[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Recombinant inbred populations of many plant species exhibit more heterozygosity than expected under the Mendelian model of segregation. This segregation distortion causes the overestimation of recombination frequencies and consequent genetic map expansion. Here we build upon existing genetic models of differential zygotic viability to model a heterozygote fitness term and calculate expected genotypic proportions in recombinant inbred populations propagated by selfing. We implement this model using the existing open-source genetic map construction code base for R/qtl to estimate recombination fractions. Lastly, we show that accounting for excess heterozygosity in a sorghum recombinant inbred mapping population shrinks the genetic map by 213 cM (a 13% decrease corresponding to 4.26 fewer recombinations per meiosis). More accurate estimates of linkage benefit linkage-based analyses used in the identification and utilization of causal genetic variation.
Full-text · Article · Aug 2014 · G3-Genes Genomes Genetics
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Light signaling by phytochrome B in long days inhibits flowering in sorghum by increasing expression of the long day floral repressors PSEUDORESPONSE REGULATOR PROTEIN (SbPRR37, Ma1) and GRAIN NUMBER, PLANT HEIGHT AND HEADING DATE 7 (SbGHD7, Ma6). SbPRR37 and SbGHD7 RNA abundance peaks in the morning and in the evening of long days through coordinate regulation by light and output from the circadian clock. 58 M, a phytochrome B deficient (phyB-1, ma3R) genotype, flowered ∼60 days earlier than 100 M (PHYB, Ma3) in long days and ∼11 days earlier in short days. Populations derived from 58 M (Ma1, ma3R, Ma5, ma6) and R.07007 (Ma1, Ma3, ma5, Ma6) varied in flowering time due to QTL aligned to PHYB/phyB-1 (Ma3), Ma5, and GHD7/ghd7-1 (Ma6). PHYC was proposed as a candidate gene for Ma5 based on alignment and allelic variation. PHYB and Ma5 (PHYC) were epistatic to Ma1 and Ma6 and progeny recessive for either gene flowered early in long days. Light signaling mediated by PhyB was required for high expression of the floral repressors SbPRR37 and SbGHD7 during the evening of long days. In 100 M (PHYB) the floral activators SbEHD1, SbCN8 and SbCN12 were repressed in long days and de-repressed in short days. In 58 M (phyB-1) these genes were highly expressed in long and short days. Furthermore, SbCN15, the ortholog of rice Hd3a (FT), is expressed at low levels in 100 M but at high levels in 58 M (phyB-1) regardless of day length, indicating that PhyB regulation of SbCN15 expression may modify flowering time in a photoperiod-insensitive manner.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Sorghum Ma(6), a strong repressor of flowering in long days (LDs), was identified as the CONSTANS, CO-like, and TOC1 (CCT)-domain protein encoded by SbGhd7. Sorghum Ghd7 increases photoperiod sensitivity and delays flowering by inhibiting expression of the floral activator SbEhd1 and genes encoding FT. SbGhd7 expression is light-dependent and gated by the circadian clock. In LDs when flowering is repressed, SbGhd7 mRNA abundance peaks in the morning and evening. In short days (SDs) when floral initiation occurs, the evening phase of SbGhd7 expression occurs in darkness, reducing SbGhd7 mRNA abundance. In energy sorghum hybrids, dominant alleles of SbGhd7 and SbPRR37 act in additive fashion to delay floral initiation for similar to 175 d until daylengths decrease below 12.3 h. In contrast, photoperiod-insensitive grain sorghum genotypes containing recessive alleles of SbGhd7 and SbPRR37 flower in 60 to 80 d. Recessive alleles of SbGhd7 and SbPRR37 are present in historically important sorghum germplasm introduced into the United States in the 1800s that was used to produce early flowering grain and sweet sorghum. Recessive alleles ghd7-1 and prr37-1 are present in maturity standards such as SM100, and in BTx406, a genotype used in the Sorghum Conversion Program to convert late-flowering photoperiod-sensitive sorghum accessions into early flowering photoperiod-insensitive germplasm useful for grain sorghum breeding. The results show that alleles of SbGhd7 confer differences in photoperiod sensitivity and flowering times that are critical for production of late-flowering high-biomass energy sorghum and early flowering grain sorghum.
No preview · Article · Jul 2014 · The Plant Genome
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Sorghum is emerging as an excellent genetic model for the design of C4 grass bioenergy crops. Annual energy Sorghum hybrids also serve as a source of biomass for bioenergy production. Elucidation of Sorghum’s flowering time gene regulatory network, and identification of complementary alleles for photoperiod sensitivity, enabled
large-scale generation of energy Sorghum hybrids for testing and commercial use. Energy Sorghum hybrids with long vegetative growth phases were found to accumulate more than twice as much biomass as grain Sorghum, owing to extended growing seasons, greater light interception, and higher radiation use efficiency. High biomass yield,
efficient nitrogen recycling, and preferential accumulation of stem biomass with low nitrogen content contributed to energy
Sorghum’s elevated nitrogen use efficiency. Sorghum’s integrated genetics-genomics-breeding platform, diverse germplasm, and the opportunity for annual testing of new genetic
designs in controlled environments and in multiple field locations is aiding fundamental discovery, and accelerating the improvement
of biomass yield and optimization of composition for biofuels production. Recent advances in wide hybridization between Sorghum and other C4 grasses could allow the deployment of improved genetic designs of annual energy Sorghums in the form of wide-hybrid perennial crops. The current trajectory of energy Sorghum genetic improvement indicates that it will be possible to sustainably produce biofuels from C4 grass bioenergy crops that are cost competitive with petroleum-based transportation fuels.
No preview · Article · Jun 2014 · Journal of Experimental Botany
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Sorghum genotypes used for grain production in temperate regions are photoperiod insensitive and flower early avoiding adverse environments during the reproductive phase. In contrast, energy sorghum hybrids are highly photoperiod sensitive with extended vegetative phases in long days, resulting in enhanced biomass accumulation. SbPRR37 and SbGHD7 contribute to photoperiod sensitivity in sorghum by repressing expression of SbEHD1 and FT-like genes, thereby delaying flowering in long days with minimal influence in short days (PNAS_108:16469-16474, 2011; Plant Genome_in press, 2014). The GIGANTEA (GI)-CONSTANS (CO)-FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT) pathway regulates flowering time in Arabidopsis and the grasses (J Exp Bot_62:2453-2463, 2011). In long day flowering plants, such as Arabidopsis and barley, CONSTANS activates FT expression and flowering in long days. In rice, a short day flowering plant, Hd1, the ortholog of CONSTANS, activates flowering in short days and represses flowering in long days.
Quantitative trait loci (QTL) that modify flowering time in sorghum were identified by screening Recombinant Inbred Lines (RILs) derived from BTx642 and Tx7000 in long days, short days, and under field conditions. Analysis of the flowering time QTL on SBI-10 revealed that BTx642 encodes a recessive CONSTANS allele containing a His106Tyr substitution in B-box 2 known to inactivate CONSTANS in Arabidopsis thaliana. Genetic analysis characterized sorghum CONSTANS as a floral activator that promotes flowering by inducing the expression of EARLY HEADING DATE 1 (SbEHD1) and sorghum orthologs of the maize FT genes ZCN8 (SbCN8) and ZCN12 (SbCN12). The floral repressor PSEUDORESPONSE REGULATOR PROTEIN 37 (PRR37) inhibits sorghum CONSTANS activity and flowering in long days.
Sorghum CONSTANS is an activator of flowering that is repressed post-transcriptionally in long days by the floral inhibitor PRR37, contributing to photoperiod sensitive flowering in Sorghum bicolor, a short day plant.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Sorghum genotypes currently used for grain production in the United States were developed from African landraces that were imported starting in the mid-to-late 19(th) century. Farmers and plant breeders selected genotypes for grain production with reduced plant height, early flowering, increased grain yield, adaptation to drought, and improved resistance to lodging, diseases and pests. DNA polymorphisms that distinguish three historically important grain sorghum genotypes, BTx623, BTx642 and Tx7000, were characterized by genome sequencing, genotyping by sequencing, genetic mapping, and pedigree-based haplotype analysis. The distribution and density of DNA polymorphisms in the sequenced genomes varied widely, in part because the lines were derived through breeding and selection from diverse Kafir, Durra, and Caudatum race accessions. Genomic DNA spanning dw1 (SBI-09) and dw3 (SBI-07) had identical haplotypes due to selection for reduced height. Lower SNP density in genes located in pericentromeric regions compared with genes located in euchromatic regions is consistent with background selection in these regions of low recombination. SNP density was higher in euchromatic DNA and varied >100-fold in contiguous intervals that spanned up to 300 Kbp. The localized variation in DNA polymorphism density occurred throughout euchromatic regions where recombination is elevated, however, polymorphism density was not correlated with gene density or DNA methylation. Overall, sorghum chromosomes contain distal euchromatic regions characterized by extensive, localized variation in DNA polymorphism density, and large pericentromeric regions of low gene density, diversity, and recombination.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Rapid acquisition of accurate genotyping information is essential for all genetic marker-based studies. For species with relatively small genomes, complete genome resequencing is a feasible approach for genotyping; however, for species with large and highly repetitive genomes, the acquisition of whole genome sequences for the purpose of genotyping is still relatively inefficient and too expensive to be carried out on a high-throughput basis. Sorghum bicolor is a C4 grass with a sequenced genome size of ~730 Mb, of which ~80% is highly repetitive. We have developed a restriction enzyme targeted genome resequencing method for genetic analysis, termed Digital Genotyping (DG), to be applied to sorghum and other grass species with large repeat-rich genomes.
DG templates are generated using one of three methylation sensitive restriction enzymes that recognize a nested set of 4, 6 or 8 bp GC-rich sequences, enabling varying depth of analysis and integration of results among assays. Variation in sequencing efficiency among DG markers was correlated with template GC-content and length. The expected DG allele sequence was obtained 97.3% of the time with a ratio of expected to alternative allele sequence acquisition of >20:1. A genetic map aligned to the sorghum genome sequence with an average resolution of 1.47 cM was constructed using 1,772 DG markers from 137 recombinant inbred lines. The DG map enhanced the detection of QTL for variation in plant height and precisely aligned QTL such as Dw3 to underlying genes/alleles. Higher-resolution NgoMIV-based DG haplotypes were used to trace the origin of DNA on SBI-06, spanning Ma1 and Dw2 from progenitors to BTx623 and IS3620C. DG marker analysis identified the correct location of two miss-assembled regions and located seven super contigs in the sorghum reference genome sequence.
DG technology provides a cost-effective approach to rapidly generate accurate genotyping data in sorghum. Currently, data derived from DG are used for many marker-based analyses, including marker-assisted breeding, pedigree and QTL analysis, genetic map construction, map-based gene cloning and association studies. DG in combination with whole genome resequencing is dramatically accelerating all aspects of genetic analysis of sorghum, an important genetic reference for C4 grass species.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Optimal flowering time is critical to the success of modern agriculture. Sorghum is a short-day tropical species that exhibits substantial photoperiod sensitivity and delayed flowering in long days. Genotypes with reduced photoperiod sensitivity enabled sorghum's utilization as a grain crop in temperate zones worldwide. In the present study, Ma(1), the major repressor of sorghum flowering in long days, was identified as the pseudoresponse regulator protein 37 (PRR37) through positional cloning and analysis of SbPRR37 alleles that modulate flowering time in grain and energy sorghum. Several allelic variants of SbPRR37 were identified in early flowering grain sorghum germplasm that contain unique loss-of-function mutations. We show that in long days SbPRR37 activates expression of the floral inhibitor CONSTANS and represses expression of the floral activators Early Heading Date 1, FLOWERING LOCUS T, Zea mays CENTRORADIALIS 8, and floral induction. Expression of SbPRR37 is light dependent and regulated by the circadian clock, with peaks of RNA abundance in the morning and evening in long days. In short days, the evening-phase expression of SbPRR37 does not occur due to darkness, allowing sorghum to flower in this photoperiod. This study provides insight into an external coincidence mechanism of photoperiodic regulation of flowering time mediated by PRR37 in the short-day grass sorghum and identifies important alleles of SbPRR37 that are critical for the utilization of this tropical grass in temperate zone grain and bioenergy production.
Full-text · Article · Sep 2011 · Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) clones from apomicts Pennisetum squamulatum and buffelgrass (Cenchrus ciliaris), isolated with the apospory-specific genomic region (ASGR) marker ugt197, were assembled into contigs that were extended by chromosome walking. Gene-like sequences from contigs were identified by shotgun sequencing and BLAST searches, and used to isolate orthologous rice contigs. Additional gene-like sequences in the apomicts' contigs were identified by bioinformatics using fully sequenced BACs from orthologous rice contigs as templates, as well as by interspecies, whole-contig cross-hybridizations. Hierarchical contig orthology was rapidly assessed by constructing detailed long-range contig molecular maps showing the distribution of gene-like sequences and markers, and searching for microsyntenic patterns of sequence identity and spatial distribution within and across species contigs. We found microsynteny between P. squamulatum and buffelgrass contigs. Importantly, this approach also enabled us to isolate from within the rice (Oryza sativa) genome contig Rice A, which shows the highest microsynteny and is most orthologous to the ugt197-containing C1C buffelgrass contig. Contig Rice A belongs to the rice genome database contig 77 (according to the current September 12, 2003, rice fingerprint contig build) that maps proximal to the chromosome 11 centromere, a feature that interestingly correlates with the mapping of ASGR-linked BACs proximal to the centromere or centromere-like sequences. Thus, relatedness between these two orthologous contigs is supported both by their molecular microstructure and by their centromeric-proximal location. Our discoveries promote the use of a microsynteny-based positional-cloning approach using the rice genome as a template to aid in constructing the ASGR toward the isolation of genes underlying apospory.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Improved knowledge of the sorghum transcriptome will enhance basic understanding of how plants respond to stresses and serve as a source of genes of value to agriculture. Toward this goal, Sorghum bicolor L. Moench cDNA libraries were prepared from light- and dark-grown seedlings, drought-stressed plants, Colletotrichum-infected seedlings and plants, ovaries, embryos, and immature panicles. Other libraries were prepared with meristems from Sorghum propinquum (Kunth) Hitchc. that had been photoperiodically induced to flower, and with rhizomes from S. propinquum and johnsongrass (Sorghum halepense L. Pers.). A total of 117,682 expressed sequence tags (ESTs) were obtained representing both 3' and 5' sequences from about half that number of cDNA clones. A total of 16,801 unique transcripts, representing tentative UniScripts (TUs), were identified from 55,783 3' ESTs. Of these TUs, 9,032 are represented by two or more ESTs. Collectively, these libraries were predicted to contain a total of approximately 31,000 TUs. Individual libraries, however, were predicted to contain no more than about 6,000 to 9,000, with the exception of light-grown seedlings, which yielded an estimate of close to 13,000. In addition, each library exhibits about the same level of complexity with respect to both the number of TUs preferentially expressed in that library and the frequency with which two or more ESTs is found in only that library. These results indicate that the sorghum genome is expressed in highly selective fashion in the individual organs and in response to the environmental conditions surveyed here. Close to 2,000 differentially expressed TUs were identified among the cDNA libraries examined, of which 775 were differentially expressed at a confidence level of 98%. From these 775 TUs, signature genes were identified defining drought, Colletotrichum infection, skotomorphogenesis (etiolation), ovary, immature panicle, and embryo.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Genome wide changes in gene expression were monitored in the drought tolerant C4 cereal Sorghum bicolor, following exposure of seedlings to high salinity (150 mM NaCl), osmotic stress (20% polyethylene glycol) or abscisic acid (125 microM ABA). A sorghum cDNA microarray providing data on 12,982 unique gene clusters was used to examine gene expression in roots and shoots at 3- and 27-h post-treatment. Expression of approximately 2200 genes, including 174 genes with currently unknown functions, of which a subset appear unique to monocots and/or sorghum, was altered in response to dehydration, high salinity or ABA. The modulated sorghum genes had homology to proteins involved in regulation, growth, transport, membrane/protein turnover/repair, metabolism, dehydration protection, reactive oxygen scavenging, and plant defense. Real-time PCR was used to quantify changes in relative mRNA abundance for 333 genes that responded to ABA, NaCl or osmotic stress. Osmotic stress inducible sorghum genes identified for the first time included a beta-expansin expressed in shoots, actin depolymerization factor, inositol-3-phosphate synthase, a non-C4 NADP-malic enzyme, oleosin, and three genes homologous to 9-cis-epoxycarotenoid dioxygenase that may be involved in ABA biosynthesis. Analysis of response profiles demonstrated the existence of a complex gene regulatory network that differentially modulates gene expression in a tissue- and kinetic-specific manner in response to ABA, high salinity and water deficit. Modulation of genes involved in signal transduction, chromatin structure, transcription, translation and RNA metabolism contributes to sorghum's overlapping but nonetheless distinct responses to ABA, high salinity, and osmotic stress. Overall, this study provides a foundation of information on sorghum's osmotic stress responsive gene complement that will accelerate follow up biochemical, QTL and comparative studies.
Full-text · Article · Aug 2005 · Plant Molecular Biology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Gametophytic apomixis is asexual reproduction as a consequence of parthenogenetic development of a chromosomally unreduced egg. The trait leads to the production of embryos with a maternal genotype, i.e. progeny are clones of the maternal plant. The application of the trait in agriculture could be a tremendous tool for crop improvement through conventional and nonconventional breeding methods. Unfortunately, there are no major crops that reproduce by apomixis, and interspecific hybridization with wild relatives has not yet resulted in commercially viable germplasm. Pennisetum squamulatum is an aposporous apomict from which the gene(s) for apomixis has been transferred to sexual pearl millet by backcrossing. Twelve molecular markers that are linked with apomixis coexist in a tight linkage block called the apospory-specific genomic region (ASGR), and several of these markers have been shown to be hemizygous in the polyploid genome of P. squamulatum. High resolution genetic mapping of these markers has not been possible because of low recombination in this region of the genome. We now show the physical arrangement of bacterial artificial chromosomes containing apomixis-linked molecular markers by high resolution fluorescence in situ hybridization on pachytene chromosomes. The size of the ASGR, currently defined as the entire hemizygous region that hybridizes with apomixis-linked bacterial artificial chromosomes, was estimated on pachytene and mitotic chromosomes to be approximately 50 Mbp (a quarter of the chromosome). The ASGR includes highly repetitive sequences from an Opie-2-like retrotransposon family that are particularly abundant in this region of the genome.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A "gene-island" sequencing strategy has been developed that expedites the targeted acquisition of orthologous gene sequences from related species for comparative genome analysis. A 152-kb bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) clone from sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) encoding phytochrome A (PHYA) was fully sequenced, revealing 16 open reading frames with a gene density similar to many regions of the rice (Oryza sativa) genome. The sequences of genes in the orthologous region of the maize (Zea mays) and rice genomes were obtained using the gene-island sequencing method. BAC clones containing the orthologous maize and rice PHYA genes were identified, sheared, subcloned, and probed with the sorghum PHYA-containing BAC DNA. Sequence analysis revealed that approximately 75% of the cross-hybridizing subclones contained sequences orthologous to those within the sorghum PHYA BAC and less than 25% contained repetitive and/or BAC vector DNA sequences. The complete sequence of four genes, including up to 1 kb of their promoter regions, was identified in the maize PHYA BAC. Nine orthologous gene sequences were identified in the rice PHYA BAC. Sequence comparison of the orthologous sorghum and maize genes aided in the identification of exons and conserved regulatory sequences flanking each open reading frame. Within genomic regions where micro-colinearity of genes is absolutely conserved, gene-island sequencing is a particularly useful tool for comparative analysis of genomes between related species.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The plastid gene psbD encodes D2, a photosystem II reaction center chlorophyll-binding protein. psbD is transcribed from a conserved chloroplast promoter that is activated by blue, white, or UV-A light. In this study, various forms of the barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) chloroplast psbD-LRP were fused to the uidA reporter gene and introduced into the tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.) plastid genome through homologous recombination. Primer extension analysis of transcripts from the psbD-LRP-uidA construct showed that the barley psbD-LRP was activated in tobacco by blue or white light. Transcription from this construct was also regulated by circadian cycling indicating that the barley psbD-LRP could respond to light modulated regulatory pathways in tobacco. Mutation of the psbD-LRP prokaryotic -10 promoter element reduced transcription to very low levels in all light regimes. In contrast, mutation of a prokaryotic -35 promoter element had no effect on transcription from the psbD-LRP. Deletion or mutation of an upstream activating element, the AAG-box (-36 to -64), also reduced transcription from the construct to very low levels. In contrast, deletion of the upstream PGT-box (-71 to -100) did not alter promoter activation by blue light, or responsiveness to circadian cycling. These in vivo studies confirm the importance of the psbD-LRP -10 promoter element and AAG-box in light regulation and demonstrate that these elements are sufficient to mediate circadian cycling of the barley psbD promoter.
No preview · Article · Nov 2001 · Plant Molecular Biology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Sorghum is an important target of plant genomics. This cereal has unusual tolerance to adverse environments, a small genome (750 Mbp) relative to most other grasses, a diverse germplasm, and utility for comparative genomics with rice, maize and other grasses. In this study, a modified cDNA selection protocol was developed to aid the discovery and mapping of genes across an integrated genetic and physical map of the sorghum genome. BAC DNA from the sorghum genome map was isolated and covalently bound in arrayed tubes for efficient liquid handling. Amplifiable cDNA sequence tags were isolated by hybridization to individual sorghum BACs, cloned and sequenced. Analysis of a fully sequenced sorghum BAC indicated that about 80% of known or predicted genes were detected in the sequence tags, including multiple tags from different regions of individual genes. Data from cDNA selection using the fully sequenced BAC indicate that the occurrence of mislocated cDNA tags is very low. Analysis of 35 BACs (5.25 Mb) from sorghum linkage group B revealed (and therefore mapped) two sorghum genes and 58 sorghum ESTs. Additionally, 31 cDNA tags that had significant homologies to genes from other species were also isolated. The modified cDNA selection procedure described here will be useful for genome-wide gene discovery and EST mapping in sorghum, and for comparative genomics of sorghum, rice, maize and other grasses.
Full-text · Article · Sep 2001 · The Plant Journal
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The soybean (Glycine max L. Merr. cv Williams 82) genes VspA and VspB encode vacuolar glycoprotein acid phosphatases that serve as vegetative storage proteins during seed fill and early stages of seedling growth. VspB expression is activated by jasmonates (JAs) and sugars and down-regulated by phosphate and auxin. Previous promoter studies demonstrated that VspB promoter sequences between -585 and -535 mediated responses to JA, and sequences between -535 and -401 mediated responses to sugars, phosphate, and auxin. In this study, the response domains were further delineated using transient expression of VspB promoter-beta-glucuronidase constructs in tobacco protoplasts. Sequences between -536 and -484 were identified as important for phosphate responses, whereas the region from -486 to -427 mediated sugar responses. Gel-shift and deoxyribonuclease-I footprinting assays revealed four DNA-binding sites between -611 and -451 of the soybean VspB promoter: one in the JA response domain, two in the phosphate response domain, and one binding site in the sugar response domain. The sequence CATTAATTAG present in the phosphate response domain binds soybean homeodomain leucine zipper proteins, suggesting a role for these transcription factors in phosphate-modulated gene expression.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Sorghum is an important target for plant genomic mapping because of its adaptation to harsh environments, diverse germplasm collection, and value for comparing the genomes of grass species such as corn and rice. The construction of an integrated genetic and physical map of the sorghum genome (750 Mbp) is a primary goal of our sorghum genome project. To help accomplish this task, we have developed a new high-throughput PCR-based method for building BAC contigs and locating BAC clones on the sorghum genetic map. This task involved pooling 24,576 sorghum BAC clones ( approximately 4x genome equivalents) in six different matrices to create 184 pools of BAC DNA. DNA fragments from each pool were amplified using amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) technology, resolved on a LI-COR dual-dye DNA sequencing system, and analyzed using Bionumerics software. On average, each set of AFLP primers amplified 28 single-copy DNA markers that were useful for identifying overlapping BAC clones. Data from 32 different AFLP primer combinations identified approximately 2400 BACs and ordered approximately 700 BAC contigs. Analysis of a sorghum RIL mapping population using the same primer pairs located approximately 200 of the BAC contigs on the sorghum genetic map. Restriction endonuclease fingerprinting of the entire collection of sorghum BAC clones was applied to test and extend the contigs constructed using this PCR-based methodology. Analysis of the fingerprint data allowed for the identification of 3366 contigs each containing an average of 5 BACs. BACs in approximately 65% of the contigs aligned by AFLP analysis had sufficient overlap to be confirmed by DNA fingerprint analysis. In addition, 30% of the overlapping BACs aligned by AFLP analysis provided information for merging contigs and singletons that could not be joined using fingerprint data alone. Thus, the combination of fingerprinting and AFLP-based contig assembly and mapping provides a reliable, high-throughput method for building an integrated genetic and physical map of the sorghum genome.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The photosystem II reaction center chlorophyll protein D2, is encoded by the chloroplast gene psbD. PsbD is transcribed from at least three different promoters, one which is activated by high fluence blue light. Sequences within 130 base pairs (bp) of the psbD blue light-responsive promoter (BLRP) are highly conserved in higher plants. In this study, the structure of the psbD BLRP was analyzed in detail using deletion and site-directed mutagenesis and in vitro transcription. Deletion analysis showed that a 53-bp DNA region of the psbD BLRP, from -57 to -5, was sufficient for transcription in vitro. Mutation of a putative prokaryotic -10 element (TATTCT) located from -7 to -12 inhibited transcription from the psbD BLRP. In contrast, mutation of a putative prokaryotic -35 element, had no influence on transcription. Mutation of a TATATA sequence located between the barley psbA -10 and -35 elements significantly reduced transcription from this promoter. However, site-directed mutation of sequences located between -35 and -10 had no effect on transcription from the psbD BLRP. Transcription from the psbD BLRP was previously shown to require a 22-bp sequence, termed the AAG-box, located between -36 and -57. The AAG-box specifically binds the protein complex AGF. Site-directed mutagenesis identified two different sequence motifs in the AAG-box that are important for transcription in vitro. Based on these results, we propose that positive factors bind to the AAG-box and interact with the chloroplast-encoded RNA polymerase to promote transcription from the psbD BLRP. Transcription from the psbD BLRP is thus similar to type II bacterial promoters that use activating proteins to stimulate transcription. Transcription of the psbD BLRP was approximately 6. 5-fold greater in plastid extracts from illuminated versus dark-grown plants. This suggests that light-induced activation of this promoter in vivo involves factors interacting with the 53-bp psbD BLRP in vitro.
No preview · Article · Mar 1999 · Journal of Biological Chemistry
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: With the aim of constructing a physical map of sorghum, we developed a rapid, high throughput approach for isolating BAC DNA suitable for restriction endonuclease digestion fingerprinting, PCR- based STS-content mapping, and BAC-end sequencing. The system utilizes a programmable 96 channel liquid handling system and associated accessories that permit bacterial cultivation and DNA isolation in 96-well plate format. This protocol details culture conditions that optimize bacterial growth in deep-well plates and criteria for BAC DNA isolation to obtain high yields of quality BAC DNA. The system is robust, accurate, and relatively cost-effective. The BAC DNA isolation system has been tested during efforts to construct a physical map of sorghum.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Sorghum is the fifth most widely grown crop worldwide, by acreage. While grown primarily for grain in the U.S., it is also grown for forage, sugar, and, increasingly, biofuels. In its native Africa, sorghum accessions are often 3-4 meters tall; however, U.S. grain sorghum was bred for reduced height to decrease lodging and to aid machine harvesting. For biofuel production, increasing height can increase stem sugar and/or biomass yield. In order to further our knowledge of this important trait, we examined the diversity of the sorghum germplasm from the Sorghum Association Panel with Digital Genotyping at ~50,000 loci. In the 1950s, it was determined that there are four major loci that control height in sorghum, named Dw1-Dw4. Dw3 was previously identified as the IAA transporter ABCB1, an ortholog of Br2 in maize (Multani et al., 2003). In the present study, QTL mapping in biparental populations was used to locate loci that control height, including Dw1 and Dw2. Furthermore, a set of accessions with different Dw1-Dw4 alleles was used to examine gene expression variation in growing internodes. RNA-seq revealed differentially expressed genes during stem internode development and between the diverse germplasm providing new information about the genetic basis of height in sorghum.