Anna D Baker's scientific contributionswhile working at East Carolina University (Greenville, United States) and other institutions
- Abstract: Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma (PPARgamma) is a nuclear transcription factor involved in lipid metabolism that is constitutively expressed in the alveolar macrophages of healthy individuals. PPARgamma has recently been implicated in the catabolism of surfactant by alveolar macrophages, specifically the cholesterol component of surfactant while the mechanism remains unclear. Studies from other tissue macrophages have shown that PPARgamma regulates cholesterol influx, efflux,... Show More
- Abstract: Surfactant accumulates in alveolar macrophages of granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) knockout (KO) mice and pulmonary alveolar proteinosis (PAP) patients with a functional loss of GM-CSF resulting from neutralizing anti-GM-CSF antibody. Alveolar macrophages from PAP patients and GM-CSF KO mice are de-ficient in peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma (PPARgamma) and ATP-binding cassette (ABC) lipid transporter ABCG1. Previous studies have demonstrated that... Show More
- Abstract: Pulmonary alveolar proteinosis (PAP) is a lung disease characterized by a deficiency of functional granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) resulting in surfactant accumulation and lipid-engorged alveolar macrophages. GM-CSF is a positive regulator of PPARγ that is constitutively expressed in healthy alveolar macrophages. We previously reported decreased PPARγ and ATP-binding cassette transporter G1 (ABCG1) levels in alveolar macrophages from PAP patients and GM-CSF knockout... Show More
Publications citing this author (75)
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Respiratory diseases including asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are characterised by excessive and persistent inflammation. Current treatments are often inadequate for symptom and disease control, and hence new therapies are warranted. Recent emerging research has implicated dyslipidaemia in pulmonary inflammation. Three ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters are found in the mammalian lung – ABCA1, ABCG1 and ABCA3 – that are involved in movement of cholesterol and phospholipids from lung cells. The aim of this review is to corroborate the current evidence for the role of ABC lipid transporters in pulmonary lipid homeostasis and inflammation. Here, we summarise results from murine knockout studies, human diseases associated with ABC transporter mutations, and in vitro studies. Disruption to ABC transporter activity results in lipid accumulation and elevated levels of inflammatory cytokines in lung tissue. Furthermore, these ABC-knockout mice exhibit signs of respiratory distress. ABC lipid transporters appear to have a crucial and protective role in the lung. However, our knowledge of the underlying molecular mechanisms for these benefits requires further attention. Understanding the relationship between cholesterol and inflammation in the lung, and the role that ABC transporters play in this may illuminate new pathways to target for the treatment of inflammatory lung diseases.
- Thomassen and colleagues recognised that both PAP patients and GM-CSFknockout mice demonstrate surfactant accumulation in alveolar macrophages, and ABCG1 deficiency, despite increased ABCA1 activity  . Induction of ABCG1 expression via LXRα was able to reverse intracellular lipid accumulation and restore lung compliance in GM-CSF-knockout mice [56, 57]. These results demonstrate that ABCG1 is critical for normal surfactant metabolism.
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The pathways and mechanisms that regulate pulmonary surfactant synthesis, processing, secretion and catabolism have been extensively characterised using classical biochemical and analytical approaches. These have constructed a model, largely in experimental animals, for surfactant phospholipid metabolism in the alveolar epithelial cell whereby phospholipid synthesised on the endoplasmic reticulum is selectively transported to lamellar body storage vesicles, where it is subsequently processed before secretion into the alveolus. Surfactant phospholipid is a complex mixture of individual molecular species defined by the combination of esterified fatty acid groups and a comprehensive description of surfactant phospholipid metabolism requires consideration of the interactions between such molecular species. However, until recently, lipid analytical techniques have not kept pace with the considerable advances in understanding of the enzymology and molecular biology of surfactant metabolism. Refinements in electrospray ionisation mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) can now provide very sensitive platforms for the rapid characterisation of surfactant phospholipid composition in molecular detail. The combination of ESI-MS and administration of phospholipid substrates labelled with stable isotopes extends this analytical approach to the quantification of synthesis and turnover of individual molecular species of surfactant phospholipid. As this methodology does not involve radioactivity, it is ideally suited to application in clinical studies. This review will provide an overview of the metabolic processes that regulate the molecular specificity of surfactant phosphatidylcholine together with examples of how the application of stable isotope technologies in vivo has, for the first time, begun to explore regulation of the molecular specificity of surfactant synthesis in human subjects.
- Surfactant phospholipid catabolism was impaired in both mice, but with unchanged rates of surfactant secretion compared with control mice (Ikegami et al., 1996). A central role for the peroxisomal proliferator activator receptor (PPAR) in lung surfactant phospholipid catabolism is shown by the PPAR −/− mice, which replicate the phenotype of GM-CSF −/− mice (Baker et al., 2010). One possible mechanism of this effect is the associated decreased expression of ABCG1, responsible for export of PC from the alveolar macrophages to HDL, in the PPAR −/− mice.