[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Barrier tissues such as the skin contain various populations of immune cells that contribute to protection from infections. These include recently identified tissue-resident memory T cells (TRM). In the skin, these memory CD8(+) T cells reside in the epidermis after being recruited to this site by infection or inflammation. In this study, we demonstrate prolonged persistence of epidermal TRM preferentially at the site of prior infection despite sustained migration. Computational simulation of TRM migration within the skin over long periods revealed that the slow rate of random migration effectively constrains these memory cells within the region of skin in which they form. Notably, formation of TRM involved a concomitant local reduction in dendritic epidermal γδ T-cell numbers in the epidermis, indicating that these populations persist in mutual exclusion and may compete for local survival signals. Accordingly, we show that expression of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor, a transcription factor important for dendritic epidermal γδ T-cell maintenance in skin, also contributes to the persistence of skin TRM. Together, these data suggest that skin tissue-resident memory T cells persist within a tightly regulated epidermal T-cell niche.
Full-text · Article · Mar 2014 · Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Tissue-resident memory T cells (TRM cells) provide superior protection against infection in extralymphoid tissues. Here we found that CD103(+)CD8(+) TRM cells developed in the skin from epithelium-infiltrating precursor cells that lacked expression of the effector-cell marker KLRG1. A combination of entry into the epithelium plus local signaling by interleukin 15 (IL-15) and transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) was required for the formation of these long-lived memory cells. Notably, differentiation into TRM cells resulted in the progressive acquisition of a unique transcriptional profile that differed from that of circulating memory cells and other types of T cells that permanently reside in skin epithelium. We provide a comprehensive molecular framework for the local differentiation of a distinct peripheral population of memory cells that forms a first-line immunological defense system in barrier tissues.
Full-text · Article · Oct 2013 · Nature Immunology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Gamma delta T cells (γδ T cells) possess innate-like properties and are proposed to bridge the gap between innate and adaptive immunity. In this study, we explored the role of γδ T cells in cutaneous immunity using a skin transplantation model. Following engraftment of skin expressing cell-associated model antigen (Ag) (ovalbumin) in epithelial keratinocytes, skin-resident γδ T cells enhanced graft rejection. Although the effector function of CD8 T cells was intact in the absence of γδ T cells, cross-priming of CD8 T cell to graft-derived Ag was impaired in the absence of γδ T cells. The reduced graft rejection and graft priming of γδ T-cell-deficient mice was evident in both acutely inflamed and well-healed grafting models. Furthermore, expression of the CD40 activation marker on migrating dendritic cells was lower in TCRδ(-/-) mice compared with wild-type mice, regardless of the presence or absence of inflammation associated with grafting. These results indicate that γδ T cells enhance graft priming and consequently the likelihood of a successful immune outcome in the context of skin graft rejection, suggesting that γδ T cells may be an important component of immunity to epithelial cancers or infection.
Full-text · Article · Feb 2012 · Journal of Investigative Dermatology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: NKT cells can promote or inhibit adaptive immune responses. Cutaneous immunity is tightly regulated by cooperation between innate and adaptive immune processes, but the role of NKT cells in regulating cutaneous immunity is largely unknown. In this study, we show, in a mouse model, that skin-infiltrating CD1d-restricted NKT cells in HPV16-E7 transgenic hyperplastic skin produce IFN-gamma, which can prevent rejection of HPV16-E7-expressing skin grafts. Suppression of graft rejection is associated with the accumulation of CD1d(hi)-expressing CD11c(+)F4/80(hi) myeloid cells in hyperplastic skin. Blockade of CD1d, removal of NKT cells, or local inhibition of IFN-gamma signaling is sufficient to restore immune-mediated graft rejection. Thus, inhibition of NKT cell recruitment or function may enable effective immunity against tumor and viral Ags expressed in epithelial cells.
Full-text · Article · Dec 2009 · The Journal of Immunology