[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Biliary sarcoidosis is an unusual clinical entity which mimics autoimmune biliary disease and malignant distal obstruction. Three cases were managed in this series. In two cases the appropriate clinical history, cholangiographic findings, and response to therapy enabled early diagnosis. The third diagnosis was made using a Whipple resection specimen. Biliary sarcoidosis is an important consideration in those with an enigmatic presentation of jaundice as they may be managed non- operatively if expeditiously diagnosed.
Full-text · Article · Dec 2012 · American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Knowledge of the risk of lymph node metastases is critical to planning therapy for T1 esophageal adenocarcinoma. This study retrospectively reviews 75 T1a and 51 T1b tumors and correlates lymph node metastases with depth of tumor invasion, tumor size, presence of lymphovascular invasion, and tumor grade.
Increasingly, patients with superficial esophageal adenocarcinoma are being treated endoscopically or with limited surgical resection techniques. Since no lymph nodes are removed with these therapies, it is critical to have a clear understanding of the risk of lymph node metastases in these patients. The aim of this study was to define the risk of lymph node metastases for intramucosal and submucosal (T1) esophageal adenocarcinoma and to analyze factors potentially associated with an increased risk of lymph node involvement.
We reanalyzed the pathology specimens of all patients that had primary esophagectomy for T1 adenocarcinoma of the distal esophagus or gastroesophageal junction from January 1985 to December 2008. The prevalence of lymph node metastases was correlated with tumor size, depth of invasion, presence of lymphovascular invasion, and degree of tumor differentiation.
There were 126 patients, 102 men (81%) and 24 women (19%), with a mean age of 64 (± 10) years. Tumor invasion was limited to the mucosa (T1a) in 75 patients (60%), whereas submucosal invasion (T1b) was present in 51 patients (40%). Tumors that had poor differentiation, lymphovascular invasion, and size ≥2 cm were significantly more likely to be invasive into the submucosa. Lymph node metastases were rare (1.3%) with intramucosal tumors but increased significantly with submucosal tumor invasion (22%)[P = 0.0003]. Lymph node metastases were also significantly associated with poor differentiation (P = 0.0015), lymphovascular invasion (P < 0.0001), and tumor size ≥2 cm (P = 0.01). Division of the submucosa into thirds did not show a layer with a significantly decreased prevalence of node metastases.
Adenocarcinoma invasive deeper than the muscularis mucosa is associated with a significant increase in the prevalence of lymph node metastases,and there is no "safe" level of invasion into the submucosa. Lymphovascular invasion, tumor size ≥2 cm, and poor differentiation are associated with an increased risk of submucosal invasion and lymph node metastases and should be factored into the decision for endoscopic therapy or esophagectomy
No preview · Article · Nov 2010 · Annals of surgery
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to determine whether the risk of systemic disease after esophagectomy could be predicted by angiogenesis-related gene polymorphisms.
Systemic tumor recurrence after curative resection continues to impose a significant problem in the management of patients with localized esophageal adenocarcinoma (EA). The identification of molecular markers of prognosis will help to better define tumor stage, indicate disease progression, identify novel therapeutic targets, and monitor response to therapy. Proteinase-activated-receptor 1 (PAR-1) and epidermal growth factor (EGF) have been shown to mediate the regulation of local and early-onset angiogenesis, and in turn may impact the process of tumor growth and disease progression.
We investigated tissue samples from 239 patients with localized EA treated with surgery alone. DNA was isolated from formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded normal esophageal tissue samples and polymorphisms were analyzed using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism and 5'-end [gamma-P] ATP-labeled polymerase chain reaction methods.
PAR-1 -506 ins/del (adjusted P value=0.011) and EGF +61 A>G (adjusted P value=0.035) showed to be adverse prognostic markers, in both univariate and multivariable analyses. In combined analysis, grouping alleles into favorable versus nonfavorable alleles, high expression variants of PAR-1 -506 ins/del (any insertion allele) and EGF +61 A>G (A/A) were associated with a higher likelihood of developing tumor recurrence (adjusted P value<0.001).
This study supports the role of functional PAR-1 and EGF polymorphisms as independent prognostic markers in localized EA and may therefore help to identify patient subgroups at high risk for tumor recurrence.
Full-text · Article · May 2010 · Annals of surgery
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The reported prevalence of cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection with active inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is highly variable, and whether CMV negatively impacts the clinical course is controversial.
The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of CMV in patients with active ulcerative colitis (UC) or Crohn's disease (CD) and compare the course of disease in patients with and without CMV.
Consecutive patients with acute exacerbations of active IBD colitis had immunohistochemistry staining for CMV antigen performed on archived specimens. Clinical features were retrospectively reviewed.
Twelve (10%) of 122 UC patients had CMV, and 0/20 patients with CD had CMV. Of 12 UC patients with CMV infection, seven were not taking steroids or immunosuppressives at their index flare. UC patients with CMV were more likely to have leukocytosis (OR = 5.3, 95% CI 1.5-18.2), require hospitalization (OR = 4.9, 95% CI 1.2-19.0), and be hospitalized > or =7 days (OR = 5.0, 95% CI 1.6-21.3) compared to patients without CMV. Of 12 UC patients with CMV, ten (83%) were treated for their index flare with steroids or 6-mercaptopurine. Only one patient (8%) was treated for CMV infection which occurred 14 months after index endoscopy. Over the 6 months after the index flare, UC patients with CMV had a higher frequency of IBD-related hospitalizations compared to patients without CMV (50 vs. 24%, P = 0.021), but none required surgery or died.
The prevalence of CMV with active UC was 10%. Although CMV infection may be a marker of disease severity, our results suggest it does not cause severe morbidity or mortality in a general population of patients with a UC flare.
No preview · Article · Apr 2010 · Digestive Diseases and Sciences
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE: Granulomatous lobular mastitis is a rare chronic inflammatory disease that has clinical and radiologic findings similar to those of breast cancer. We performed a retrospective analysis of clinical, imaging, and treatment findings in 54 women diagnosed with granulomatous lobular mastitis between January 2000 and April 2008. CONCLUSION: The imaging findings of granulomatous lobular mastitis overlap with those of malignancy. The most common presentation is a focal asymmetric density on mammography and an irregular hypoechoic mass with tubular extensions on ultrasound. Core biopsy is typically diagnostic. Once the diagnosis is established by tissue sampling, corticosteroids are the first line of treatment.
Preview · Article · Sep 2009 · American Journal of Roentgenology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Primary giant cell tumors of the chest wall are extremely rare. To date, we believe that there have been no reported cases of sternal giant cell tumors in the thoracic literature. We report a case of an isolated giant cell tumor of the sternum in a 28-year-old man. The mass was resected and the sternum was reconstructed with methyl methacrylate prosthesis and bilateral pectoralis muscle advancement flaps. Excellent functional and aesthetic results were achieved. (Ann Thorac Surg 2009; 88: 645-7) (C) 2009 by The Society of Thoracic Surgeons
No preview · Article · Sep 2009 · The Annals of thoracic surgery
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: After esophagectomy, many patients who received neoadjuvant therapy have no evidence of lymph node involvement (N0 disease). Whether lymph nodes were initially involved and eradicated by the neoadjuvant therapy (down-staged) or if the nodes were never involved is a subject of debate. To address this issue, we compared clinical outcomes in N0 patients treated with neoadjuvant therapy with outcomes in patients treated with surgery alone.
We reviewed records of 100 consecutive patients who underwent R0 esophagectomy for adenocarcinoma with pathologic N0 status. Seventy-five patients were treated by operation alone and 25 received neoadjuvant therapy. Tumor characteristics including length, depth, lymphovascular invasion, and degree of differentiation were compared and longterm survival was assessed by Kaplan-Meier analysis at a median of 46 months (interquartile range 26 to 77 months).
Tumor characteristics were similar between groups. Recurrence was more common in patients who received neoadjuvant therapy compared with those treated with surgery alone (10 of 25 versus 10 of 75, p=0.0063). Patients with N0 disease after neoadjuvant therapy had a significantly worse survival than patients treated by surgery alone (49% versus 85%, p=0.005).
Although neoadjuvant therapy may eradicate lymph node metastases, it does not result in the same outcomes as those achieved in patients with N0 disease treated with surgery alone. The poor clinical outcomes observed in N0 patients after neoadjuvant therapy suggest that they initially had node involvement and were downstaged by eradication of lymph node disease.
No preview · Article · May 2009 · Journal of the American College of Surgeons
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to assess the impact of new technology on both the understanding of the underlying pathophysiology and treatment of solitary rectal ulcer syndrome (SRUS). This study is a retrospective review of patients with a histologic diagnosis of SRUS (1993 to 2007) complimented with a prospective database of those patients studied with defecography and dynamic pelvic MRI. Thirty patients were available for evaluation. A polyp or mass was present in 74 per cent. Ulcers were found in only 23 per cent. All 12 patients undergoing defecography demonstrated rectorectal intussusception. Dynamic MRI of the pelvis revealed pronounced anorectal redundancy and lack of mesorectosacral fixation with mild to severe pelvic floor descent in all four patients studied. Fiber with or without stool softeners was the initial treatment in all patients with resolution of symptoms in 65 per cent. One patient with refractory symptoms underwent a stapled transanal rectal resection with complete resolution of symptoms. Occult rectorectal intussusception appears to be the operant anatomic pathology in SRUS. Anorectal redundancy with lack of mesorectosacral fixation may contribute to the process. All patients should be studied with defecography and dynamic MRI. Stapled transanal rectal resection may offer a promising surgical option.
Full-text · Article · Nov 2008 · The American surgeon