[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Schizophrenia is a complex mental disease caused by a combination of serial alterations in genetic and environmental factors. Although the brain is usually considered as the most relevant organ in schizophrenia, accumulated evidence suggests that peripheral tissues also contribute to this disease. In particular, abnormalities of the immune system have been identified in the peripheral blood of schizophrenia patients. To screen the serum proteomic signature of schizophrenia patients, we conducted shotgun proteomic analysis on serum samples of schizophrenia patients and healthy controls. High-abundance proteins were eliminated by immunoaffinity before LC-MS/MS analysis. The multivariate statistical test partial least squares-discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) was applied to build models for screening out variable importance in the projection (VIP) and 27 proteins were identified as being responsible for discriminating between the proteomic profiles of schizophrenia patients and healthy controls. Pathway analysis based on these 27 proteins revealed that complement and coagulation cascades was the most significant pathway. ELISA-based activity analyses indicated that the alternative complement pathway was suppressed in schizophrenia patients. Ingenuity pathways analysis was used to conduct the interaction network of 27 proteins. The network exhibited common features such as, nervous system development and function, humoral immune response and inflammatory response, and highlighted some proteins with important roles in the immune system, such as hub nodes. Our findings indicate dysregulation of the alternative complement pathway in schizophrenia patients. The protein interaction network enhances the interpretation of proteomic data and provides evidence that the immune system may contribute to schizophrenia.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Recent research has revealed various molecular markers in lung cancer. However, the organizational principles underlying their genetic regulatory networks still await investigation. Here we performed Network Component Analysis (NCA) and Pathway Crosstalk Analysis (PCA) to construct a regulatory network in human lung cancer (A549) cells which were treated with 50 uM motexafin gadolinium (MGd), a metal cation-containing chemotherapeutic drug for 4, 12, and 24 hours. We identified a set of key TFs, known target genes for these TFs, and signaling pathways involved in regulatory networks. Our work showed that putative interactions between these TFs (such as ESR1/Sp1, E2F1/Sp1, c-MYC-ESR, Smad3/c-Myc, and NFKB1/RELA), between TFs and their target genes (such as BMP41/Est1, TSC2/Myc, APE1/Sp1/p53, RARA/HOXA1, and SP1/USF2), and between signaling pathways (such as PPAR signaling pathway and Adipocytokines signaling pathway). These results will provide insights into the regulatory mechanism of MGd-treated human lung cancer cells.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: CYP2E1 is a member of the cytochrome P450 superfamily, which is involved in the metabolism and activation of both endobiotics and xenobiotics. The genetic polymorphisms of CYP2E1 gene (Chromosome 10q26.3, Accession Number NC_000010.10) are reported to be related to the development of several mental diseases and to be involved in the clinical efficacy of some psychiatric medications. We investigated the possible association of CYP2E1 polymorphisms with susceptibility to schizophrenia in the Chinese Han Population as well as the relationship with response to risperidone in schizophrenia patients.
In a case-control study, we identified 11 polymorphisms in the 5' flanking region of CYP2E1 in 228 schizophrenia patients and 384 healthy controls of Chinese Han origin. From among the cases, we chose 130 patients who had undergone 8 weeks of risperidone monotherapy to examine the relationship between their response to risperidone and CYP2E1 polymorphisms. Clinical efficacy was assessed using the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS).
Statistically significant differences in allele or genotype frequencies were found between cases and controls at rs8192766 (genotype p = 0.0048, permutation p = 0.0483) and rs2070673 (allele: p = 0.0018, permutation p = 0.0199, OR = 1.4528 95%CI = 1.1487-1.8374; genotype: p = 0.0020, permutation p = 0.0225). In addition, a GTCAC haplotype containing 5 SNPs (rs3813867, rs2031920, rs2031921, rs3813870 and rs2031922) was observed to be significantly associated with schizophrenia (p = 7.47E-12, permutation p<0.0001). However, no association was found between CYP2E1 polymorphisms/haplotypes and risperidone response.
Our results suggest that CYP2E1 may be a potential risk gene for schizophrenia in the Chinese Han population. However, polymorphisms of the CYP2E1 gene may not contribute significantly to individual differences in the therapeutic efficacy of risperidone. Further studies in larger groups are warranted to confirm our results.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In the past decade, a number of case-control studies have been conducted to investigate the relationship between the ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 (ABCA1) R219K polymorphism and coronary heart disease (CHD). However, the results have been inconclusive. The purpose of the present study is to investigate whether this polymorphism confers significant susceptibility to CHD using a meta-analysis. PubMed, Embase and CNKI database were searched to get the genetic association studies. Then data were extracted. Pooled odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) were calculated. Moreover, subgroup and sensitive analysis were performed. In total, 9,437 cases and 16,270 controls were involved in the meta-analysis. The K219 was significantly associated with CHD (OR = 0.80, 95% CI 0.69-0.92, P(Z) = 0.001). However, significant heterogeneity was present. Further subgroup analysis suggested ethnicity explained much heterogeneity. In Asians, K219 showed a strong protective effect and the pooled OR was 0.69 (95% CI 0.55-0.86 P(Z) = 0.0009). While in Caucasians the result was not significant (OR = 0.87, 95% CI 0.73-1.04, P(Z) = 0.12). In conclusion, our results indicate that the ABCA1 R219K polymorphism is a protective factor of CHD in Asians, but not in Caucasians.
Full-text · Article · Jun 2011 · Molecular Biology Reports
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: There is considerable evidence to suggest that aberrations of synapse connectivity contribute to the pathophysiology of schizophrenia and that N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor-mediated glutamate transmission is especially important. Administration of MK-801 ([+]-5-methyl-10, 11-dihydro-5H-dibenzo-[a, d]-cycloheptene-5, 10-iminehydrogenmaleate) induces hypofunction of NMDA receptors in rats, which are widely used as a model for schizophrenia. We investigated synaptosomal proteome expression profiling of the cerebral cortex of MK-801-treated Sprague-Dawley rats using the 2-dimensional difference gel electrophoresis method, and 49 differentially expression proteins were successfully identified using Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization Time-of-Flight/Time-of-Flight mass spectrometry. We carried out a literature search for further confirmation of subsynaptic locations and to explore the relevance to the diseases of differentially expressed proteins. Ingenuity Pathways Analysis (IPA) was used to further examine the underlying relationship between the changed proteins. The network encompassing "cell morphology, cell-to-cell signaling and interaction, nervous system development and function" was found to be significantly altered in the MK-801-treated rats. "Energy metabolism" and "semaphorin signaling in neurons" are the most significant IPA canonical pathways to be affected by MK-801 treatment. Using western blots, we confirmed the differential expression of Camk2a, Crmp2, Crmp5, Dnm1, and Ndufs3 in both synaptosome proteins and total proteins in the cerebral cortex of the rats. Our study identified the change and/or response of the central nervous transmission system under the stress of NMDA hypofunction, underlining the importance of the synaptic function in schizophrenia.
Full-text · Article · Nov 2010 · Schizophrenia Bulletin
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: CYP2E1 encodes a member of the cytochrome P450 superfamily of enzymes which play a central role in activating and detoxifying many carcinogens and endogenous compounds thought to be involved in the development of cancer. The PstI/RsaI and DraI polymorphism are two of the most commonly studied polymorphisms of the gene for their association with risk of head and neck cancer, but the results are conflicting.
We performed a meta-analysis using 21 eligible case-control studies with a total of 4,951 patients and 6,071 controls to summarize the data on the association between the CYP2E1 PstI/RsaI and DraI polymorphism and head and neck cancer risk, especially by interacting with smoking or alcohol.
Compared with the wild genotype, the OR was 1.96 (95% CI: 1.33-2.90) for PstI/RsaI and 1.56 (95% CI: 1.06-2.27) for DraI polymorphism respectively. When stratified according to ethnicity, the OR increased in the Asians for both polymorphisms (OR = 2.04, 95% CI: 1.32-3.15 for PstI/RsaI; OR = 2.04, 95% CI: 1.27-3.29 for DraI), suggesting that the risk is more pronounced in Asians.
Our meta-analysis suggests that individuals with the homozygote genotypes of PstI/RsaI or DraI polymorphism might be associated with an increased risk of head and neck cancer, especially in Asians.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: CYP2E1 is one of a superfamily of enzymes that play a central role in activating and detoxifying many xenobiotics and endogenous compounds thought to be involved in the development of several human diseases. Among other factors, individual susceptibility to developing these pathologies relies on genetic polymorphisms, which are related to ethnic differences, since the frequency of mutant genotypes varies in different populations. The aim of this study was to investigate the genetic basis of CYP2E1 polymorphisms in the populations of four different geographical locations of China. Twenty-two different CYP2E1 polymorphisms, including six novel variants in promoter regions and a novel nonsense mutation, were identified. The frequencies of some polymorphisms and genotypes demonstrated significant differences among the four populations. Linkage disequilibrium analysis and tag SNP selection were performed. Haplotypes were analyzed within the selected tag SNPs. Tag SNP selection and haplotype distributions showed differences across the four populations.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In the past decade, a number of case-control studies have been carried out to investigate the relationship between the ApoE polymorphism and diabetic nephropathy. However, the results have been inconclusive. To investigate this inconsistency, we performed a meta-analysis of all available studies dealing with the relationship between the ApoE polymorphism and DN. The 23 studies in the meta- analysis included 6,012 diabetic patients with (n = 2,979) and without (n = 3,033) DN. The ApoE ε2 allele was significantly associated with DN (OR = 1.64, 95% CI: 1.26-2.13; P(Z) = 0.00027), whereas the ε4 allele was non-significantly associated with DN (OR = 0.93, 95% CI: 0.78-1.11; P(Z) = 0.418). However, significant heterogeneity was detected. In further subgroup analyses, genotyping methods, outcome of cases and duration of diabetes in controls were found to explain some of the heterogeneity. Genotypic analysis also found a strong association between the ε2 carriers and DN (OR = 1.61, 95% CI: 1.22-2.13; P(Z) = 0.001) and indicated that ε4 tended to have a marginally significant protective effect for DN (OR = 0.82, 95% CI: 0.65-1.03; P(Z) = 0.085). The results of our meta-analysis support a genetic association between the ApoE polymorphism and DN. ε2 increases the risk of DN in diabetes patients, while ε4 trends to be protective. These findings may have implications for therapeutic intervention in diabetic nephropathy.
No preview · Article · Feb 2010 · Molecular Biology Reports