[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Systematic review.
To conduct a systematic review of the effectiveness of interventions used to prevent and treat heterotopic ossification (HO) after spinal cord injury (SCI).
St Joseph's Parkwood Hospital, London, Ontario, Canada.
MEDLINE, CINAHL, EMBASE and PsycINFO databases were searched for articles addressing the treatment of HO after SCI. Studies were selected by two reviewers and were only included for analysis if at least 50% of the subjects had an SCI, there were at least three SCI subjects and if the study subjects participated in a treatment or intervention. Study quality was assessed by two independent reviewers using the Downs and Black evaluation tool for all studies, as well as the PEDro assessment scale for randomized control trials only. Levels of evidence were assigned using a modified Sackett scale.
A total of 13 studies met the inclusion criteria. The selected articles were divided into prevention or treatment of post-SCI HO. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), warfarin, and pulse low-intensity electrogmagnetic field (PLIMF) therapy were reviewed as prophylactic measures. Bisphosphonates, radiotherapy and excision were reviewed as treatments of post-SCI HO.
Pharmacological treatments of HO after SCI had the highest level of research evidence supporting their use. Of these, NSAIDs showed greatest efficacy in the prevention of HO when administered early after an SCI, whereas bisphosphonates were the intervention with strongest supportive evidence once HO had developed. Of the non-pharmacological interventions, PLIMF was supported by the highest level of evidence; however, more research is needed to fully understand its role.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To review systematically the published literature on the treatment of deep venous thromboembolism after spinal cord injury (SCI).
MEDLINE/PubMed, CINAHL, EMBASE, and PsycINFO databases were searched for articles addressing the treatment of deep venous thromboembolism post-SCI. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) were assessed for methodologic quality using the Physiotherapy Evidence Database Scale, while non-RCTs were assessed using the Downs and Black evaluation tool.
Studies included RCTs, non-RCTS, cohort, case-control, case series, pre-post, and postinterventional studies. Case studies were included only when no other studies were available.
Data extracted included demographics, the nature of the study intervention, and study results.
Levels of evidence were assigned to the interventions using a modified Sackett scale.
Twenty-three studies met inclusion criteria. Thirteen studies examined various pharmacologic interventions for the treatment or prevention of deep venous thrombosis in patients with SCI. There was strong evidence to support the use of low-molecular-weight heparin in reducing venous thrombosis events, and a higher adjusted dose of unfractionated heparin was found to be more effective than 5000 units administered every 12 hours, although bleeding complications were more common. Nonpharmacologic treatments were also reviewed, but again limited evidence was found to support these treatments.
Full-text · Article · Mar 2009 · Archives of physical medicine and rehabilitation
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To conduct a systematic review of the rehabilitation literature of moderate to severe acquired brain injuries (ABI) from traumatic and non-traumatic causes.
A review of the literature was conducted for studies looking at interventions in ABI rehabilitation. The methodological quality of each study was determined using the Downs and Black scale for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and non-RCTs as well as the Physiotherapy Evidence Database (PEDro) scale for RCTs only.
Almost 14 000 references were screened from which 1312 abstracts were selected. A total of 303 articles were chosen for careful review of which 275 were found to be interventional studies but only 76 of these interventional studies were RCTs. From this, 5 levels of evidence were determined with 177 conclusions drawn; however of the 177 conclusions only 7 were supported by two or more RCTs and 41 were supported by one RCT.
Only 28% of the interventional studies were RCTs. Over half of the 275 interventional studies were single group interventions, pointing to the need for studies of improved methodological quality into ABI rehabilitation.