[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We previously have described molecular mechanisms converging at the Nur response element-signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) composite site responsible for synergistic activation of the proopiomelanocortin (POMC) gene promoter by leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF) and CRH. In this study, we asked how glucocorticoids (GC), the physiological negative regulators of POMC gene expression, modulate this synergism. In the corticotroph cell line AtT-20, the response of the wild-type promoter to LIF+CRH was barely inhibited by GC, whereas a distal promoter subregion (-414/-293) encompassing the Nur response element-STAT site and devoid of the negative GC-responsive element located in the proximal domain, displayed a cooperative response to LIF+dexamethasone (DEX) and LIF+CRH+DEX treatments. LIF+CRH-stimulated ACTH secretion was also inefficiently inhibited by DEX in the same cell line. This study was focused thereafter on LIF+DEX cooperativity, which may be responsible, on the wild-type promoter, for lack of negative regulation by DEX of the LIF+CRH synergy. The STAT1-3 low-affinity site, in the context of the (-414/-293) subregion of the POMC promoter, was found necessary and sufficient for transcriptional synergism between activated GC receptor (GR) and STAT1-3. Moreover the activities of reporters specific for STAT1-3 or GR were reciprocally enhanced by DEX or LIF. Single and sequential chromatin immunoprecipitations revealed 1) a STAT-dependent corecruitment of coactivators after LIF and LIF+DEX stimulation and 2) a more lasting recruitment of both STAT3 and GR in the same enhanceosome on the endogenous POMC promoter after LIF+DEX joint stimulation than after the single one. Such events may be responsible for a lack of repressive property of GR unmasked on the whole POMC promoter during LIF+CRH stimulation and may contribute to the tonicity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis during inflammatory-infectious diseases.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: After a single injection of oestradiol benzoate (1.5mg/kg) to oestrogen-withdrawn chickens, there was an increase in magnum wet weight, DNA polymerase α activity, adenosine-3′,5′-monophosphate-dependent protein-kinase activity and estrogen-receptor concentration, as measured over 36 h. Besides these intracellular proteins, the secretory proteins ovalbumin and conalbumin were also augmented, and detailed time-course studies were performed.
Early induction kinetics for ovalbumin and conalbumin synthesis, which differed for each protein, were independent of the dose of oestradiol benzoate injected if it exceeded 0.1 mg/kg. After 6 h for ovalbumin and 2 h for conalbumin, the induction curves diverged according to the dose of hormone administered and in correlation with the persistence of elevated nuclear oestrogen-receptor concentrations, a result confirmed with 11β-methoxy-17α-ethynyloestradiol (R 2858), a powerful synthetic oestrogen.
When oestradiol benzoate (1 mg/kg) and progesterone (3 mg/kg) were injected simultaneously, the rate of conalbumin synthesis, during the first 6–8 h, was lower than that observed in animals injected with oestradiol benzoate alone. However at later times conalbumin synthesis was greater in animals receiving both hormones than with oestradiol alone. In contrast, the rate of ovalbumin synthesis after the combined injection was higher than that induced by either hormone alone throughout the entire experimental period.
In order to study further the synergistic and antagonistic activities of these two hormones, a single injection of progesterone (3 mg/kg) was administered 6, 12 or 18 h after 1.5 mg/kg oestradiol benzoate. Progesterone administration resulted in a reduction in cytoplasmic, nuclear and total oestrogen receptor concentration for at least 6 h when compared with the values in birds treated with oestrogen alone. DNA polymerase and protein kinase activities were also reduced during this period. Subsequently, all parameters increased, and by 18–24h after progesterone treatment, reached values higher than those observed in animals receiving oestrogen alone.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF) cooperates with CRH at the pituitary level to induce POMC gene transcription, resulting in activation of the pituitary-adrenal axis. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms remain elusive. Here, we show that the NurRE-signal transducers and activators of transcription (STAT) composite element of the POMC promoter was the predominant target of the LIF-CRH synergy. Whereas NurRE or STAT sites alone conferred synergy, the maximal response was found with the NurRE-STAT reporter, suggesting that direct DNA binding of both transcription factors is required for an optimal synergy. During LIF-CRH stimulation, Nur77 and activated STAT1-3 were bound to the composite element, and the binding of each factor was abolished by appropriate mutations. CREB was also detected in this complex in a stimulation-dependent and DNA binding-independent manner. Nur77 and STAT1-3 bound to the NurRE-STAT site were each sufficient for CREB recruitment. Recombinant CREB directly interacted with recombinant Nur77 or STAT1-3. Moreover, CREB-Nur77 interaction was increased by CREB phosphorylation at Ser-133 and the dominant-negative mutant CREB-M1 efficiently inhibited the synergistic LIF-CRH response. This synergism was also inhibited after transfection of CREB-small interfering RNA. We conclude that both CREB phosphorylation at Ser-133 and level of CREB expression are crucial in LIF-CRH synergism where CREB, without direct DNA binding, could improve the stability of Nur77 and STAT1-3 binding to POMC promoter and facilitate the recruitment of coactivators. This novel intrapituitary signaling mechanism may have more general implications in cross talks between cAMP-protein kinase A and Janus kinase-STAT pathways.
Preview · Article · Jan 2005 · Molecular Endocrinology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To better understand how leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF) activates proopiomelanocortin (POMC) gene transcription in pituitary corticotrophs, time-course studies of the induction of POMC promoter activity and specific tyrosine phosphorylation of signal transducer and activator of transcription 1 (STAT1) and STAT3 were performed. It was found that both phosphorylation of STAT1 and -3 and activation of the promoter activity rapidly and transiently take place within minutes and 2-6 h, respectively, in favor of a direct effect of the LIF pathway on POMC promoter. Activated STAT1 and -3 form homo-/heterodimers able to bind the Sis-inducible element. The most abundant Sis-inducible element binding dimers are STAT3/3 and STAT1/3. Degenerated STAT1/3-binding sites from the POMC promoter were tested for their ability to bind activated STAT1 and 3; only the -390/-379 site, partially overlapping the Nur response element, binds with low affinity activated STAT1 and -3. Analysis of the three domains and subregions of the POMC promoter showed that two subregions are specifically responsive to LIF. The response of the distal subregion requires the intact STAT1 and -3 DNA-binding site -390/-379, whereas the responsiveness of the proximal subregion takes place despite the absence of direct STAT1 and -3 DNA binding and may imply interaction of activated STAT with basal transcription factors.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To understand how the molecular chaperone Hsp90 participates in conformational maturation of the estrogen receptor (ER), we analyzed the interaction of immobilized purified avian Hsp90 with mammalian cytosolic ER. Hsp90 was either immunoadsorbed to BF4 antibody-Sepharose or GST-Hsp90 fusion protein (GST.90) was adsorbed to glutathione-Sepharose. GST.90 was able to retain specifically ER, similarly to immunoadsorbed Hsp90. When cells were treated with estradiol and the hormone treatment was maintained during cell homogenization, binding, and washing steps, GST.90 still interacted efficiently with ER, suggesting that ER may form complexes with Hsp90 even after its activation by hormone and salt extraction from nuclei. The GST.90-ER interaction was consistently reduced in the presence of increasing concentrations of potassium chloride or when cytosolic ER-Hsp90 complexes were previously stabilized by molybdate, indicating that GST.90-ER complexes behave like cytosolic Hsp90-ER complexes. A purified thioredoxin-ER fusion protein was also able to form complexes with GST.90, suggesting that the presence of other chaperones is not required. ER was retained only by GST.90 deletion mutants bearing an intact Hsp90 N-terminal region (1-224), the interaction being more efficient when the charged region A was present in the mutant (1-334). The N-terminal fragment 1-334, devoid of the dimeric GST moiety, was also able to interact with ER, pointing to the monomeric N-terminal adenosine triphosphate binding region of Hsp90 (1-224) as the region necessary and sufficient for interaction. These results contribute to understand the Hsp90-dependent process responsible for conformational competence of ER.
Full-text · Article · Nov 2001 · Cell Stress and Chaperones
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Heat shock protein (hsp)90 functions in a complex chaperoning pathway where its activity is modulated by ATP and by interaction with several co-chaperones. One co-chaperone, p23, binds selectively to the ATP-bound state of hsp90. However, the isolated ATP-binding domain of hsp90 does not bind p23. In an effort to identify the p23-binding domain, we have constructed a series of hsp90 deletion mutants fused with glutathione-S-transferase (GST). Full-length GST-hsp90 is able to bind p23, and also, to chaperone assembly of progesterone receptor complexes. Truncations from the C terminus of GST-hsp90 reveal a C-terminal boundary for the p23-binding domain at approximately residue 490. This fragment contains, in order, the ATP-binding domain, a highly charged region, and 203 residues beyond the charged region. p23 binding is unaffected by deletion of the charged region, indicating that two noncontiguous regions of hsp90 are involved in p23 binding. These regions are only effective when hsp90 is in a dimeric state as shown by loss of p23 binding upon removal of GST or as shown by use of FK506-binding protein12-hsp90 constructs that form dimers and bind p23 only in the presence of a bivalent drug. Thus, p23 binding requires an hsp90 dimer with close proximity between N-terminal regions of hsp90 and a conformation specified by ATP.
Full-text · Article · Dec 2000 · Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Hsp90 is an abundant and ubiquitous protein involved in a diverse array of cellular processes. Mechanistically we understand little of the apparently complex interactions of this molecular chaperone. Recently, progress has been made in assigning some of the known functions of hsp90, such as nucleotide binding and peptide binding, to particular domains within the protein. We used fragments of hsp90 and chimeric proteins containing functional domains from hsp90 or its mitochondrial homolog, TRAP1, to study the requirements for this protein in the folding of firefly luciferase as well as in the prevention of citrate synthase aggregation. In agreement with others who have found peptide binding and limited chaperone ability in fragments of hsp90, we see that multiple fragments from hsp90 can prevent the aggregation of thermally denatured citrate synthase, a measure of passive chaperoning activity. However, in contrast to these results, the luciferase folding assay was found to be much more demanding. Here, folding is mediated by hsp70 and hsp40, requires ATP, and thus is a measure of active chaperoning. Hsp90 and the co-chaperone, Hop, enhance this process. This hsp90 activity was only observed using full-length hsp90 indicating that the cooperation of multiple functional domains is essential for active, chaperone-mediated folding.
Full-text · Article · Nov 2000 · Journal of Biological Chemistry
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: It has been previously reported that heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90) oligomerizes at high temperatures and displays concomitantly a novel chaperone activity (Yonehara, M., Minami, Y., Kawata, Y., Nagai, J., and Yahara, I. (1996) J. Biol. Chem., 271, 2641-2645). In order to better define these oligomerization properties at high temperatures and to know whether they are influenced by modulators of Hsp90 function, heat-induced oligomerization of highly purified dimeric Hsp90 has been investigated over a wide range of temperature and protein concentrations by native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and size exclusion chromatography. Whereas below 50 degreesC, the dimeric form is maintained over a large range of concentrations, at the critical temperature of 50 degreesC, a sharp transition from dimeric to higher order oligomeric species takes place within minutes, in a highly ordered process, suggesting that a conformational change, leading to the appearance of a new oligomerization site, occurs in Hsp90 dimer. Moreover, at and above the critical temperature, the extent of oligomerization increases with Hsp90 concentration. Formation of high order oligomers at high temperatures is sensitive to modulators of Hsp90 function. ATP and geldanamycin, both known to bind to the same pocket of Hsp90, are inhibitors of this process, whereas molybdate, vanadate, and Nonidet P-40, which are thought to increase surface hydrophobicity of the protein, are activators. Thus, oligomerization of Hsp90 at high temperatures may be mediated through hydrophobic interactions that are hindered by ligands and favored by transition metal oxyanions. The fact that the heat-induced oligomerization of Hsp90 is affected by specific ligands that modulate its properties also suggests that this process may be involved in cell protection during heat shock.
No preview · Article · Mar 1999 · Journal of Biological Chemistry
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Hsp90, a molecular chaperone required for the functioning of glucocorticosteroid receptor (GR), ensures, by direct interaction, the conformational competence of the steroid-binding pocket. In addition to having this positive function, Hsp90 maintains steroid receptors in an inactive form in the absence of hormone. However, neither the participation of Hsp90 once the pathway has been activated by the ligand nor the importance of increased Hsp90 levels in determining the amplitude of the response has ever been assessed directly. Here, by increasing the Hsp90/GR ratio in the nuclear compartment, we found an attenuation of the response to glucocorticosteroids that was not due to a nonspecific or toxic effect of the Hsp90 modified by nuclear targeting. Since this negative effect was more pronounced at high levels of hormone, when receptor and Hsp90 are maximally dissociated, the possibility of an interaction between Hsp90 and GR, already activated to a DNA-binding form, was directly investigated. Indeed GR, after in vivo activation by ligand, was still able to reassociate with Hsp90, suggesting that this interaction plays a role in vivo, possibly in receptor recycling. Moreover, the GR binding to its DNA response element was inhibited by an excess of Hsp90, pointing to a function of Hsp90 in the nuclear compartment. It is thus proposed that an increased Hsp90/GR ratio influences the responsiveness to ligand at a step that is after receptor activation. This increased ratio may be of pathophysiological relevance in the different circumstances that lead to an elevated level of nuclear Hsp90.
Full-text · Article · Mar 1999 · Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: It has been previously reported that heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90) oligomerizes at high temperatures and displays concomitantly
a novel chaperone activity (Yonehara, M., Minami, Y., Kawata, Y., Nagai, J., and Yahara, I. (1996) J. Biol. Chem., 271, 2641–2645). In order to better define these oligomerization properties at high temperatures and to know whether they
are influenced by modulators of Hsp90 function, heat-induced oligomerization of highly purified dimeric Hsp90 has been investigated
over a wide range of temperature and protein concentrations by native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and size exclusion
chromatography. Whereas below 50 °C, the dimeric form is maintained over a large range of concentrations, at the critical
temperature of 50 °C, a sharp transition from dimeric to higher order oligomeric species takes place within minutes, in a
highly ordered process, suggesting that a conformational change, leading to the appearance of a new oligomerization site,
occurs in Hsp90 dimer. Moreover, at and above the critical temperature, the extent of oligomerization increases with Hsp90
Formation of high order oligomers at high temperatures is sensitive to modulators of Hsp90 function. ATP and geldanamycin,
both known to bind to the same pocket of Hsp90, are inhibitors of this process, whereas molybdate, vanadate, and Nonidet P-40,
which are thought to increase surface hydrophobicity of the protein, are activators. Thus, oligomerization of Hsp90 at high
temperatures may be mediated through hydrophobic interactions that are hindered by ligands and favored by transition metal
The fact that the heat-induced oligomerization of Hsp90 is affected by specific ligands that modulate its properties also
suggests that this process may be involved in cell protection during heat shock.
No preview · Article · Feb 1999 · Journal of Biological Chemistry
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Hsp90 (Heat Shock Protein 90) is a component of the inactive and metastable hetero-oligomeric structure of steroid receptors. Recent data on Hsp90 structure and function as a stress protein and dedicated molecular chaperone are here reviewed with a particular focus on Hsp90 chaperone cycle interfering with steroid receptor action. The dual role of Hsp90 as a positive and negative modulator of steroid receptor function is considered along the activation-desactivation process of the receptors. It is proposed that Hsp90 chaperone machinery assists the receptor during its synthesis thus avoiding collapse and facilitating an open structure able to bind ligand efficiently. Moreover, it is suggested that Hsp90 may help the folding of the hydrophobic core of the receptor around the ligand and finally Hsp90 may chaperone the receptor after the dissociation of the ligand.
No preview · Article · Feb 1999 · Journal de la Société de Biologie
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In cattle, it has been suggested that follicular fluid has direct modulatory effects on follicular growth and maturation. In the first part of this study, an in vitro test using aromatase activity of follicular wall fragments as an end point was validated for cattle follicles and was used to test whether follicular fluid (from dominant or non-dominant follicles) modulates aromatase activity. Fluid from dominant follicles at a concentration of 24 or 12% (obtained during the luteal and follicular phases, respectively) significantly inhibited aromatase activity. Inhibitory activity was low or absent in fluid from non-dominant follicles. FSH-stimulated aromatase activity was also reduced by fluid from dominant follicles, but not to a greater extent than in basal conditions. Finally, charcoal-treated fluid from dominant follicles retained its inhibitory activity. In contrast, ovarian venous serum draining a dominant follicle had no activity at the three concentrations tested (6, 12 and 24%). In the second part of the study, identification of the compounds involved in this modulatory activity was attempted using SDS-PAGE. Comparison of the fluorographs from de novo synthesized proteins stored in follicular fluid (inhibitory medium) with those secreted in incubation medium (inactive medium) demonstrated that one protein (90 kDa, pI 5.8) was significantly (P < 0.05) more abundant in fluid from dominant follicles (2.0 +/- 0.09%) than in the culture medium (1.3 +/- 0.1% of the total proteins). This protein had characteristics similar to those of heat shock protein 90 (hsp 90). Therefore, in the final part of the study, the presence of hsp 90 in ovarian cells and follicular fluid was investigated using immunohistochemistry and western blot analysis. After immunohistochemistry, a positive signal was detected mainly in the granulosa cells of larger follicles and to a smaller extent in thecal cells and oocytes. Western blot analysis also demonstrated the presence of hsp 90 in follicular wall fragments and fluid. When blotting was achieved on a sample of follicular fluid resolved by two-dimensional PAGE, the spot detected had a similar location to that at 90 kDa and pI 5.8. Addition of purified hsp 90 to bovine follicles in vitro depressed aromatase activity by altering the K(m) value (and possibly the Vmax value) of the enzyme. It is proposed that hsp 90 is a functional regulator of follicular maturation through its action on aromatase.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The in vivo interaction of estrogen receptor (ER) and Hsp90, demonstrated in the absence of hormone by a nuclear cotranslocation assay of the cytoplasmic Hsp90 with the karyophilic receptor, was disrupted by agonist and antagonist ligands, which, after dissociating the Hsp90, allowed the chaperone protein to be relocalized in the cytoplasm. The pure antiestrogen RU 58668 (RU), which was unable to stimulate an estrogen-dependent reporter gene and completely inhibited its estradiol-induced activity, also profoundly modified the subcellular distribution of ER in a specific time- and dose-dependent manner; ER appeared as speckled fluorescent clusters mainly located in the perinuclear region of the cytoplasm. The kinetics of appearance and reversal of the RU-dependent ER mislocalization in the presence or absence of cycloheximide demonstrated 1) that this effect was reversed by RU withdrawal or estradiol (E2) treatment, and 2) that cycloheximide with RU inhibited and reversed the ER cytoplasmic mislocalization induced by RU alone. These results point to a protein synthesis-dependent step in the mechanism of action of this antiestrogen. After RU treatment, a large portion of ER was found in the particulate fraction of the cytoplasm. However, confocal and electron microscopic analysis showed that ER clusters were not associated with specific cytoplasmic organelles or compartments. Using ER mutants, it was found that the ligand binding domain was sufficient for RU to produce receptor mislocalization, while the constitutive nuclear localization signals were dispensable. We propose that the antiestrogenic properties of RU are primarily due to the induction of an aggregation-prone receptor conformation that cannot undertake the constitutive and the ligand-induced nuclear localization function of the receptor because it is sequestered in the cytoplasm by fast turning over protein(s). We predict that antiestrogens able to block ER nuclear localization will behave as pure antihormones and will inhibit all the nuclear action of ER elicited by agonistic ligands or by ligand-independent mechanisms such as growth factor stimulation.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The activity of luciferase expressed in transfected 34i cells has been monitored under 50Hz EMF and heat shock. While heat shock decreased the luciferase activity, short exposure to EMFs did not, the luciferase expressed in cells exposed to EMFs at 300-3000 microT showing the same activity as that of control cells. To further analyse whether EMF and thermal stress display similar effects, the relative rate of Hsp90 and Hsp70 synthesis was investigated. Hsp90 and Hsp70 synthesis, while induced by a short thermal stress, was not increased by EMF exposure. These results, contrary to previously proposed similarities between thermal stress and EMF effects at a cellular level, indicate that protein denaturation and misfolding caused by thermal stress and responsible both for a loss of luciferase activity and for an induction of Hsp, are not necessarily induced by exposure to EMFs.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The molecular chaperone Hsp90 has been found ubiquitously as a predominantly cytoplasmic dimer. By interacting with cytoplasmic or nuclear proteins such as pp60v-src or steroid receptors, Hsp90 helps its targets to become competent for full biological activity. Mutational deletion analysis of some properties of chicken Hsp90 alpha was undertaken after transient transfection of the constructs in COS7 cells. First, Hsp90 mutants were analyzed for their ability to behave as cytosolic dimers. We confirmed that the C-terminal Hsp90 region (amino acids 446-728) was sufficient for dimerization, and found that deletion of three small subregions in the 200 C-terminal residues precluded Hsp90 dimer formation. Moreover, we demonstrated that the N-terminal region of the protein (1-442) was not involved in dimerization. Second, the subcellular localization of the wild-type (WT) protein and mutants was analyzed by specific immunodetection and confocal microscopy. Most of the mutants were cytoplasmic like Hsp90WT, a nuclear localization being barely detectable in the WT protein or in mutants with a C-terminal truncation equal to or shorter than 286 residues. Surprisingly a mutant encoding the N-terminal region (1-285) was nuclear localized. In addition, the in vivo interaction between the cytoplasmic Hsp90 and the nuclear ER was documented after coexpression of both proteins in the same cells: some Hsp90 was shifted into the nucleus via its interaction with ER. From an analysis of dimeric or monomeric cytoplasmic Hsp90 mutants, we found that disruption of Hsp90 dimer did not systematically impede its interaction with ER. Finally, Hsp90WT and cytoplasmic mutants were tested for their ability to rescue from lethality a yeast strain deleted of both Hsp90 genes. Interestingly, the delta 661-677 mutant that showed an impaired dimerization but interacted with ER was able to confer viability, while the mutant deleted of the 30 C-terminal residues (NC6) was monomeric, did not confer viability and did not interact with ER. We therefore suggest that Hsp90 properties analyzed here are not necessarily interdependent.
Preview · Article · Aug 1996 · Journal of Cell Science
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The effects of cyclosporin A (CsA), FK506 and rapamycin (Rapa) on the intracellular localization of a mutated rabbit progesterone receptor (PR) which lacks the main constitutive nuclear localization signal (NLS) (delta 638-642) and is cytoplasmic in the absence of progesterone (Prog), were assayed by indirect immunofluorescence in Lcl3 cells, a mouse L-cell line stably expressing this mutant. CsA alone, at 5-10 microM concentrations, induced almost complete nuclear transfer of the PR-mutant within 18 h. In contrast, FK506 and Rapa at the same concentrations had no effect. This nuclear transfer induced by CsA was concentration and time dependent and was independent of protein synthesis. It was not a potentiation of hormone action since it took place in the absence of hormone, including in serum-free culture conditions. The implications of this specific effect of CsA are discussed.
No preview · Article · Sep 1995 · Comptes Rendus de l Académie des Sciences - Series III - Sciences de la Vie
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In order to define the mechanisms responsible for the differential expression of chicken hsp90 alpha and beta genes, a portion of the chicken hsp90 beta genomic sequence, including 3081 bp upstream from the transcription initiation site and 2718 bp of structural gene sequence which covers 7 exons and 6 introns was investigated. The transcriptional initiation site was determined by primer extension, RNAase and S1 nuclease mapping, Northern blot and cloning of 5' end of cDNA. The first intron, as in other hsp90 genes, is located just before the ATG initiation codon. Three Sp1 sites are located near the TATA box. The apparent major divergence with the hsp90 alpha promoter is that, in the hsp90 beta promoter, the only CAAT box and HSE element are located at about 3 and 2 kb upstream the TATA box, respectively. These features may explain why chicken hsp90 beta mRNA is generally less abundant than alpha and is not inducible by heat shock or serum/growth factor stimulation.
Preview · Article · Feb 1995 · Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We have recently shown that the N-terminal ATPase fragment of hsp70 (1-375, composed of domains I and II) as well as the subsequent domain III (376-520) may share three-dimensional similarities with hsp60. In this study, we propose that domain III, common to the hsp60s and hsp70s is also found in the hsp90s and adopts a beta-alpha-beta Rossmann-folded structure which is encountered in the NAD-binding domain of dehydrogenases. Consequently, with the help of the domain IV (in hsp70s and hsp90s) or of hsp10/GroES (in hsp60s) and possibly that of auxilliary partners, the hsp molecules could act as "unfoldases" or "reset systems" by disrupting secondary structures through redox reactions on the main polypeptidic chain with which they interact. The models built on this hypothesis may open up a new way for understanding the chaperone functions within the folding/unfolding processes.
No preview · Article · Sep 1994 · Comptes Rendus de l Académie des Sciences - Series III - Sciences de la Vie
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In this study, the conservation of strong structural landmarks between all the members of two chaperone families (HSP60 and HSP70) was deduced from their sequences by hydrophobic cluster analysis. On this basis, we propose that the ATP-binding environment is maintained by a similar fold in both protein families. The observed similarities extend throughout the proteins, including both the ATPase domain and the C-terminal substrate-binding domain.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In target tissue extracts, heat shock protein hsp90 has been found associated to all unliganded steroid receptors. Modulation of important functions of these receptors, including prevention of DNA binding and optimization of transcriptional activity, has been attributed to hsp90. However no unequivocal in vivo demonstration of interaction between receptors and hsp90 has been presented. We targeted chicken hsp90, a mainly cytoplasmic protein, with the nucleoplasmin nuclear localization signal (90NLS). After transfection into COS-7 cells, 90NLS was found in the nucleus with specific immunofluorescence and confocal microscopy techniques. A human glucocorticosteroid receptor mutant devoid of NLS sequence was also expressed in COS-7 cells and found exclusively cytoplasmic. Coexpression of 90NLS and of the cytoplasmic human glucocorticosteroid receptor mutant led to complete nuclear localization of the receptor, indicating its piggyback transport by 90NLS and thus physical and functional interaction between the two proteins in the absence of hormone. The same nuclear localization was obtained after cotransfection of 90NLS and a cytoplasmic rabbit progesterone receptor mutant. Finally, coexpression of wild-type rabbit progesterone receptor (nuclear) and wildtype hsp90 (cytoplasmic) into COS-7 cells provoked partial relocalization of hsp90 into the nucleus. These experiments lay the groundwork on which to study hsp90 as a chaperone, regulating activities of steroid receptors and possibly participating in their nuclear-cytoplasmic shuttling.
Full-text · Article · Feb 1994 · Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences