[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Plants have evolved a variety of ways to defend themselves against biotic attackers. This has resulted in the presence of substantial variation in defense mechanisms among plants, even within a species. Genome-wide association (GWA) mapping is a useful tool to study the genetic architecture of traits, but has so far only had limited exploitation in studies of plant defense. Here, we study the genetic architecture of defense against the phloem-feeding insect cabbage whitefly (Aleyrodes proletella) in Arabidopsis thaliana. We determined whitefly performance, i.e. the survival and reproduction of whitefly females, on 360 worldwide selected natural accessions and subsequently performed GWA mapping using 214,051 SNPs. Substantial variation for whitefly adult survival and oviposition rate (number of eggs laid per female per day) was observed between the accessions. We identified 39 candidate SNPs for either whitefly adult survival or oviposition rate, all with relatively small effects, underpinning the complex architecture of defense traits. Among the corresponding candidate genes, i.e. genes in linkage disequilibrium (LD) with candidate SNPs, none have previously been identified as a gene playing a role in the interaction between plants and phloem-feeding insects. Whitefly performance on knock-out mutants of a number of candidate genes was significantly affected, validating the potential of GWA mapping for novel gene discovery in plant-insect interactions. Our results show that GWA analysis is a very useful tool to gain insight into the genetic architecture of plant defense against herbivorous insects, i.e. we identified and validated several genes affecting whitefly performance that have not previously been related to plant defense against herbivorous insects.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The whitefly Bemisia tabaci is a serious threat in tomato cultivation worldwide as all varieties grown today are highly susceptible to this devastating herbivorous insect. Many accessions of the tomato wild relative Solanum pennellii show a high resistance towards B. tabaci. A mapping approach was employed to elucidate the genetic background of whitefly-resistance related traits and associated biochemical traits in this species. Minor quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for whitefly adult survival (AS) and oviposition rate (OR) were identified and some were confirmed in an F2 BC1 population, where they showed increased percentages of explained variance (more than 30%). Bulked segregant analyses on pools of whitefly-resistant and -susceptible F2 plants enabled the identification of metabolites that correlate either with resistance or susceptibility. Genetic mapping of these metabolites showed that a large number of them co-localize with whitefly-resistance QTLs. Some of these whitefly-resistance QTLs are hotspots for metabolite QTLs. Although a large number of metabolite QTLs correlated to whitefly resistance or susceptibility, most of them are yet unknown compounds and further studies are needed to identify the metabolic pathways and genes involved. The results indicate a direct genetic correlation between biochemical-based resistance characteristics and reduced whitefly incidence in S. pennellii.
Full-text · Article · Nov 2015 · Journal of Integrative Plant Biology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The Colorado potato beetle (CPB) is one of the pest insects that significantly can decrease the production of potato when no control measures are taken. The fast, flexible and diverse life cycle of the CPB, its highly destructive feeding habits, and high adaptability to a variety of environment stresses, have made the control of CPB a difficult task. This paper briefly reviews the information on all aspects of CPB management to come to an integrated pest management approach: the biology of the CPB, management practices including their limitations and drawbacks, as well as the need to incorporate host plant resistance into potato varieties. Several aspects of potato breeding for resistance to CPB are discussed. We evaluate the availability of natural variation present in potato wild relatives, the considerations in choosing a specific wild relative, and constraints in using them from biological, environmental and genetic point of view, in which newly developed technologies play an important role. We also consider recently developed GM approaches. We conclude that varieties resistant to CPB are desperately needed by farmers and demanded by society, and that the means to develop them are available.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Key message
A QTL for thrips resistance on pepper chromosome 6 was identified and validated. This QTL affects thrips larval development and explains 50 % of the variation.
Thrips is one of the most damaging pests in pepper (Capsicum). Resistance to thrips was identified in Capsicum annuum. This study was aimed at the elucidation of the genetic background of thrips resistance in Capsicum through QTL mapping. The QTL analysis was carried out for Frankliniella occidentalis resistance in an F2 population consisting of 196 plants derived from an interspecific cross between the highly resistant C. annuum AC 1979 as female parent and the highly susceptible C. chinense 4661 as male parent. Fifty-seven SSR, 109 AFLP, and 5 SNP markers were used to construct a genetic map with a total length of 1636 cM. Damage caused by larvae and the survival of first and second instar larval stages observed in a no-choice test were used as parameters of resistance. Interval mapping detected one QTL for each of these parameters, all co-localizing near the same marker on chromosome 6. Use of this marker as co-factor in a multiple-QTL mapping analysis failed to uncover any additional QTLs. This QTL explained about 50 % of the genetic variation, and the resistance allele of this QTL was inherited from the resistant parent. Thrips resistance was not linked to trichome density.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Foraging success of predators profoundly depends on reliable and detectable cues indicating the presence of their often inconspicuous prey. Carnivorous insects rely on chemical cues to optimize foraging efficiency. Hyperparasitoids that lay their eggs in the larvae or pupae of parasitic wasps may find their parasitoid hosts developing in different herbivores. They can use herbivore-induced plant volatiles (HIPVs) to locate parasitized caterpillars. Because different herbivore species induce different HIPV emission from plants, hyperparasitoids may have to deal with large variation in volatile information that indicates host presence. In the current study, we used an ecogenomics approach to first address whether parasitized caterpillars of two herbivore species (Pieris rapae and P. brassicae) induce similar transcriptional and metabolomic responses in wild Brassica oleracea plants; and second, whether hyperparasitoids Lysibia nana are able to discriminate between these induced plant responses to locate their parasitoid host in different herbivores under both laboratory and field conditions. Our study revealed that both herbivore identity and parasitism affect plant transcriptional and metabolic responses to herbivory. We also found that hyperparasitoids are able to respond to HIPVs released by wild B. oleracea under both laboratory and field conditions. In addition, we observed stronger attraction of hyperparasitoids to HIPVs when plants were infested with parasitized caterpillars. However, hyperparasitoids were equally attracted to plants infested by either herbivore species. Our results indicate that parasitism plays a major role in HIPV-mediated plant-hyperparasitoid interactions. Furthermore, these findings also indicate that plant trait-mediated indirect interaction networks play important roles in community-wide species interactions. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
No preview · Article · May 2015 · Molecular Ecology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Herbivory contributes substantially to plant functional diversity and in ways that move far beyond direct defence trait patterns, as effective growth strategies under herbivory require modification of multiple functional traits that are indirectly related to defence. In order to understand how herbivory has shaped plant functional diversity, we need to consider the physiology and architecture of the herbivores and how this constrains effective defence strategies. Here we consider herbivory by mammals in savanna communities that range from semi-arid to humid conditions. We posited that the saplings of savanna trees can be grouped into two contrasting defence strategies against mammals, namely architectural defence versus low nutrient defence. We provide a mechanistic explanation for these different strategies based on the fact that plants are under competing selection pressures to limit herbivore damage and outcompete neighbouring plants. Plant competitiveness depends on growth rate, itself a function of leaf mass fraction (LMF) and leaf nitrogen per unit mass (Nm). Architectural defence against vertebrates (which includes spinescence) limits herbivore access to plant leaf materials, and partly depends on leaf-size reduction, thereby compromising LMF. Low nutrient defence requires that leaf material is of insufficient nutrient value to support vertebrate metabolic requirements, which depends on low Nm. Thus there is an enforced tradeoff between LMF and Nm, leading to distinct trait suites for each defence strategy. We demonstrate this tradeoff by showing that numerous traits can be distinguished between 28 spinescent (architectural defenders) and non-spinescent (low nutrient defenders) of Fabaceae tree species from savannas, where mammalian herbivory is an important constraint on plant growth. Distributions of the strategies along an LMF-Nm tradeoff further provides a predictive and parsimonious explanation for the uneven distribution of spinescent and non-spinescent species across water and nutrient gradients.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Spathoglottis is a native terrestrial orchid that attracting horticultural interest as a landscaping plant. Distinguishing orchid at species level based on morphological characteristics is unconvincing as some characteristic may sensitive to environmental. Therefore, molecular characterization could be an alternative method in characterizing Spathoglottis species. Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism (AFLP) marker was selected to characterize the Spathoglottis species. Among 56 AFLP primer combinations tested on Spathoglottis plicata, only eight primer combinations gave clear scorable polymorphic bands. A total of 60 accessions of Spathoglottis species, hybrid and outgroup (Dendrobium) were analysed using the eight primer combinations and generated 891 polymorphic bands with 98.41% in average. The AFLP patterns showed that the Spathoglottis species sampled were clearly different.
No preview · Article · Mar 2015 · Acta horticulturae
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background
Host plant resistance has been proposed as one of the most promising approaches in whitefly management. Already in 1995 two quantitative trait loci (Tv-1 and Tv-2) originating from S. habrochaites CGN1.1561 were identified that reduced the oviposition rate of the greenhouse whitefly (Trialeurodes vaporariorum). After this first study, several others identified QTLs affecting whitefly biology as well. Generally, the QTLs affecting oviposition were highly correlated with a reduction in whitefly survival and the presence of high densities of glandular trichomes type IV. The aim of our study was to further characterize Tv-1 and Tv-2, and to determine their role in resistance against Bemisia tabaci. ResultsWe selected F2 plants homozygous for the Tv-1 and Tv-2 QTL regions and did three successive backcrosses without phenotypic selection. Twenty-three F2BC3 plants were phenotyped for whitefly resistance and differences were found in oviposition rate of B. tabaci. The F2BC3 plants with the lowest oviposition rate had an introgression on Chromosome 5 in common. Further F2BC4, F2BC4S1 and F2BC4S2 families were developed, genotyped and phenotyped for adult survival, oviposition rate and trichome type and density. It was possible to confirm that an introgression on top of Chr. 5 (OR-5), between the markers rs-2009 and rs-7551, was responsible for reducing whitefly oviposition rate.Conclusion
We found a region of 3.06 Mbp at the top of Chr. 5 (OR-5) associated with a reduction in the oviposition rate of B. tabaci. This reduction was independent of the presence of the QTLs Tv-1 and Tv-2 as well as of the presence of trichomes type IV. The OR-5 locus will provide new opportunities for resistance breeding against whiteflies, which is especially relevant in greenhouse cultivation.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Young leaves of the potato Solanum tuberosum L. cultivar Kardal contain resistance factors to the green peach aphid Myzus persicae (Sulzer) (Hemiptera: Aphididae) and normal probing behavior is impeded. However, M. persicae can survive and reproduce on mature and senescent leaves of the cv. Kardal plant without problems. We compared the settling of M. persicae on young and old leaves and analyzed the impact of aphids settling on the plant in terms of gene expression. Settling, as measured by aphid numbers staying on young or old leaves, showed that after 21 h significantly fewer aphids were found on the young leaves. At earlier time points there were no difference between young and old leaves, suggesting that the young leaf resistance factors are not located at the surface level but deeper in the tissue. Gene expression was measured in plants at 96 h postinfestation, which is at a late stage in the interaction and in compatible interactions this is long enough for host plant acceptance to occur. In old leaves of cv. Kardal (compatible interaction), M. persicae infestation elicited a higher number of differentially regulated genes than in young leaves. The plant response to aphid infestation included a larger number of genes induced than repressed, and the proportion of induced versus repressed genes was larger in young than in old leaves. Several genes changing expression seem to be involved in changing the metabolic state of the leaf from source to sink.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background
Plants have developed a variety of mechanisms to counteract aphid attacks. They activate their defences by changing the expression of specific genes. Previously we identified an activation tag mutant of Arabidopsis thaliana on which Myzus persicae population development was reduced. Activation tag mutants are gain-of-function in which the expression of a gene is increased by the insertion of the Cauliflower mosaic virus 35S enhancer that acts on the natural promoter. By further characterizing this previously identified mutant we identified a gene that reduces performance of M. persicae and also provided clues about the mechanism involved.
We show that SKU5 SIMILAR 13 (SKS13), a gene whose expression in wild type plants is restricted to pollen and non-responsive to M. persicae attack, is overexpressed in the A. thaliana mutant showing reduced performance of M. persicae. Monitoring M. persicae feeding behaviour on SKS13 overexpressing plants indicated that M. persicae have difficulties feeding from the phloem. The constitutive expression of SKS13 results in accumulation of reactive oxygen species, which is possibly regulated through the jasmonic acid pathway. The enhanced resistance is not aphid species specific as also the population development of Brevicoryne brassicae was affected.
We demonstrate that constitutive expression in leaves of the pollen-specific gene SKS13 can enhance plant defence, resulting in a reduction of M. persicae population development and also decreases the transmission of persistent viruses. Overexpression of SKS13 in A. thaliana also affects B. brassicae and possibly other phloem feeding insects as well. Identifying genes that can enhance plant defence against insects will be important to open up new avenues for the development of insect resistant crop plants.
Full-text · Article · Aug 2014 · BMC Plant Biology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Plant Breeding is the art of selecting and discarding genetic material to achieve crop improvement. Favourable alleles resulting in quality improvement or disease resistance must be added, while unfavourable alleles must be removed. The source for novel alleles can be other varieties, landraces or crop wild relatives. The identification of allelic variation is referred to as allele mining. Before allelic variation can be used for breeding purposes several steps need to be taken. First of all an inventory is needed of the available genetic resources. Phenotypic screens are needed to uncover potential expected and even unanticipated alleles. Next, using genetic and molecular tools, the alleles responsible for the identified traits must be traced and distinguished in order to be introgressed into new varieties.
In this review we focus on the identification of novel disease resistance traits in the agronomically important genus Solanum. The fact that R genes are present in multigene clusters within the genome, which often include many paralogs necessitates thorough discussion on the distinction between alleles and paralogs. Often such a distinction cannot easily be made. An overview is given of how natural resources can be tapped, e.g. how germplasm can be most efficiently screened. Techniques are presented by which alleles and paralogs can be distinguished in functional and/or genetic screens, including also a specific tagging of alleles and paralogs. Several examples are given in which allele and paralog mining was successfully applied. Also examples are presented as to how allele mining supported our understanding about the evolution of R gene clusters. Finally an outlook is provided how the research field of allele mining might develop in the near future.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The population of Phytophthora infestans on potato landraces in three provinces (Carchi, Chimborazo and Loja) of Ecuador was analysed. All isolates (n = 66) were of the A1 mating type. Simple sequence repeats (SSR) were used to assess the genetic diversity of the isolates. The P. infestans isolates from the potato landraces grouped in a single clade together with reference isolates belonging to the clonal lineage EC-1. In the 66 SSR profiles obtained, 31 multilocus genotypes were identified. The 66 isolates constituted 49 different races according to the Solanum demissum differential set ( R1 to R11). The P. infestans population was complex and virulent on 4 to 11 R genes. Analysis showed that the subclonal variation in the Ecuadorian EC-1 clone is increasing over time and is much larger than clonal variation in lineages in the Netherlands and Nicaragua, suggesting high mutation rates and little or no selection in Ecuador.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The Galapagos Islands constitute a highly diverse ecosystem and a unique source of variation in the form of endemic species. There are two endemic tomato species, Solanum galapagense and S. cheesmaniae and two introduced tomato species, S. pimpinellifolium and S. lycopersicum. Morphologically the two endemic tomato species of the Galapagos Islands are clearly distinct, but molecular marker analysis shows no clear separation. Tomatoes on the Galapagos are affected by both native and exotic herbivores. Bemisia tabaci is one of the most important introduced insects species that feeds on a wide range of plants. In this article, we address the question whether the differentiation between S. galapagense and S. cheesmaniae may be related to differences in susceptibility towards phloem-feeders and used B. tabaci as a model to evaluate this.
We have characterized 12 accessions of S. galapagense, 22 of S. cheesmaniae, and one of S. lycopersicum as reference for whitefly resistance using no-choice experiments. Whitefly resistance was found in S. galapagense only and was associated with the presence of relatively high levels of acyl sugars and the presence of glandular trichomes of type I and IV. Genetic fingerprinting using 3316 SNP markers did not show a clear differentiation between the two endemic species. Acyl sugar accumulation as well as the climatic and geographical conditions at the collection sites of the accessions did not follow the morphological species boundaries.
Full-text · Article · Aug 2013 · BMC Evolutionary Biology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Aphids are insects that cause direct damage to crops by the removal of phloem sap, but more importantly they spread devastating viruses. Aphids use their sophisticated mouthpart (i.e. stylet) to feed from the phloem sieve elements of the host plant. To identify genes that affect host plant resistance to aphids, we previously screened an Arabidopsis thaliana activation tag mutant collection. In such mutants, tagged genes are overexpressed by a strong 35S enhancer adjacent to the natural promoter, resulting in a dominant gain-of-function phenotype. We previously identified several of these mutants on which the aphid Myzus persicae showed a reduced population development compared with wild type. In the present study we show that the gene responsible for the phenotype of one of the mutants is At5g65040 and named this gene Increased Resistance to Myzus persicae 1 (IRM1). Overexpression of the cloned IRM1 gene conferred a phenotype identical to that of the original mutant. Conversely, an IRM1 knockout mutant promoted aphid population development compared to the wild type. We performed Electrical Penetration Graph analysis to investigate how probing and feeding behaviour of aphids was affected on plants that either overexpressed IRM1 or contained a knockout mutation in this gene. The EPG results indicated that the aphids encounter resistance factors while reaching for the phloem on the overexpressing line. This resistance mechanism also affected other aphid species and is suggested to be of mechanical nature. Interestingly, genetic variation for IRM1 expression in response to aphid attack was observed. Upon aphid attack the expression of IRM1 was initially (after 6 hours) induced in ecotype Wassilewskija followed by suppression. In Columbia-0, IRM1 expression was already suppressed six hours after the start of the infestation. The resistance conferred by the overexpression of IRM1 in A. thaliana trades off with plant growth.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background
The major bottle neck in genetic and linkage studies in tomato has been the lack of a sufficient number of molecular markers. This has radically changed with the application of next generation sequencing and high throughput genotyping. A set of 6000 SNPs was identified and 5528 of them were used to evaluate tomato germplasm at the level of species, varieties and segregating populations.
From the 5528 SNPs, 1980 originated from 454-sequencing, 3495 from Illumina Solexa sequencing and 53 were additional known markers. Genotyping different tomato samples allowed the evaluation of the level of heterozygosity and introgressions among commercial varieties. Cherry tomatoes were especially different from round/beefs in chromosomes 4, 5 and 12. We were able to identify a set of 750 unique markers distinguishing S. lycopersicum ‘Moneymaker’ from all its distantly related wild relatives. Clustering and neighbour joining analysis among varieties and species showed expected grouping patterns, with S. pimpinellifolium as the most closely related to commercial tomatoesearlier results.
Our results show that a SNP search in only a few breeding lines already provides generally applicable markers in tomato and its wild relatives. It also shows that the Illumina bead array generated data are highly reproducible. Our SNPs can roughly be divided in two categories: SNPs of which both forms are present in the wild relatives and in domesticated tomatoes (originating from common ancestors) and SNPs unique for the domesticated tomato (originating from after the domestication event). The SNPs can be used for genotyping, identification of varieties, comparison of genetic and physical linkage maps and to confirm (phylogenetic) relations. In the SNPs used for the array there is hardly any overlap with the SolCAP array and it is strongly recommended to combine both SNP sets and to select a core collection of robust SNPs completely covering the entire tomato genome.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: QualitySNPng is a new software tool for the detection and interactive visualization of single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs).
It uses a haplotype-based strategy to identify reliable SNPs; it is optimized for the analysis of current RNA-seq data; but
it can also be used on genomic DNA sequences derived from next-generation sequencing experiments. QualitySNPng does not require
a sequenced reference genome and delivers reliable SNPs for di- as well as polyploid species. The tool features a user-friendly
interface, multiple filtering options to handle typical sequencing errors, support for SAM and ACE files and interactive visualization.
QualitySNPng produces high-quality SNP information that can be used directly in genotyping by sequencing approaches for application
in QTL and genome-wide association mapping as well as to populate SNP arrays. The software can be used as a stand-alone application
with a graphical user interface or as part of a pipeline system like Galaxy. Versions for Windows, Mac OS X and Linux, as
well as the source code, are available from http://www.bioinformatics.nl/QualitySNPng.
Full-text · Article · Apr 2013 · Nucleic Acids Research