[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background
All violence against women has serious consequences for their mental, physical wellbeing, reproductive and sexual health including HIV infection and no study was conducted in this regard in Ethiopia and particularly in the present study area.
A cross-sectional study was conducted in Gondar town from 22 July–18 August 2011. Of the 400 pregnant women who actively participated in this study, 314 (78.50%) expected a negative reaction for HIV positive test result from their partners. A positive reaction from the partner was associated with women having their own income (Adjusted odds ratio (AOR) (95% CI) =2.18 (1.21, 3.92)), residing in the urban areas (AOR (95% CI) =2.26 (1.21, 4.22)), having education level of secondary level and above (AOR (95% CI) = 6.05 (3.12, 11.72)), not having a stigmatizing attitude towards people living with HIV (AOR (95% CI) = 2.15 (1.24, 3.73)), having a positive attitude towards counselors (AOR (95% CI) = 2.46 (1.42, 4.25)) and being able to access health facilities (AOR (95% CI) = 2.35(1.22, 4.50)).
Most of the participants in this study expected their partner to react negatively towards a positive HIV test result. Since women’s having their own income is strongly associated with a positive partner’s reaction on HIV test disclosure for prevention of mother to child transmission of HIV services, emphasis should be given for education and economic empowerment of women. A well functioning and accessible health facility with prevention of mother to child transmission of HIV service is important, especially in rural areas.
Full-text · Article · Mar 2013 · BMC Research Notes
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background
Mother-to-child transmission of HIV is a very important mode of HIV transmission for children. Well-functioning and accessible health facility and knowledge on mother to child transmission of HIV are a prerequisite for a successful mother to child transmission prevention of HIV. However, the determinant factors of pregnant mothers’ knowledge towards mother to child transmission of HIV and its prevention is not well studied in Ethiopia and particularly in the present study area.
Cross-sectional health institution based study was conducted in Gondar town from July 22-August 18, 2011. A total of 400 pregnant women attending antenatal care (ANC) were involved in the study using stratified sampling technique. Data were collected by using structured questionnaire and multiple logistic regression analysis was used.
A total of 400 pregnant women actively participated in this study and 354 (88.5%) of them knew mother to child transmission of HIV and 334(83.5%) of them knew mother to child transmission of HIV is preventable. Having knowledge on mother to child transmission of HIV was positively associated with attending antenatal care visits in hospitals [Adj. OR (95%CI) = 4.49 (1.003, 20.06)], residing in urban areas [Adj. OR (95%CI) = 2.46 (1.19, 5.09)] and having education level of secondary and above [Adj. OR (95%CI) = 6.85 (1.96, 24.01)], but negatively associated with increased maternal age. Knowledge on prevention of mother to child transmission of HIV was positively associated with accessibility of health facility [Adj. OR (95%CI) = 2.16 (1.03, 4.57)], having perceived risk of HIV [Adj. OR (95%CI) = 2.61 (1.32, 5.17)], having comprehensive knowledge on HIV [Adj. OR (95%CI) = 2.86 (1.41, 5.82)], having education level of secondary and above [Adj. OR (95%CI) = 6.15 (1.75, 21.66)] and residing in urban areas [Adj. OR (95%CI) = 3.62 (1.73, 7.59)] but negatively associated with increased maternal age.
Most of the study participants in this study knew that HIV could be transmitted from an infected mother to her baby. There should be well functioning and accessible health facilities with Prevention of mother to child transmission service in the country especially in the rural areas.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Detection of maternal HIV infection early in pregnancy is critical for prevention of mother to child transmission of HIV/AIDS. Most efforts have focused on VCT as the primary means of encouraging people to become aware of their HIV status. However, its uptake is low in many parts of sub-Saharan Africa including Ethiopia. Provider-initiated HIV testing and counseling provides a critical opportunity to diagnose HIV infection, to begin chronic care, and to prevent mother to child transmission. However, little is known about its acceptance and associated factors among pregnant women in the country and particularly in the present study area.
Health institution based cross-sectional quantitative study was conducted in Gondar town from July 22-August 18, 2010. A total of 400 pregnant women were involved in the study using stratified sampling technique and multiple logistic regression analysis was employed using SPSS version 16.
A total of 400 pregnant women actively participated in this study and 330 (82.5%) of them accepted provider-initiated HIV testing and counseling to be tested for HIV and 70(17.5%) of them refused. Acceptance of provider-initiated HIV testing and counseling was positively associated with greater number of antenatal care visits [Adj. OR (95%CI) = 2.64(1.17, 5.95)], residing in the urban areas[Adj. OR (95%CI) = 2.85(1.10, 7.41)], having comprehensive knowledge on HIV [Adj. OR (95%CI) = 4.30(1.72, 10.73)], positive partners reaction for HIV positive result [Adj. OR (95%CI) = 8.19(3.57, 18.80)] and having knowledge on prevention of mother to child transmission of HIV[Adj. OR (95%CI) = 3.27(1.34, 7.94)], but negatively associated with increased maternal age and education level.
Utilization of provider-initiated HIV testing and counseling during antenatal care was relatively high among pregnant women in Gondar town. Couple counseling and HIV testing should be strengthened to promote provider-initiated HIV testing and counseling among male partners and to reduce HIV related violence of women from their partner and access to and consistent use of antenatal care should be improved to increase the uptake of provider-initiated HIV testing and counseling service.
Full-text · Article · Mar 2012 · BMC Public Health
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Ethiopia is one of the most populous countries in Africa and ranks second only to Nigeria. Rapid population growth has hampered the country's development, making the eradication of extreme poverty and hunger difficult. This study which had two components--quantitative and qualitative--was aimed at exploring the perceptions of women and other social groups on the prevailing population pressures. The quantitative study involved 3,512 women aged 15-49 years. The qualitative study consisted of five focus-group discussions and six key-informant interviews. Over 90% of women (n = 3,512) who participated in the quantitative study and nearly all the focus-group discussants and interviewees (n = 39) felt that something should be done to keep the population from growing too fast. Most (over 90%) participants approved of the Government passing a law regarding the maximum number of children that a couple should have. It is, therefore, timely for the responsible bodies to exert maximum effort and commitment in responding to the emerging attitudes of the people by making the population problem a priority.
Full-text · Article · Dec 2009 · Journal of Health Population and Nutrition
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background: Evidence shows that nearly two million people are added to the population of Ethiopia each year. It has become clear that uncontrolled fertility has adversely influenced the socio-economic, demographic and environmental situations of the country.Objectives: To estimate the total fertility rates and look into the relative contribution of the intermediate determinant variables in bringing fertility below its biological maximum in North and South Gondar zones of Northwest Ethiopia.Methods: A cross-sectional study which included a sample size of 3512 women of reproductive age was performed. Multi-stage cluster sampling was used to select the required study subjects. The Bongaarts model was employed to estimate fertility rates and quantify the contribution of each of the proximate determinants of fertility.Results: The overall total fertility rate of the two Gondar zones was computed as 5.3. Among the three major proximate determinants in reducing fertility in the two zones, postpartum infecundability (Ci=0.55) stood first followed by contraceptive use (Cc=0.75) and non- marriage (Cm=0.83). Conclusion: The fertility-inhibiting effect of postpartum infecundability resulting from prolonged breastfeeding is by far the most important proximate determinant in the entire study areas. A substantial role (particularly in urban areas) is played by contraceptive use. The promotion of breastfeeding should continue by all concerned bodies and the region should continue exerting its maximum effort to make the majority of the rural population users of modern contraceptive methods
Full-text · Article · Aug 2009 · Ethiopian Journal of Health Development
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Ethiopia is one of the most densely populated countries in Africa with an estimated population of 77.1 million in mid-2007. Uncontrolled fertility has adversely influenced the socio-economic, demographic and environmental situations of the country. It is one of the largest and poorest countries that, even in the midst of crisis, has maintained high levels of fertility. This study was aimed at investigating the most important factors influencing fertility behavior in Northwest Ethiopia.
A comparative cross-sectional study which included 2424 women aged 25 years and above was undertaken in the Amhara region of Northwest Ethiopia. The study subjects were grouped into high fertile and low fertile categories. There were 1011 and 1413 women in the high and low fertile groups, respectively. A multi-stage cluster sampling stratified by place of residence was employed to select the required study subjects. Both bivariate and multivariate logistic regression techniques were used to analyze the data.
Among the 25 variables considered in this study, only 9 of them were found significantly and independently associated with the level of fertility. Women with at least secondary education were at a lower risk of high fertility with OR = 0.37 (95% CI: 0.21 to 0.64) compared to those with no formal education. However, women with primary education did not show any significant difference when compared with the same baseline group. Age at first marriage was inversely associated with the number of children ever born alive. Place of residence, household expenditure, number of children who have died, attitude towards using contraceptives, women's knowledge on the safe period, and current marital status were the other variables that showed significant associations with the level of fertility.
Female education beyond the primary level, reduced infant and child mortality, delayed marriage and correct knowledge on the safe period during the menstrual cycle were amongst the main factors that had a bearing on high fertility.
Full-text · Article · Jan 2009 · BMC Public Health