[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objective
Our objective was to investigate the role of bile acids in hepatic steatosis reduction after vertical sleeve gastrectomy (VSG).
Design and Methods
High fat diet (HFD) induced obese C57Bl/6 mice were randomized to: VSG, Sham operation (Sham), Sham operation with pair feeding to VSG (Sham-PF), or non-surgical controls (Naïve). All mice were on HFD until sacrifice. Mice were observed post-surgery and data for body weight, body composition, metabolic parameters, serum bile acid level and composition were collected. Further hepatic gene expression by RNAseq and RT-PCR analysis was assessed.
VSG and Sham-PF mice lost equal weight post-surgery while VSG mice had the lowest hepatic triglyceride content at sacrifice. The VSG mice had elevated serum bile acid levels that positively correlated with maximal weight loss. Serum bile composition in the VSG group had increased cholic and tauroursodeoxycholic acid. These bile acid composition changes in VSG mice explained observed downregulation of hepatic lipogenic and bile acid synthetic genes.
VSG in obese mice results in greater hepatic steatosis reduction than seen with caloric restriction alone. VSG surgery increases serum bile acids that correlate with weight lost post-surgery and changes serum bile composition that could explain suppression of hepatic genes responsible for lipogenesis.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Infantile cholestatic diseases can be caused by mutations in a number of genes involved in different hepatocyte molecular pathways. Whilst some of the essential pathways have a well understood function, such as bile biosynthesis and transport, the role of the others is not known. Here we report the findings of a clinical, biochemical and molecular study of a family with three patients affected with a severe infantile cholestatic disease. A novel homozygous frameshift germline mutation (c.587delG) in the AKR1D1 gene; which encodes the enzyme Delta 4-3-oxosteroid 5beta--reductase that is required for synthesis of primary bile acids and is crucial for establishment of normal bile flow, was found in all 3 patients. Although the initial bile acid analysis was inconclusive, subsequent testing confirmed the diagnosis of a bile acid biogenesis disorder. An additional novel homozygous frameshift mutation (c.3391delC) was detected in SKIV2L in one of the patients. SKIV2L encodes a homologue of a yeast ski2 protein proposed to be involved in RNA processing and mutations in SKIV2L were recently described in patients with Tricohepatoenteric syndrome (THES). A combination of autozygosity mapping and whole-exome-sequencing allowed the identification of causal mutations in this family with a complex liver phenotype. Although the initial 2 affected cousins died in the first year of life, accurate diagnosis and management of the youngest patient led to successful treatment of the liver disease and disease-free survival.
Full-text · Article · May 2013 · Orphanet Journal of Rare Diseases
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Bariatric surgery elevates serum bile acids. Conjugated bile acid administration, such as tauroursodeoxycholic acid (TUDCA), improves insulin sensitivity, while short-circuiting bile acid circulation through ileal interposition surgery in rats raises TUDCA levels. We hypothesized that bariatric surgery outcomes could be recapitulated by short-circuiting the normal entero-hepatic bile circulation. We established a model wherein male obese rats underwent either bile diversion (BD) or Sham (SH) surgery. The BD group had a catheter inserted into the common bile duct and its distal end anchored into the mid-distal jejunum for 4-5 weeks. Glucose tolerance, insulin and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) response, hepatic steatosis and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress were measured. Rats' post-BD lost significantly more weight than the SH-rats. BD rats gained less fat mass post-surgery. BD rats had improved glucose tolerance, increased higher post-prandial GLP-1 response and serum bile acids but less liver steatosis. Serum bile acid levels including TUDCA concentrations were higher in BD compared to SH pair-fed rats. Fecal bile acid levels were not different. Liver ER stress (CHOP mRNA and pJNK protein) was decreased in BD rats. Bile acid gavage (TUDCA/UDCA) in diet-induced obese rats, elevated serum TUDCA and concomitantly reduced hepatic steatosis and ER stress (CHOP mRNA). These data demonstrate the ability of alterations in bile acids to recapitulate important metabolic improvements seen after bariatric surgery. Further, our work establishes a model for focused study of bile acids in the context of bariatric surgery that may lead to the identification of therapeutics for metabolic disease.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The lowest observed adverse effect level for bisphenol A (BPA) in mice and rats is currently poorly defined due to inconsistent study designs and results in published studies. The objectives of the current study were to (1) compare the estrogenic content of rodent diets, bedding, cages, and water bottles to evaluate their impact on the estrogenic activity of BPA and (2) review the literature on BPA to determine the most frequently reported diets, beddings, cages, and water bottles used in animal studies. Our literature review indicated that low-dose BPA animal studies have inconsistent results and that factors contributing to this inconsistency are the uses of high-phytoestrogen diets and the different routes of exposure. In 44% (76 of 172) of all reports, rodents were exposed to BPA via the subcutaneous route. Our literature review further indicated that the type of diet, bedding, caging, and water bottles used in BPA studies were not always reported. Only 37% (64 of 172) of the reports described the diet used. In light of these findings, we recommend the use of a diet containing low levels of phytoestrogen (less than 20 μg/g diet) and metabolizable energy (approximately 3.1 kcal/g diet) and estrogen-free bedding, cages, and water bottles for studies evaluating the estrogenic activity of endocrine-disrupting compounds such as BPA. The oral route of BPA exposure should be used when results are to be extrapolated to humans.
No preview · Article · Mar 2013 · Journal of the American Association for Laboratory Animal Science: JAALAS
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Aldo-keto reductase 1D1 (AKR1D1) deficiency, a rare but life-threatening form of bile acid deficiency, has not been previously described in China. Here, we describe the first two primary ∆4-3-oxosteroid 5β-reductase deficiency patients in Mainland China diagnosed by fast atom bombardment-mass spectroscopy of urinary bile acids and confirmed by genetic analysis. A high proportion of atypical 3-oxo-∆4-bile acids in the urine indicated a deficiency in ∆4-3-oxosteroid 5β-reductase. All of the coding exons and adjacent intronic sequence of the AKR1D1 gene were sequenced using peripheral lymphocyte genomic DNA of two patients and one of the patient's parents. One patient exhibited compound heterozygous mutations: c.396C>A and c.722A>T, while the other was heterozygous for the mutation c.797G>A. Based on these mutations, a diagnosis of primary ∆4-3-oxosteroid 5β-reductase deficiency could be confirmed. With ursodeoxycholic acid treatment and fat-soluble vitamin supplements, liver function tests normalized rapidly, and the degree of hepatomegaly was markedly reduced in both patients.
No preview · Article · Dec 2012 · World Journal of Gastroenterology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Soy-derived isoflavones potentially protect against obesity and depression. In five different studies we examined the influence of soy-containing diets or equol injections on depression, serotonin levels, body weight gain (BW) and white adipose tissue (WAT) deposition in female Long-Evans rats at various stages of life [rats were intact, ovariectomized or experienced natural ovarian failure (NOF)].
In general, animals fed a soy-rich diet (Phyto-600) and/or administered equol (@ 5 mg/kg/day) displayed significant decreases in BW and WAT compared to a low-soy diet. When equol was injected alone (5 mg/kg/day), experiments 1, 4, and 5 demonstrated that body weight was significantly decreased. Equol has body weight control effects in females that are dependent on ovarian status and/or age of diet initiation. Experiments 1-4 all displayed no significant differences in depressive-related behavior as measured by the Prosolt forced swim test (PFST) when soy-rich (Phyto-600) or low-soy diets (Phyto-low) or equol treatments (5 mg/kg/day) were tested in female rats at various ages or hormonal status. Results of all the experiments are not presented here due to space limitations, but data from experiment 5 are presented. From conception female rats were exposed to either: a) a soy-rich (Phyto-600) or b) low-soy diet (Phyto-low). After 290 days all rats experienced NOF. At 330 days-old the animals were examined in the Porsolt forced swim test (PFST). One month later a second PFST was performed [after Phyto-low fed animals were injected with equol (5 mg/kg/day) for one week prior to the second PFST]. At the first PFST, serotonin and mobility levels were significantly decreased in the Phyto-low fed animals compared to animals that consumed the Phyto-600 diet. After equol injections at the second PFST, mobility and serotonin levels significantly increased in aged NOF rats fed the Phyto-low diet (to levels comparable to Phyto-600 fed animals).
Consumption of dietary isoflavones or equol exposure in rats has body weight controlling effects and equol specifically may have antidepressant potential dependent upon diet initiation and/or dosage of treatments. The current study demonstrates that equol is able to decrease body weight, abdominal WAT, and depressive-related behavior. While other factors and mechanisms may play a role, in part, the present results provide a greater understanding of how isoflavonoid molecules modulate the brain's influence on behavior.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The nonsteroidal estrogen equol occurs as diastereoisomers, S-(-)equol and R-(+)equol, both of which have significant biological actions. S-(-)equol, the naturally occurring enantiomer produced by 20-30% of adults consuming soy foods, has selective affinity for estrogen receptor-beta, whereas both enantiomers modulate androgen action. Little is known about the pharmacokinetics of the diastereoisomers, despite current interest in developing equol as a nutraceutical or pharmaceutical agent.
The objective was to compare the pharmacokinetics of S-(-)equol and R-(+)equol by using [13C] stable-isotope-labeled tracers to facilitate the optimization of clinical studies aimed at evaluating the potential of these diastereoisomers in the prevention and treatment of estrogen- and androgen-dependent conditions.
A randomized, crossover, open-label study in 12 healthy adults (6 men and 6 women) compared the plasma and urinary pharmacokinetics of orally administered enantiomeric pure forms of S-(-)[2-13C]equol, R-(+)[2-13C]equol, and the racemic mixture. Plasma and urinary [13C]R-equol and [13C]S-equol concentrations were measured by tandem mass spectrometry.
Plasma [13C]equol concentration appearance and disappearance curves showed that both enantiomers were rapidly absorbed, attained high circulating concentrations, and had a similar terminal elimination half-life of 7-8 h. The systemic bioavailability and fractional absorption of R-(+)[2-13C]equol were higher than those of S-(-)[2-13C]equol or the racemate. The pharmacokinetics of racemic (+/-)[2-13C]equol were different from those of the individual enantiomers: slower absorption, lower peak plasma concentrations, and lower systemic bioavailability.
The high bioavailability of both diastereoisomers contrasts with previous findings for the soy isoflavones daidzein and genistein, both of which have relatively poor bioavailability, and suggests that low doses of equol taken twice daily may be sufficient to achieve biological effects.
Full-text · Article · Sep 2009 · American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: High dietary intake of selenium or isoflavones reduces risk factors for prostate cancer. We tested whether combined supplementation of these two dietary components would reduce prostate cancer risk factors in rats more than supplementation of each component individually.
Male Noble rat pups were exposed from conception to diets containing an adequate (0.33-0.45 mg/kg diet) or high (3.33-3.45 mg/kg) concentration of selenium as Se-methylselenocysteine and a low (10 mg/kg) or high (600 mg/kg) level of isoflavones in a 2 x 2 factorial design. Pups consumed their respective diets until sacrifice at 35, 100, or 200 days. Male Noble rat breeders, whose exposure to the diets began after puberty, were sacrificed at 336 days. Rats were weighed biweekly. Blood was collected at the time of sacrifice and body fat and prostates were dissected and weighed. Serum levels of leptin, IGF-1, and testosterone were determined using ELISA kits. Serum levels of isoflavones were assayed by GC/MS. Liver activity of selenium-dependent glutathione peroxidase 1 was measured as an indicator of selenium status.
Serum isoflavone concentrations were nearly 100-fold higher at 35 days of age (1187.1 vs. 14.4 ng/mL, mean +/- SD) in pups fed the high vs. low isoflavone diets, and remained so at 100 and 200 days, and in breeders. There were no dietary differences in liver glutathione peroxidase activity in pups or breeders. High isoflavone intake significantly (p = 0.001-0.047) reduced body weight in rat pups from 35 days onward, but not in breeders. Body fat and leptin were likewise significantly reduced by high isoflavones in pups while effects in breeders were less pronounced but still significant. High intake of Se and isoflavones each decreased serum IGF-1 in pups at 100 and 200 days, but not in breeders. No consistent dietary effects were observed on serum testosterone or relative weights of prostates. In pups, the combination of high isoflavones and high selenium produced the lowest weight gain, the lowest serum leptin, and the lowest serum IGF-1 concentrations of all four diets.
Combined intake of high selenium and high isoflavones may achieve greater chemopreventive effects than either compound individually. The timing of supplementation may determine the significance of its effects.
Full-text · Article · Dec 2008 · Nutrition & Metabolism
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background
Phytoestrogens derived from soy foods (or isoflavones) have received prevalent usage due to their 'health benefits' of decreasing: a) age-related diseases, b) hormone-dependent cancers and c) postmenopausal symptoms. However, little is known about the influence of dietary phytoestrogens on regulatory behaviors, such as food and water intake, metabolic hormones and neuroendocrine parameters. This study examined important hormonal and metabolic health issues by testing the hypotheses that dietary soy-derived isoflavones influence: 1) body weight and adipose deposition, 2) food and water intake, 3) metabolic hormones (i.e., leptin, insulin, T3 and glucose levels), 4) brain neuropeptide Y (NPY) levels, 5) heat production [in brown adipose tissue (BAT) quantifying uncoupling protein (UCP-1) mRNA levels] and 6) core body temperature.
This was accomplished by conducting longitudinal studies where male Long-Evans rats were exposed (from conception to time of testing or tissue collection) to a diet rich in isoflavones (at 600 micrograms/gram of diet or 600 ppm) vs. a diet low in isoflavones (at approximately 10–15 micrograms/gram of diet or 10–15 ppm). Body, white adipose tissue and food intake were measured in grams and water intake in milliliters. The hormones (leptin, insulin, T3, glucose and NPY) were quantified by radioimmunoassays (RIA). BAT UCP-1 mRNA levels were quantified by PCR and polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis while core body temperatures were recorded by radio telemetry. The data were tested by analysis of variance (ANOVA) (or where appropriate by repeated measures).
Body and adipose tissue weights were decreased in Phyto-600 vs. Phyto-free fed rats. Food and water intake was greater in Phyto-600 animals, that displayed higher hypothalamic (NPY) concentrations, but lower plasma leptin and insulin levels, vs. Phyto-free fed males. Higher thyroid levels (and a tendency for higher glucose levels) and increased uncoupling protein (UCP-1) mRNA levels in brown adipose tissue (BAT) were seen in Phyto-600 fed males. However, decreased core body temperature was recorded in these same animals compared to Phyto-free fed animals.
This study demonstrates that consumption of a soy-based (isoflavone-rich) diet, significantly alters several parameters involved in maintaining body homeostatic balance, energy expenditure, feeding behavior, hormonal, metabolic and neuroendocrine function in male rats.
Full-text · Article · Jan 2005 · Nutrition & Metabolism
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In learning and memory tasks, requiring visual spatial memory (VSM), males exhibit superior performance to females (a difference attributed to the hormonal influence of estrogen). This study examined the influence of phytoestrogens (estrogen-like plant compounds) on VSM, utilizing radial arm-maze methods to examine varying aspects of memory. Additionally, brain phytoestrogen, calbindin (CALB), and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) levels were determined.
Female rats receiving lifelong exposure to a high-phytoestrogen containing diet (Phyto-600) acquired the maze faster than females fed a phytoestrogen-free diet (Phyto-free); in males the opposite diet effect was identified. In a separate experiment, at 80 days-of-age, animals fed the Phyto-600 diet lifelong either remained on the Phyto-600 or were changed to the Phyto-free diet until 120 days-of-age. Following the diet change Phyto-600 females outperformed females switched to the Phyto-free diet, while in males the opposite diet effect was identified.Furthermore, males fed the Phyto-600 diet had significantly higher phytoestrogen concentrations in a number of brain regions (frontal cortex, amygdala & cerebellum); in frontal cortex, expression of CALB (a neuroprotective calcium-binding protein) decreased while COX-2 (an inducible inflammatory factor prevalent in Alzheimer's disease) increased.
Results suggest that dietary phytoestrogens significantly sex-reversed the normal sexually dimorphic expression of VSM. Specifically, in tasks requiring the use of reference, but not working, memory, VSM was enhanced in females fed the Phyto-600 diet, whereas, in males VSM was inhibited by the same diet. These findings suggest that dietary soy derived phytoestrogens can influence learning and memory and alter the expression of proteins involved in neural protection and inflammation in rats.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The isoflavones genistein, daidzein, and their glycosides, found in high concentrations in soybeans and soy-protein foods, may have beneficial effects in the prevention or treatment of many hormone-dependent diseases. Because these bioactive phyto-oestrogens possess a wide range of hormonal and non-hormonal activities, it has been suggested that adverse effects may occur in infants fed soy-based formulas.
To evaluate the extent of infant exposure to phyto-oestrogens from soy formula, the isoflavone composition of 25 randomly selected samples from five major brands of commercially available soy-based infant formulas were analysed, and the plasma concentrations of genistein and daidzein, and the intestinally derived metabolite, equol, were compared in 4-month-old infants fed exclusively soy-based infant formula (n = 7), cow-milk formula (n = 7), or human breast-milk (n = 7).
All of the soy formulas contained mainly glycosides of genistein and daidzein, and the total isoflavone content was similar among the five formulas analysed and was related to the proportion of soy isolate used in their manufacture. From the concentrations of isoflavones in these formulas (means 32-47 micrograms/mL), the typical daily volume of milk consumed, and average bodyweight, a 4-month-old infant fed soy formula would be exposed to 28-47 per day, or about 4.5-8.0 mg/kg bodyweight per day, of total isoflavones. Mean (SD) plasma concentrations of genistein and daidzein in the seven infants fed soy-based formulas were 684 (443) ng/mL and 295 (60) ng/mL, respectively, which was significantly greater (p < 0.05) than in the infants fed either cow-milk formulas (3.2 [0.7] and 2.1 [0.3] ng/mL), or human breast-milk (2.8 [0.7] and 1.4 [0.1] ng/mL), and an order of magnitude higher per bodyweight than typical plasma concentrations of adults consuming soy foods.
The daily exposure of infants to isoflavones in soy infant-formulas is 6-11 fold higher on a bodyweight basis than the dose that has hormonal effects in adults consuming soy foods. Circulating concentrations of isoflavones in the seven infants fed soy-based formula were 13000-22000 times higher than plasma oestradiol concentrations in early life, and may be sufficient to exert biological effects, whereas the contribution of isoflavones from breast-milk and cow-milk is negligible.