[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Odin has been implicated in the downstream signaling pathway of receptor tyrosine kinases, such as the epidermal growth factor and Eph receptors. However, the physiologically relevant function of Odin needs to be further determined. In this study, we used Odin heterozygous mice to analyze the Odin expression pattern; the targeted allele contained a β-geo gene trap vector inserted into the 14th intron of the Odin gene. Interestingly, we found that Odin was exclusively expressed in ependymal cells along the brain ventricles. In particular, Odin was highly expressed in the subcommissural organ, a small ependymal glandular tissue. However, we did not observe any morphological abnormalities in the brain ventricles or ependymal cells of Odin null-mutant mice. We also generated BAC transgenic mice that expressed the PTB-deleted Odin (dPTB) after a floxed GFP-STOP cassette was excised by tissue-specific Cre expression. Strikingly, Odin-dPTB expression played a causative role in the development of the hydrocephalic phenotype, primarily in the midbrain. In addition, Odin-dPTB expression disrupted proper development of the subcommissural organ and interfered with ependymal cell maturation in the cerebral aqueduct. Taken together, our findings strongly suggest that Odin plays a role in the differentiation of ependymal cells during early postnatal brain development.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: EphA7 has been implicated in the regulation of apoptotic cell death in neural epithelial cells. In this report, we provide evidence that EphA7 interacts with caspase-8 to induce apoptotic cell signaling. First, a pull-down assay using biotinylated ephrinA5-Fc showed that EphA7 coprecipitated with wild type caspase-8 or catalytically inactive caspase-8 mutant. Second, co-transfection of EphA7 with caspase-8 significantly increased the number of cleaved caspase-3 positive apoptotic cells under an experimental condition where transfection of EphA7 or caspase-8 alone did not affect cell viability or apoptosis. EphA4 also had a causative role in inducing apoptotic cell death with caspase-8, whereas EphA8 did not. Third, caspase-8 catalytic activity was essential for the apoptotic signaling cascade, whereas tyrosine kinase activity of the EphA4 receptor was not. Interestingly, we found that kinaseinactive EphA4 was well co-localized at the plasma membrane with catalytically inactive caspase-8, suggesting that an interaction between these mutant proteins was more stable. Finally, we observed that the extracellular region of the EphA7 receptor was critical for interacting with caspase-8, whereas the cytoplasmic region of EphA7 was not. Therefore, we propose that Eph receptors physically associate with a transmembrane protein to form an apoptotic signaling complex and that this unidentified receptorlike protein acts as a biochemical linker between the Eph receptor and caspase-8.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A previous study showed that the EphA7 receptor regulates apoptotic cell death during early brain development. In this study, we provide evidence that the EphA7 receptor interacts with death receptors such as tumor necrosis factor receptor 1 (TNFR1) to decrease cell viability. We showed that ephrinA5 stimulates EphA7 to activate the TNFR1-mediated apoptotic signaling pathway. In addition, a pull-down assay using biotinylated ephrinA5-Fc revealed that ephrinA5-EphA7 complexes recruit TNFR1 to form a multi-protein complex. Immunocytochemical staining analysis showed that EphA7 was co-localized with TNFR1 on the cell surface when cells were incubated with ephrinA5 at low temperatures. Finally, both the internalization motif and death domain of TNFR1 was important for interacting with an intracytoplasmic region of EphA7; this interaction was essential for inducing the apoptotic signaling cascade. This result suggests that a distinct multi-protein complex comprising ephrinA5, EphA7, and TNFR1 may constitute a platform for inducing caspase-dependent apoptotic cell death.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Tiam-1 has been implicated in the development of the central nervous system. However, the in vivo function of Tiam-1 has not been fully determined in the developing mouse brain. In this study, we generated Tiam-1 knockout mice using a Tiam-1 gene-trapped embryonic stem cell line. Insertion of a gene trap vector into a genomic site downstream of exon 5 resulted in a mutant allele encoding a truncated protein fused with the β-geo LacZ gene. Primary mouse embryonic fibroblasts lacking Tiam-1 revealed a significant decrease in Rac activity and cell proliferation. In addition, whole-mount embryonic LacZ expression analysis demonstrated that Tiam-1 is specifically expressed in regions of the developing brain, such as the caudal telencephalon and rostral diencephalon. More importantly, mouse embryos deficient in Tiam-1 gene expression displayed a severe defect in embryonic brain development, including neural tube closure defects or a dramatic decrease in brain size. These findings suggest that embryonic Tiam-1 expression plays a critical role during early brain development in mice.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Endocytosis of Eph-ephrin complexes may be an important mechanism for converting cell-cell adhesion to a repulsive interaction. Here, we show that an endocytosis-defective EphA8 mutant forms a complex with EphAs and blocks their endocytosis in cultured cells. Further, we used bacterial artificial chromosome transgenic (Tg) mice to recapitulate the anterior>posterior gradient of EphA in the superior colliculus (SC). In mice expressing the endocytosis-defective EphA8 mutant, the nasal axons were aberrantly shifted to the anterior SC. In contrast, in Tg mice expressing wild-type EphA8, the nasal axons were shifted to the posterior SC, as predicted for the enhanced repellent effect of ephrinA reverse signalling. Importantly, Rac signalling was shown to be essential for EphA-ephrinA internalization and the subsequent nasal axonal repulsion in the SC. These results indicate that endocytosis of the Eph-ephrin complex is a key mechanism by which axonal repulsion is generated for proper guidance and topographic mapping.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We recently reported that the phosphotyrosine-binding (PTB) domain of Anks family proteins binds to EphA8, thereby positively regulating EphA8-mediated signaling pathways. In the current study, we identified a potential role for the SAM domains of Anks family proteins in EphA signaling. We found that SAM domains of Anks family proteins directly bind to ubiquitin, suggesting that Anks proteins regulate the degradation of ubiquitinated EphA receptors. Consistent with the role of Cbl ubiquitin ligases in the degradation of Eph receptors, our results revealed that the ubiquitin ligase c-Cbl induced the ubiquitination and degradation of EphA8 upon ligand binding. Ubiquitinated EphA8 also bound to the SAM domains of Odin, a member of the Anks family proteins. More importantly, the overexpression of wild-type Odin protected EphA8 and EphA2 from undergoing degradation following ligand stimulation and promoted EphA-mediated inhibition of cell migration. In contrast, a SAM domain deletion mutant of Odin strongly impaired the function of endogenous Odin, suggesting that the mutant functions in a dominant-negative manner. An analysis of Odin-deficient primary embryonic fibroblasts indicated that Odin levels play a critical role in regulating the stability of EphA2 in response to ligand stimulation. Taken together, our studies suggest that the SAM domains of Anks family proteins play a pivotal role in enhancing the stability of EphA receptors by modulating the ubiquitination process.