study reveled that all three mollusk species are available in Chittagong-Cox's Bazar region. The important mollusks habitats in this region were Maheskhali channel, Kutubdia, Cox's Bazar and Teknaf. However, green mussel was mostly available in and around the Maheskhali channel. None of the investigated species was found in Noakhali region. Only a small quantity of clams was found in Barishal region. Relative abundance of oyster and clam in coastal area of greater Khulna region, especially in the Sunderbans forests were found. The availability of mollusks was higher in the lower region compared to the upper northern areas. Green mussel was not found in the greater Khulna region. None of the coastal inhabitants except coastal tribal communities consumed mollusk meat as food. Shells of mollusks were used as feed ingredients for poultry and shrimp industry. Clam shells were used for lime preparation in some area. While the distribution of mollusks population is patchy and there were no greater accumulation in one site for large scale harvest from the natural stocks, however there is great internal demand of mollusk meat for two millions of tribal people as well as shrimp farmers; and there is an increased demand of mollusk shells for the poultry industries, efforts should be directed towards culture of these mollusks as an important item of coastal aquaculture. There may be a potential for export especially for oyster, if cost effective aquaculture of it can be done. It can also provide alternative employment and livelihood options for a significant number of coastal people.
    No preview · Article · May 2010
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    Mondal · M.N · J. Shahin · M.A. Wahab · M. Asaduzzaman · Y. Yang

    Full-text · Article · Apr 2010 · Bangladesh Journal of Agricultural Research
  • K S Halim · L Khondker · M A Wahab · F Nargis · S I Khan
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    ABSTRACT: This descriptive type of study was carried out to determine the various factors of attempted suicide in a selected area at Patnitala and Dhamuirhat upazilla health complex of Naogaon district. All reported alive cases of attempted suicide (self poisoning, hanging, self burning or immolation, drowning etc) during the period from March to June 2003 were interviewed purposely. Data were collected by face to face interview and also from hospital records. Of the interviewed cases, the mean age was 21.4 years. Household workers, day labours, students and agricultural workers (42.6%, 23.9%, 15.5% and 11.3% respectively) were the major victims and nearly 60% had nuclear family. The highest number (77.5%) used organophosphorus compound. Highest number (25.4%) mentioned that husband mainly provoked for suicidal attempt, followed by mother and father. It was evident that 71.8% of suicidal attempt was due to their emotional stress, followed by family violence, disturbed family, social deprivation, stressful events and health problems (50.7%, 49.3%, 36.6%, 25.4%, and 8.5% respectively). It was evident that attempted suicide is proportionately higher among adolescents of unmarried, with early age at marriage, with higher income and with nuclear family compared with adult. Emotional stress, disturbed family, social deprivation, health related problems are appeared to be important reasons for attempted suicide among adolescents whereas family violence in adults.
    No preview · Article · Apr 2010 · Mymensingh Medical Journal
  • L Khondker · M A Wahab · S I Khan
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    ABSTRACT: Lichen planus is one of the common inflammatory disorders of skin, mucous membrane, nail and hair characterized by violaceous, polish, pruritic, polygonal, flat-topped papules usually distributed bilaterally symmetrically over the extremities. Our objectives in this study were to explore the prevalence of lichen planus in large area of Dhaka in Bangladesh and to establish the clinical characteristics of lichen planus. This descriptive type of cross sectional study was carried out from September 2006 to August 2008 in the Department of Dermatology and Venereology of Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujib Medical University (BSMMU), Dhaka Medical College Hospital (DMCH) and Combined Military Hospital (CMH) in Dhaka. Patients suffering from lichen planus were selected as study population. By face to face interview and clinical observations, data were collected from sample. A total 120 patients of lichen planus were selected, on the basis of age, 30(25%) were 10-30 years of age, 75(62.56%) were 30-50 years and 16(13.33%) were over 50 years of age. The mean age of the patient was 40+/-4 years. Out of 120 patients, 80(66.66%) were male and 60(33.33%) were female and eight patients (6.67%) had positive family history among highest age group (30 to 50 years). In case of duration of disease, highest percentage (68%) of cases was 15 days to 6 months and considering clinical sign, koebnerization was present 45(37.5%) cases and Wickhams striae 22(18.33%) cases. Regarding site of onset of lesion, lesions were highest 100(83.33%) in upper limbs, next lower limbs, trunk, oral mucosa etc. The distribution of clinical pattern of lichen planus showing classic pattern (68.33%) was the most common type, followed by hypertrophic, actinic, ashy dermatoses, lichen plano-pilaris, erosive or ulcerative etc. This clinico-epidemiological study of lichen planus attending in the different hospital in Dhaka, Bangladesh has shown that lichen planus is usually associated with 30 to 50 years of age group, with higher male prevalence than female, 15 days to 6 months are mainly duration of disease, koebnerization and Wickhams striae are common clinical signs, upper limbs is mainly the site of onset of lesion, and classic pattern is the most common clinical type in lichen planus.
    No preview · Article · Apr 2010 · Mymensingh Medical Journal
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    ABSTRACT: The present research investigated the effect of carbohydrate (CH) source for maintaining a high C:N ratio, and tilapia driven bioturbation on pond ecology, production and economical performances in C/N controlled periphyton-based (C/N-CP) freshwater prawn ponds. Two carbohydrate sources (high-cost tapioca starch and low-cost maize flour) were compared in 40 m2 ponds stocked with 80 freshwater prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii) juveniles (individual weight 0.81 ± 0.03 g) and 20 finfish fingerlings (Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus and Indian major carp rohu, Labeo rohita) in three different combinations: 100% tilapia, 50% tilapia + 50% rohu, and 100% rohu (individual weight 27.7 ± 0.6 g). The CH sources for increasing C:N ratio from 10 (as in feed) to 20 had no significant effect (P > 0.05) on water quality parameters, abundance of natural food (plankton, periphyton and benthos) and production of prawn and finfish. However, different fish combination had significant effects on pond ecology. The highest PO4–P (P < 0.001) and the lowest chlo-a (P < 0.01) concentrations in water were observed in ponds with 100% tilapia as compared to ponds stocked with 100% rohu. The abundance of phytoplankton, periphyton biomass (dry matter, ash, ash free dry matter and chlo-a) and benthos was significantly higher (P < 0.05) in 100% rohu ponds than in 100% tilapia ponds indicating the more efficient utilization of natural food items by tilapia than by rohu. The freshwater prawn production was not affected (P > 0.05) by the different stocking combinations of finfish. The net yield and survival of finfish were significantly higher in 100% tilapia ponds and lower in 100% rohu ponds resulting in 58% higher combined net yield (both prawn and finfish) in the former treatment during a 120-d culture period. This treatment gave the best economic return in terms of benefit–cost ratio while maize flour was used as CH source. In conclusion, maize flour can be used as an alternative cheap on-farm CH source for maintaining a high C:N ratio and tilapia driven re-suspension in C/N-CP system improves culture environment, natural food utilization, production and economic return, further enhancing economic sustainability of C/N-CP freshwater prawn farming system.
    Full-text · Article · Mar 2010 · Aquaculture

Publication Stats

1k Citations
74.73 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2009-2012
    • Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujib Medical University
      Mujib City, Dhaka, Bangladesh
  • 1995-2011
    • Bangladesh Agricultural University
      • • Department of Fisheries Management
      • • Faculty of Fisheries
      Mymensing, Dhaka, Bangladesh
  • 2010
    • National Institute of Preventive and Social Medicine
      Mujib City, Dhaka, Bangladesh