- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The anaplastic ganglioglioma (AG) is the high-grade counterpart of ganglioglioma, a rare mixed tumor composed of neuronal/ganglion and glial cells. We describe the histopathology and immunohistochemistry in 7 cases of AG and correlate them with the clinical and radiological features. Our AG patients correspond to 2.5% of the central nervous system tumor patients evaluated in our institution. The mean age at presentation was 25.7 years, with a male predominance. The most common clinical presentation was generalized tonic-clonic seizures (3/7 cases), in correlation with frequent cortical/subcortical location (6/7 cases). Histopathologically, all our cases showed high-grade features in glial (glial fibrillary acid protein-positive) and neuron-ganglion cells (synaptophysin, PGP-9.5, neurofilament, NSE and CD56-positive), as well as moderate cellularity, frequent mitotic figures and a Ki-67 labeling index >5%. All our patients had poor survival. We found that a typical histopathological and immunohistochemical profile is constant and can be useful in early diagnosis of these aggressive neoplasms.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Glioblastoma (GBM) is one of the most highly aggressive neoplasms of the central nervous system. Extra-cranial metastases in GBM are rare. Here we present the case of a 26-year-old man with extra-cranial metastasis of a frontal lobe GBM to the parotid gland, cervical lymph nodes, and bones, with initial diagnosis made by fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) of the parotid gland. FNAC is a reliable technique in the study of primary and secondary parotid gland neoplasms, allowing a presumptive diagnosis in difficult cases. We correlate the cytologic, histopathologic, and immunohistochemical findings in this case and discuss previous literature reports.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Neoplasms originating from the urachus are rare. The most common urachal malignancy is adenocarcinoma, whereas extragonadal germ cell tumors, primarily of the urachus, are an extremely rare finding. To describe a primary yolk sac tumor (YST) of the urachus in an adult. A 44-year-old woman presented with 6 months of pelvic pain associated with a sensation of progressive mass growth. At the time of tumor resection, the tumor was found to be attached by a pedicle to the dome of the bladder, with no injury to the adjacent organs. Pathological study showed a neoplasm with epithelioid cells, pseudocysts, a myxomatous background, and Schiller-Duval body formations. Immunohistochemistry stains showed positivity to AE1/AE3, α-1-fetoprotein, and α-1-antitrypsin and negativity to other markers. An unusual case of a YST in the urachus is presented. This is the first reported adult case based on the authors' bibliographic search.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Spindle cell oncocytoma of the adenohypophysis (SCO) is defined as spindle to epithelioid cells with oncocytic appearance presenting in the adenohypophysis. In contrast to pituitary adenomas, the SCO does not show immunoreactivity for neuroendocrine markers and pituitary hormones but co-expressed vimentin, S-100 protein, epithelial membrane antigen (EMA), and antimitochondrial antibody MU213-UC clone 131-1. We describe an SCO in an adult, a 42-year-old woman whose magnetic resonance (MR) images documented an intrasellar lesion located in the hypophysis. Histopathological examination showed a tumor composed predominantly of spindle cells. Immunohistochemical studies showed positivity for vimentin, S10, EMA, and antimitochondrial antibody MU213-UC clone 131. Cytokeratin (CK) (AE1/AE3), glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), chromogranin, synaptophysin, PGP9.5, CD57, desmin, D2-40, smooth muscle actin (SMA), Bcl-2, progesterone receptor, and CD34 were negative. Neuropeptides were negative. With electron microscopy, the neoplastic cells appear filled with mitochondria, well-formed desmosomes, but lacked secretory granules. SPO is a rare non-endocrine neoplasm of the adenohypophysis with benign biological behavior corresponding to WHO grade I.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The large cell calcifying Sertoli cell tumor (LCCSCT) is a very rare testicular tumor with 60 cases reported worldwide; in Latin America and Colombia, few cases are reported in the literature. This neoplasm originates in the gonadal stromal/sex cord, and, in general, tends to display benign biological behavior. It is thought that these tumors may display differing characteristics: depending upon whether they occur in the context of a complex congenital syndrome, in which case they tend to be bilateral and multifocal; as opposed to those not associated with syndromes, which tend to be unilateral and focal. Immunohistochemical study is essential for diagnosis, in particular, to differentiate these tumors from germ cell tumors. This study reports on three cases of this tumor--one associated with Peutz-Jeghers Syndrome—and emphasis is given to histological criteria to define malignancy.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The adeno-squamous gallbladder carcinoma is a frequent neoplasm with blurred etiology and biological course. A case report is presented from a male with an incidental finding of a gallbladder carcinoma diagnosed during a cholecystectomy. Associated to malignant glandular and squamous morphological findings, low grade dysplasia and squamous metaplasia were observed, allowing the final diagnosis. Immunohistochemistry analyses revealed both glandular and squamous differentiation biomarkers. The report of a rare gallbladder carcinoma illustrates difficulties for proper diagnosis. The analysis suggests an adenocarcinoma with squamous metaplasia areas that evolved towardsthe malignant transformation of squamous components.