[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A cross-sectional study was undertaken during 2012-2013 to determine the prevalence, strains and factors associated with rotavirus infection among under-5-year-old children hospitalized with acute diarrhea in Uganda. Rotaviruses were detected in 37 % (263/712) of the children. The most prevalent strains were G9P (27 %, 55/204) and G12P (18.6 %, 38/204). Mixed infections were detected in 22.5 % (46/204) of the children. The study suggests that consumption of raw vegetables (OR = 1.45, 95 % CI = 1.03-2.03) and family ownership of dogs (OR = 1.9, 95 % CI = 1.04-3.75) increases the risk of rotavirus infection. The study findings will be used to assess the impact of RV vaccination in Uganda.
Full-text · Article · Jan 2016 · Archives of Virology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background
Medication errors (MEs) are largely under-reported, which undermines quality improvement and medication risk management in healthcare.
To assess attitudes of Ugandan healthcare professionals (HCPs) towards ME reporting, and identify characteristics of HCPs who endorsed integration of ME and adverse drug reaction (ADR) reporting, valued patient involvement in ME reporting, disclosed having ever made potentially harmful MEs, or observed possibly harmful MEs committed by other HCPs.
Healthcare professionals self-completed a questionnaire on their attitudes towards the occurrence and reporting of MEs in purposively selected Ugandan health facilities (public/private) including the national referral and six regional referral hospitals representative of all regions.
Response rate was 67 % (1345/2000). Most HCPs (91 %; 1174/1289) approved a national ME reporting system for Uganda and 58 % (734/1261) endorsed integration of ME and ADR reporting. Two-thirds (65 %; 819/1267) of HCPs valued patient involvement in ME reporting, one-fifth (18 %; 235/1310) disclosed that they had ever made potentially harmful MEs, while two-fifths (41 %; 542/1323) had ever identified possibly harmful MEs committed by other HCPs. Endorsing patient involvement in ME reporting was more likely by HCPs who valued root-cause analysis and reporting of both actual and potential MEs, or who conceded inadequate communication and lack of time. Self-disclosure of having ever committed potentially harmful MEs was more likely with the need for confidentiality, working in stressful conditions, and willingness to report ADRs. Identifying possibly harmful MEs committed by other HCPs was more likely by non-nurses and those who reported blame culture, stressful conditions, ever encountered a fatal ADR, or attachment to hospital-level health facility.
A non-punitive healthcare environment and patient involvement may promote ME disclosure and reporting in Uganda and possibly other African countries.
Full-text · Article · Aug 2015 · Drugs - Real World Outcomes
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Lack of adequate detail compromises analysis of reported suspected adverse drug reactions (ADRs). We investigated how comprehensively Ugandan healthcare professionals (HCPs) described their most recent previous-month suspected ADR, and determined the characteristics of HCPs who provided comprehensive ADR descriptions. We also identified rare, serious, and unanticipated suspected ADR descriptions with medication safety-alerting potential.
During 2012/13, this survey was conducted in purposively selected Ugandan health facilities (public/private) including the national referral and six regional referral hospitals representative of all regions. District hospitals, health centres II to IV, and private health facilities in the catchment areas of the regional referral hospitals were conveniently selected. Healthcare professionals involved in prescribing, transcribing, dispensing, and administration of medications were approached and invited to self-complete a questionnaire on ADR reporting. Two-thirds of issued questionnaires (1,345/2,000) were returned.
Ninety per cent (241/268) of HCPs who suspected ADRs in the previous month provided information on five higher-level descriptors as follows: body site (206), drug class (203), route of administration (127), patient age (133), and ADR severity (128). Comprehensiveness (explicit provision of at least four higher-level descriptors) was achieved by at least two-fifths (46%, 124/268) of HCPs. Received descriptions were more likely to be comprehensive from HCPs in private health facilities, regions other than central, and those not involved in teaching medical students. Overall, 106 serious and 51 rare previous-month suspected ADRs were described. The commonest serious and rare ADR was Stevens-Johnson syndrome (SJS); mostly associated with oral nevirapine or cotrimoxazole, but haemoptysis after diclofenac analgesia and paralysis after quinine injection were also described.
Surveyed Ugandan HCPs who had suspected at least one ADR in the previous month competently provided comprehensive ADR descriptions: more, indeed, than are received per annum nationally. Properly analyzed, and with local feed-back, voluntary ADR reports by HCPs could be an essential alerting tool for identifying rare and serious suspected ADRs in Uganda.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Introduction:
Proper management of chronic diseases is important for prevention of disease complications and yet some patients miss appointments for medical review thereby missing the opportunity for proper monitoring of their disease conditions. There is limited information on missed appointments among chronic disease patients in resource limited settings. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of missed appointments for medical review and associated factors among chronic disease patients in an urban area of Uganda.
Patients or caregivers of children with chronic diseases were identified as they bought medicines from a community pharmacy. They were visited at home to access their medical documents and those whose chronic disease status was ascertained were enrolled. The data was collected using: questionnaires, review of medical documents, and in-depth interviews with chronic disease patients.
The prevalence of missed appointments was 42% (95%CI = 35-49%). The factors associated with missed appointments were: monthly income ≤30US Dollars (OR = 2.56, CI = 1.25-5.26), affording less than half of prescribed drugs (OR = 3.92, CI = 1.64-9.40), not experiencing adverse events (OR = 2.66, CI = 1.26-5.61), not sure if treatment helps (OR = 2.84, CI = 1.047.77), not having a medicines administration schedule (OR = 6.77, CI = 2.11-21.68), and increasing number of drugs (OR = 0.72, CI = 0.53-0.98).
Patients missed appointments mainly due to: financial and health system barriers, conflicting commitments with appointments, and perceptions of the disease condition. Patients should be supported with accessible and affordable health services.
Preview · Article · Apr 2015 · Pan African Medical Journal
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To assess extent and determinants of past-month recognition of suspected adverse drug reactions (ADR) and past-year ADR reporting among healthcare professionals (HCPs) in Uganda.
Geographically diverse health facilities (public, private for-profit, private not-for-profit).
Of 2000 questionnaires distributed, 1345 were completed: return rate of 67%.
Per cent HCPs who suspected ADR in the past month; reported ADR in the past year.
Nurses were the majority (59%, 792/1345). Only half the respondents had heard about pharmacovigilance: 39% of nurses (295/763; 95% CI 35% to 42%), 70% otherwise (383/547; 95% CI 66% to 74%). One fifth (268/1289 or 21%; 95% CI 19% to 23%) had suspected an ADR in the previous 4 weeks, 111 of them were nurses; 15% (190/1296) had reported a suspected ADR in the past year, 103 of them were nurses. Past-month ADR suspicion was more likely by non-nurses (OR=1.7, 95% CI 1.16 to 2.40) and with medical research involvement (OR=1.5, 95% CI 1.05 to 2.15) but past-month receipt of patient ADR-complaint predominated (OR=19, 95% CI 14 to 28). Past-year ADR reporting was higher by hospital staff (OR=1.9, 95% CI 1.18 to 3.10), especially in medicine (OR=2.3, 95% CI 1.08 to 4.73); but lower from private for-profit health facilities (OR=0.5, 95% CI 0.28 to 0.77) and by older staff (OR=0.6, 95% CI 0.43 to 0.91); more likely by HCPs who had ever encountered a fatal ADR (OR=2.9, 95% CI 1.94 to 4.25), knew to whom to report (OR=1.7, 95% CI 1.18 to 2.46), or suggested how to improve ADR reporting (OR=1.6, 95% CI 1.04 to 2.49). Two attitudinal factors were important: diffidence and lethargy.
One in five HCPs suspected an ADR in the past-month and one in seven reported ADR in the previous year. Empowering patients could strengthen ADR detection and reporting in Africa.
Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Neurodevelopmental disorders are recognized to be relatively common in developing countries but little data exist for planning effective prevention and intervention strategies. In particular, data on autism spectrum disorders are lacking. For application in Uganda, we developed a 23-question screener (23Q) that includes the Ten Questions screener and additional questions on autism spectrum disorder behaviors. We then conducted household screening of 1169 children, 2-9 years of age, followed by clinical assessment of children who screened positive and a sample of those who screened negative to evaluate the validity of the screener. We found that 320 children (27% of the total) screened positive and 68 children received a clinical diagnosis of one or more moderate to severe neurodevelopmental disorders (autism spectrum disorder; cerebral palsy; epilepsy; cognitive, speech and language, hearing, or vision impairment), including 8 children with autism spectrum disorders. Prevalence and validity of the screener were evaluated under different statistical assumptions. Sensitivity of the 23Q ranged from 0.55 to 0.80 and prevalence for ≥1 neurodevelopmental disorders from 7.7/100 children to 12.8/100 children depending on which assumptions were used. The combination of screening positive on both autism spectrum disorders and Ten Questions items was modestly successful in identifying a subgroup of children at especially high risk of autism spectrum disorders. We recommend that autism spectrum disorders and related behavioral disorders be included in studies of neurodevelopmental disorders in low-resource settings to obtain essential data for planning local and global public health responses.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Introduction
Sub-Saharan Africa is predicted to face an unprecedented growth of cancers including breast cancer. There are indications of a significant burden of aggressive and late stage breast disease among premenopausal women in sub-Saharan Africa; because hormonal status tests are not routinely done, many women are given anti-hormonal therapy empirically. There is paucity of data on breast cancer molecular subtypes and their characteristics among women in sub Saharan Africa. The objective is to determine the prevalence of breast cancer molecular phenotypes among Ugandan women.
This was a cross sectional descriptive study, conducted at a tertiary hospital in Africa. Eligible participants’ formalin fixed and paraffin embedded sections were evaluated. H & E stains and Immunochemistry (Estrogen Receptor (ER), Progesterone Receptor (PR), Human Epidermal growth factor Receptor (HER2)) were performed. Ethical approval was obtained.
A total of 226 patient samples were evaluated. The mean age was 45 years (SD 14);the prevalence of Triple Negative Breast Cancer (TNBC) was 34% (77/226), Luminal A 38% (83/226), HER2 positive was 22% (49/226), and Luminal B was 5% (13/226). High-grade (III) tumors were 68%, stage III and IV constituted 75% of presentations. Histological type was mostly invasive ductal carcinoma. Most patients (55%) were from rural areas.
Ugandan women had an over representation of TNBC and high-grade breast tumors. Underlying reasons ought to be investigated. The empirical use of tamoxifen (anti-hormonal therapy) should be reexamined.
Full-text · Article · Apr 2014 · Pan African Medical Journal
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Limited antiretroviral treatment regimens in resource-limited settings require long-term sustainability of patients on the few available options. We evaluated the incidence and predictors of combined antiretroviral treatment (cART) modifications, in an outpatient cohort of 955 patients who initiated cART between January 2009 and January 2011 in western Kenya.
cART modification was defined as either first time single drug substitution or switch. Incidence rates were determined by Poisson regression and risk factor analysis assessed using multivariate Cox regression modeling.
Over a median follow-up period of 10.7 months, 178 (18.7%) patients modified regimens (incidence rate (IR); 18.6 per 100 person years [95% CI: 16.2-21.8]). Toxicity was the most common cited reason (66.3%). In adjusted multivariate Cox piecewise regression model, WHO disease stage III/IV (aHR; 1.82, 95%CI: 1.25-2.66), stavudine (d4T) use (aHR; 2.21 95%CI: 1.49-3.30) and increase in age (aHR; 1.02, 95%CI: 1.0-1.04) were associated with increased risk of treatment modification within the first year post-cART. Zidovudine (AZT) and tenofovir (TDF) use had a reduced risk for modification (aHR; 0.60 95%CI: 0.38-0.96 and aHR; 0.51 95%CI: 0.29-0.91 respectively). Beyond one year of treatment, d4T use (aHR; 2.75, 95% CI: 1.25-6.05), baseline CD4 counts ≤350 cells/mm3 (aHR; 2.45, 95%CI: 1.14-5.26), increase in age (aHR; 1.05 95%CI: 1.02-1.07) and high baseline weight >60kg aHR; 2.69 95% CI: 1.58-4.59) were associated with risk of cART modification.
Early treatment initiation at higher CD4 counts and avoiding d4T use may reduce treatment modification and subsequently improve sustainability of patients on the available limited options.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Following increased financial investment in malaria control efforts, the Uganda Ministry of Health has been scaling-up a combination of malaria interventions since 2000 under two national malaria control strategic plans. It is important to evaluate whether intervention scale-up and resources invested in malaria control have translated into significant reduction in malaria burden. Our aim was to assess the impact of scaling-up of a combination of interventions on malaria burden at health facilities in Uganda. Proportions of all-cause deaths and malaria attributed deaths among children < 5 were compared between two time periods 2004-2006 and 2008-2010. We considered the period 2004-2006 and 2008-2010 coinciding with the first and second malaria control strategic plans to be the pre and post-intervention periods respectively. Effect size of interventions on malaria indicators between the two periods was detected by comparison of two proportions using chi-square statistical test with Yates correction for continuity at 95% Confidence Interval. In 2010, all-cause under 5 deaths had decreased by 54.4 % [95% CI: 54.3-54.5], p < 0.05. Malaria attributed deaths had fallen by 7.1% [CI: 6.9-7.2], p < 0.025 in children under five . In ≥5 age groups all-cause deaths reduced by 48.4% [CI: 47.8-48.2], p<0.025 and 3.9% [CI: 3.8-4.0], p<0.025 for malaria attributed death. Intervention coverage in 2010 was 64%, 7.8%, 65% and 32% for insecticide Treated nets, Indoor Residual Spraying, Artemisinin-based Combination Therapy and Intermittent Preventive Treatment during pregnancy respectively. Our analysis of the changes in malaria related indicators between the pre-and post-intervention periods show that Uganda has achieved significant improvement in reducing malaria burden as indicated by the decline in our primary outcome indicator of all-cause mortality among children < 5 and a corresponding decline in the secondary indicator of malaria attributed deaths.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To determine factors associated with an unknown HIV serostatus among pregnant women admitted in labor to Mulago Hospital, Kampala, Uganda.
In total, 665 pregnant women admitted to Mulago Hospital were interviewed about their sociodemographic characteristics, obstetric history, access to prenatal care, fears regarding HIV testing, and knowledge about modes of mother-to-child-transmission (MTCT). Knowledge of the HIV serostatus was assessed by self-report and verified by prenatal card review.
The prevalence of unknown HIV serostatus at the time of labor was 27.1%. Factors associated with an unknown HIV serostatus included high parity (odds ratio [OR] 1.9; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.16-3.14), preterm delivery (OR 2.60; 95% CI, 1.06-6.34), prenatal care at a private clinic (OR 12.87; 95% CI, 5.68-29.14), residence more than 5km from the nearest prenatal clinic (OR 2.86; 95% CI, 1.18-17.9), high knowledge about MTCT (OR 0.25; 95% CI, 0.07-0.86), and fears related to disclosing the test result to the partner (OR 3.60; 95% CI, 1.84-7.06).
The high prevalence of unknown HIV serostatus among women in labor highlights the need to improve accessibility to HIV testing services early during pregnancy to be able to take advantage of antiretroviral therapy.
Full-text · Article · Nov 2013 · International journal of gynaecology and obstetrics: the official organ of the International Federation of Gynaecology and Obstetrics
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Efforts to improve access to treatment for common illnesses in children less than five years initially targeted malaria alone under the home management of malaria strategy. However under this strategy, children with other illnesses were often wrongly treated with anti-malarials. Integrated community case management of common childhood illnesses is now recommended but its effect on promptness of appropriate pneumonia treatment is unclear.Objectives
To determine the effect of integrated malaria and pneumonia management on receiving prompt and appropriate antibiotics for pneumonia symptoms and treatment outcomes as well as determine associated factors.
A follow-up study was nested within a cluster-randomized trial that compared under-five mortality in areas where community health workers (CHWs) treated children with malaria and pneumonia (intervention areas) and where they treated children with malaria only (control areas). Children treated by CHWs were enrolled on the day of seeking treatment from CHWs (609 intervention, 667 control) and demographic, illness, and treatment seeking information was collected. Further information on illness and treatment outcomes was collected on day four. The primary outcome was prompt and appropriate antibiotics for pneumonia symptoms and the secondary outcome was treatment outcomes on day four.
Children in the intervention areas were more likely to receive prompt and appropriate antibiotics for pneumonia symptoms compared to children in the control areas (RR = 3.51, 95%CI = 1.75-7.03). Children in the intervention areas were also less likely to have temperature >=37.5[degree sign]C on day four (RR = 0.29, 95%CI = 0.11-0.78). The decrease in fast breathing between day one and four was greater in the intervention (9.2%) compared to the control areas (4.2%, p-value = 0.01).
Integrated community management of malaria and pneumonia increases prompt and appropriate treatment for pneumonia symptoms and improves treatment outcomes.Trial registrationISRCTN: ISRCTN52966230.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Worldwide 2 billion people are exposed to hepatitis B infection, 350 million have chronic infection, 65 million in sub-Saharan Africa. Uganda is highly endemic with 10% national prevalence of hepatitis B infection, rates varying across the country from 4% in the southwest and 25% in the Northeast. Childhood vaccination was rolled out in 2002, the effect of which on the burden of hepatitis B has not been examined. We determined the prevalence and risk factors for hepatitis B infection in the Northern Uganda Municipality of Gulu.
We carried out a cross-sectional, population-based survey. The study population included those found at home at the time of recruitment. Data on demographics, wealth index, cultural and behavioral factors, vaccination and health education on hepatitis B were collected. Hepatitis B infection (Hepatitis B surface antigen positive) and lifetime exposure (anti-hepatitis B core antibody positive) were measured. Analysis was done in 2 age groups, 1--14 years, 14 years and more. Associations between predictors and HBV infection were assessed.
Information on 790 respondents were analyzed. Overall, 139/790 (17.6%) had hepatitis B infection and 572/790 (72.4%) lifetime exposure. In the younger age group 16/73 (21.9%) had hepatitis B infection and 35/73 (48%) lifetime exposure. Increasing wealth was protective for infection (OR 0.46 per quartile, 95% CI=0.26-0.82, p=0.009), while older age was protective for lifetime exposure (OR 2.70 per age group, 95% CI 1.03-7.07, p=0.043). In the older age group, overall hepatitis B infection was seen in 123/717 (17.2%) and lifetime exposure in 537/717 (74.9%). The female sex (OR 0.63, 95% CI=0.42-0.98, p=0.032) and increasing age (OR 0.76 per age group, 95% CI=0.64-0.91, p=0.003) were factors associated with infection. For lifetime exposure, increasing number of lifetime sexual partners was a risk factor (OR 1.19 per partner category, 95% CI=1.04-1.38, p=0.012).
We found a high prevalence of hepatitis B infection and lifetime exposures to hepatitis B in this northern Uganda Municipality. Targeted vaccination of susceptible adults and improving existing childhood vaccinations and provision of treatment for those with infection will play roles in reducing the high prevalence rates seen in the population.
Full-text · Article · Aug 2013 · BMC Public Health
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Introduction. Breast cancer is the commonest cancer among women globally. In Uganda, it is on the rise, projected at a 4.5% annual ASR increase (age standardized incidence rate). The reasons for this steep increase are not fully established. In the recent past, gene profiling in tumor tissues suggests that breast cancers are divided into subtypes dependent on the presence or absence of oestrogen receptor, progesterone, and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER 2).
These subtypes do have distinctive clinical outcomes and perhaps risk factors from past studies. There is paucity of data on hormonal receptor status and the traditionally known risk factors in sub-Saharan Africa. The purpose of this study therefore was to establish the differences between ER status and the traditionally known risk factors for breast cancer in Uganda. Methods. An observational analytical hospital, based study, carried out at Makerere University, College of Health Sciences. Formalin fixed and paraffin imbedded sections were prepared for haemotoxylin and eosin (H&E) stains and immunohistochemistry (IHC). Ethical approval was obtained. Results. A total of 113 women were recruited. Mean age was 45 years (SD14). There were no significant differences in selected risk factors (setting, age, contraceptive use, parity, breast feeding, or menarche) by ER status although ER negative tumors had significantly higher grade tumors (by a factor of two) compared to ER positive tumors. Conclusion. There were no significant differences among risk factors by ER status contrary to what several other studies suggest. The manifestation of breast cancer in Africa warrants further extensive inquiry.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background
Uganda’s Ministry of Health registered a 12% increase in new Tuberculosis (TB) cases between 2001 and 2005. Of these, 20% were from Kampala district and most from Mulago national referral hospital where the largest and the oldest medical school is found. Medical students are likely to have an increased exposure to TB infection due to their training in hospitals compared to other university students. The study compared the prevalence of TB infection and associated factors among undergraduate medical and veterinary students in Makerere University, Uganda.
This was a cross-sectional study with 232 medical and 250 veterinary undergraduate students. Socio-demographic and past medical history data was collected using questionnaires. A tuberculin skin test was performed on the volar aspect of the left forearm. An induration ≥10 mm in diameter after 48-72 hrs was considered positive. Logistic regression was used to determine association of independent variables with TB infection.
The prevalence of TB infection was higher in medical students (44.8%, 95% C.I= 38.4-51.3%) compared to veterinary students (35.2%, 95% C.I = 29.3-41.1%). The significant predictors of TB infection were: being a medical student (aOR=1.56, 95% CI = 1.05-2.31), male sex (aOR=1.75, 95% CI = 1.17-2.63), history of contact with a confirmed TB case (aOR=1.57, 95% CI = 1.06-2.31) and residing at home (aOR=2.08, 95% CI = 1.20-3.61). Among the medical students, having gone to a day compared to boarding high school (aOR=2.31, 95% CI = 1.06-5.04), involvement in extracurricular clinical exposure (aOR=3.39 95% CI = 1.60-7.16), male sex, residence at home, and history of contact with a TB case predicted TB infection.
Medical students have a higher prevalence of TB infection than veterinary students probably due to increased exposure during training. There is a need to emphasize TB infection control measures in hospitals and the general community.
Full-text · Article · Apr 2013 · Archives of Public Health
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Development of resistance to first line antimalarials led to recommendation of artemisinin based combination therapies (ACTs). High adherence to ACTs provided by community health workers (CHWs) gave reassurance that community based interventions did not increase the risk of drug resistance. Integrated community case management of illnesses (ICCM) is now recommended through which children will access both antibiotics and antimalarials from CHWs. Increased number of medicines has been shown to lower adherence.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We compared use of community medicine distributors (CMDs) and drug use under integrated community case management and home-based management strategies in children 6–59 months of age in eastern Uganda. A cross-sectional study with 1,095 children was nested in a cluster randomized trial with integrated community case management (CMDs treating malaria and pneumonia) as the intervention and home-based management (CMDs treating only malaria) as the control. Care-seeking from CMDs was higher in intervention areas (31%) than in control areas (22%; P = 0.01). Prompt and appropriate treatment of malaria was higher in intervention areas (18%) than in control areas (12%; P = 0.03) and among CMD users (37%) than other health providers (9%). The mean number of drugs among CMD users compared with other health providers was 1.6 versus 2.4 in intervention areas and 1.4 versus 2.3 in control areas. Use of CMDs was low. However, integrated community case management of childhood illnesses increased use of CMDs and rational drug use.
Full-text · Article · Nov 2012 · The American journal of tropical medicine and hygiene
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background:
Postnatal transmission of HIV-1 through breast milk remains an unsolved challenge in many resource-poor settings where replacement feeding is not a safe alternative. WHO now recommends breastfeeding of infants born to HIV-infected mothers until 12 months of age, with either maternal highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) or peri-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) in infants using nevirapine. As PEP, lamivudine showed a similar efficacy and safety as nevirapine, but with an expected lower rate of resistant HIV strains emerging in infants who fail PEP, and lower restrictions for future HIV treatment. Lopinavir/ritonavir (LPV/r) is an attractive PEP candidate with presumably higher efficacy against HIV than nevirapine or lamivudine, and a higher genetic barrier to resistance selection. It showed an acceptable safety profile for the treatment of very young HIV-infected infants. The ANRS 12174 study aims to compare the risk of HIV-1 transmission during and safety of prolonged infant PEP with LPV/r (40/10 mg twice daily if 2-4 kg and 80/20 mg twice daily if >4 kg) versus Lamivudine (7,5 mg twice daily if 2-4 kg, 25 mg twice daily if 4-8 kg and 50 mg twice daily if >8 kg) from day 7 until one week after cessation of BF (maximum 50 weeks of prophylaxis) to prevent postnatal HIV-1 acquisition between 7 days and 50 weeks of age.
The ANRS 12174 study is a multinational, randomised controlled clinical trial conducted on 1,500 mother-infant pairs in Burkina Faso, South Africa, Uganda and Zambia. We will recommend exclusive breastfeeding (EBF) until 26th week of life and cessation of breastfeeding at a maximum of 49 weeks in both trial arms.HIV-uninfected infants at day 7 (± 2 days) born to HIV-1 infected mothers not eligible for HAART who choose to breastfeed their infants.The primary endpoint is the acquisition of HIV-1 (as assessed by HIV-1 DNA PCR) between day 7 and 50 weeks of age. Secondary endpoints are safety (including resistance, adverse events and growth) until 50 weeks and HIV-1-free survival until 50 weeks.
This study will provide a new evidence-based intervention to support HIV-1-infected women not eligible for HAART to safely breastfeed their babies.
Full-text · Article · Oct 2012 · BMC Infectious Diseases
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background
Chronic diseases are rapidly increasing and are currently the major cause of death and disability worldwide. Patients with chronic diseases experience many challenges including medicine-related problems. However, there is limited information about the home management of medicines among these patients. This study therefore was to determine home medication management practices and associated factors among patients with chronic diseases seeking care in a community pharmacy in Uganda.
A cross-sectional study was conducted in a community pharmacy in Kampala from June to July 2010. A total of 207 consenting chronic disease patients or caregivers of children with chronic disease were consecutively sampled. The patients were visited at home to evaluate their drug management practices and to check their medical forms for disease types and drugs prescribed. An interviewer-administered questionnaire and an observation checklist were used to collect the data.
Overall home medication management was inappropriate for 70% (n = 145) of the participants (95% CI = 63.3-76.2) and was associated with perceived severity of disease (not severe OR =0.40, moderately severe OR = 0.35), duration of disease >5 years (OR = 2.15), and health worker not assessing for response to treatment (OR = 2.53). About 52% (n = 107) had inappropriate storage which was associated with inadequate information about the disease (OR = 2.39) and distance to the health facility >5 kilometres (OR = 2.82). Fifteen percent (n = 31) had no drug administration schedule and this was associated with increasing age (OR = 0.97), inadequate information about the disease (OR = 2.96), and missing last appointment for medical review (OR = 6.55). About 9% (n = 18) had actual medication duplication; 1.4% (n = 3) had expired medicines; while 18.4% (n = 38) had drug hoarding associated with increasing number of prescribers (OR = 1.34) and duration of disease (OR = 2.06). About 51% (n = 105) had multiple prescribers associated with perceiving the disease to be non severe (OR = 0.27), and having more than one chronic disease (OR = 2.37).
Patients with chronic disease have poor home management of medicines. In order to limit the occurrence of poor outcomes of treatment or drug toxicity, health providers need to strengthen the education of patients with chronic disease on how to handle their medicines at home.
Full-text · Article · Sep 2012 · BMC Health Services Research
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Curative interventions delivered by community health workers (CHWs) were introduced to increase access to health services for children less than five years and have previously targeted single illnesses. However, CHWs in the integrated community case management of childhood illnesses strategy adopted in Uganda in 2010 will manage multiple illnesses. There is little documentation about the performance of CHWs in the management of multiple illnesses. This study compared the performance of CHWs managing malaria and pneumonia with performance of CHWs managing malaria alone in eastern Uganda and the factors influencing performance.
A mixed methods study was conducted among 125 CHWs providing either dual malaria and pneumonia management or malaria management alone for children aged four to 59 months. Performance was assessed using knowledge tests, case scenarios of sick children, review of CHWs' registers, and observation of CHWs in the dual management arm assessing respiratory symptoms. Four focus group discussions with CHWs were also conducted.
CHWs in the dual- and single-illness management arms had similar performance with respect to: overall knowledge of malaria (dual 72%, single 70%); eliciting malaria signs and symptoms (50% in both groups); prescribing anti-malarials based on case scenarios (82% dual, 80% single); and correct prescription of anti-malarials from record reviews (dual 99%, single 100%). In the dual-illness arm, scores for malaria and pneumonia differed on overall knowledge (72% vs 40%, p < 0.001); and correct doses of medicines from records (100% vs 96%, p < 0.001). According to records, 82% of the children with fast breathing had received an antibiotic. From observations 49% of CHWs counted respiratory rates within five breaths of the physician (gold standard) and 75% correctly classified the children. The factors perceived to influence CHWs' performance were: community support and confidence, continued training, availability of drugs and other necessary supplies, and cooperation from formal health workers.
CHWs providing dual-illness management handled malaria cases as well as CHWs providing single-illness management, and also performed reasonably well in the management of pneumonia. With appropriate training that emphasizes pneumonia assessment, adequate supervision, and provision of drugs and necessary supplies, CHWs can provide integrated treatment for malaria and pneumonia.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background: Culture is broadly used to refer to a complex of learned behaviour patterns that characterizes a particular group, community, or population. This process is continuously evolving and determines their perceptions, way of communication and interaction with one another. Challenges exist in establishing Autistic Spectrum Disorders (ASD) diagnoses based on behavioral criteria due to the prevailing cross cultural differences. These disparities, present an inherent dilemma in attempting to adapt screening and diagnostic tools. The value of these tools for application in developing countries is limited by scarce resources and cultural factors affecting clinical manifestations and/or interpretation of behaviours. These factors impact on community recognition and integration of ASD-affected individuals.
Methods: We initiated an ASD screening and assessment project in the sub-Saharan country of Uganda, nested in the context of a broader neuro-developmental three stage screening and assessment project. In the first stage, the Ten Questions Screen (TQ) was adapted for screening to include 10 questions specific for ASD, five each for those above and below five years of age respectively. The second stage for assessment picked out those children with possible ASD for referral to the final confirmatory stage by a psychiatrist using the DSM IV-R criteria.
Results: Issues encountered included selecting the choice of questions, ensuring their local language translation was clear to illicit the valid responses and providing appropriate examples to clarify culturally specific questions like the “mama and tata” games played during childhood. During assessment and confirmation, several children with varying disabilities and other medical conditions were examined including: delayed speech development, mental retardation and severe malnutrition.
Conclusion: Standardization of screening tools for ASD is fraught with many challenges. This should not deter the process of tool adaptation and validation to be culturally relevant and sensitive for accurate diagnosis and facilitation of early detection of ASD.