[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cystic fibrosis (CF) is a complex disease affecting epithelial ion transport. There are not many diseases like CF that have triggered such intense research activities. The complexity of the disease is due to mutations in the CFTR protein, now known to be a Cl(-) channel and a regulator of other transport proteins. The various interactions and the large number of disease-causing CFTR mutations is the reason for a variable genotype-phenotype correlation and sometimes unpredictable clinical manifestation. Nevertheless, the research of the past 10 years has resulted in a tremendous increase in knowledge, not only in regard to CFTR but also in regard to molecular interactions and completely new means of ion channel and gene therapy.
Full-text · Article · Feb 2001 · Pflügers Archiv - European Journal of Physiology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cystic fibrosis (CF) airway epithelia are characterized by enhanced Na(+) absorption probably due to a lack of downregulation of epithelial Na(+) channels by mutant CF transmembrane conductance regulator. Extracellular nucleotides adenosine 5'-triphosphate (ATP) and uridine 5'-triphosphate (UTP) have been shown to activate alternative Ca(2+)-dependent Cl(-) channels in normal and CF respiratory epithelia. Recent studies suggest additional modulation of Na(+) absorption by extracellular nucleotides. In this study we examined the role of mucosal ATP and UTP in regulating Na(+) transport in native human upper airway tissues from patients with 16 patients with CF and 32 non-CF control subjects. To that end, transepithelial voltage and equivalent short-circuit current (I(SC)) were assessed by means of a perfused micro-Ussing chamber. Mucosal ATP and UTP caused an initial increase in lumen-negative I(SC) that was followed by a sustained decrease of I(sc) in both non-CF and CF tissues. The amiloride-sensitive portion of I(SC) was inhibited significantly in normal and CF tissues in the presence of either ATP or UTP. Both basal Na(+) transport and nucleotide-dependent inhibition of amiloride-sensitive I(SC) were significantly enhanced in CF airways compared with non-CF. Nucleotide-mediated inhibition of Na(+) absorption was attenuated by pretreatment with the Ca(2+)-adenosine triphosphatase inhibitor cyclopiazonic acid but not by inhibition of protein kinase C with bisindolylmaleimide. These data demonstrate sustained inhibition of Na(+) transport in non-CF and CF airways by mucosal ATP and UTP and suggest that this effect is mediated by an increase of intracellular Ca(2+). Because ATP and UTP inhibit Na(+) absorption and stimulate Cl(-) secretion simultaneously, extracellular nucleotides could have a dual therapeutic effect, counteracting the ion transport defect in CF lung disease.
Preview · Article · Jan 2001 · American Journal of Respiratory Cell and Molecular Biology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Ion transport defects underlying cystic fibrosis (CF) lung disease are characterized by impaired cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP)-dependent Cl(-) conductance. Activation of Cl(-) secretion in airways depends on simultaneous activation of luminal Cl(-) channels and basolateral K(+) channels. We determined the role of basolateral K(+) conductance in cAMP- dependent Cl(-) secretion in native human airway epithelium obtained from non-CF and CF patients. CF tissues showed typical alterations of short-circuit currents with enhanced amiloride-sensitive Na(+) conductance and defective cAMP-mediated Cl(-) conductance. In non-CF tissues, Cl(-) secretion was significantly inhibited by the chromanol 293B (10 micromol/liter), a specific inhibitor of K(V)LQT1 K(+) channels. Inhibition was increased after cAMP-dependent stimulation. Similar effects were obtained with Ba(2+) (5 mmol/liter). In patch-clamp experiments with a human bronchial epithelial cell line, stimulation with forskolin (10 micromol/liter) simultaneously activated Cl(-) and K(+) conductance. The K(+) conductance was reversibly inhibited by Ba(2+) and 293B. Analysis of reverse-transcribed messenger RNA from non-CF and CF airways showed expression of human K(V)LQT1. We conclude that the K(+) channel K(V)LQT1 is important in maintaining cAMP-dependent Cl(-) secretion in human airways. Activation of K(V)LQT1 in CF airways in parallel with stimulation of residual CF transmembrane conductance regulator Cl(-) channel activity or alternative Cl(-) channels could help to circumvent the secretory defect.
Full-text · Article · Oct 2000 · American Journal of Respiratory Cell and Molecular Biology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The flavonoid genistein has been shown to activate a Cl− conductance in various cell types expressing CFTR. We examined if similar effects can be observed when genistein is applied to native ex vivo tissues from human respiratory tract and rectum. We further compared the effects when genistein was applied to oocytes of Xenopus laevis expressing CFTR.
In oocytes, both wtCFTR and ΔF508-CFTR were activated by genistein while both cyclic AMP (KvLQT1) and Ca2+ (SK4) activated K+ channels were inhibited at high concentrations of genistein.
Biopsies from nasal polyps and rectal mucosa were obtained from normal individuals (non-CF) and CF patients and in the presence of amiloride (10 μmol l−1; mucosal side) the effects of genistein were assessed using a perfused Ussing chamber. In non-CF airway epithelia, genistein (50 μmol l−1; mucosal side) increased lumen negative Isc but had no additional effects on tissues pre-stimulated with IBMX and forskolin (100 μmol l−1 and 1 μmol l−1; both sides).
In non-CF rectal biopsies, in the presence of amiloride (10 μmol l−1; mucosal side) and indomethacin (10 μmol l−1; basolateral side), genistein increased lumen negative Isc and enabled cholinergic (carbachol; CCH, 100 μmol l−1; basolateral side) stimulation of Cl− secretion indicating activation of luminal CFTR Cl− channels. However, after stimulation with IBMX/forskolin, genistein induced opposite effects and significantly inhibited CCH activated Isc. In CF airway and intestinal tissues genistein failed to induce Cl− secretion.
Thus, genistein is able to activate luminal CFTR Cl− conductance in non-CF tissues and mutant CFTR in oocytes. However, additional inhibitory effects on basolateral K+ conductance and missing effects in native CF tissues do not support the use for pharmacological intervention in CF.
British Journal of Pharmacology (2000) 130, 1884–1892; doi:10.1038/sj.bjp.0703520
Full-text · Article · Sep 2000 · British Journal of Pharmacology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Rectal biopsies from cystic fibrosis (CF) patients show defective cAMP-activated Cl(-) secretion and an inverse response of the short-circuit current (I(sc)) toward stimulation with carbachol (CCh). Alternative Cl(-) channels are found in airway epithelia and have been attributed to residual Cl(-) secretion in CF colon. The aim of the present study was to investigate ion conductances causing reversed I(sc) upon cholinergic stimulation. Furthermore, the putative role of an alternative Ca(2+)-dependent Cl(-) conductance in human distal colon was examined. Cholinergic ion secretion was assessed in the absence and presence of cAMP-dependent stimulation. Transepithelial voltage and I(sc) were measured in rectal biopsies from non-CF and CF individuals by means of a perfused micro-Ussing chamber. Under baseline conditions, CCh induced a positive I(sc) in CF rectal biopsies but caused a negative I(sc) in non-CF subjects. The CCh-induced negative I(sc) in non-CF biopsies was gradually reversed to a positive response by incubating the biopsies in indomethacin. The positive I(sc) was significantly enhanced in CF and was caused by activation of a luminal K(+) conductance, as shown by the use of the K(+) channel blockers Ba(2+) and tetraethylammonium. Moreover, a cAMP-dependent luminal K(+) conductance was detected in CF individuals. We conclude that the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator is the predominant Cl(-) channel in human distal colon. Unlike human airways, no evidence was found for an alternative Cl(-) conductance in native tissues from CF patients. Furthermore, we demonstrated that both Ca(2+)- and cAMP-dependent K(+) secretion are present in human distal colon, which are unmasked in rectal biopsies from CF patients.
No preview · Article · May 2000 · AJP Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology