[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Regulatory T (T reg) cells are critical for preventing autoimmunity mediated by self-reactive T cells, but their role in modulating immune responses during chronic viral infection is not well defined. To address this question and to investigate a role for T reg cells in exhaustion of virus-specific CD8 T cells, we depleted T reg cells in mice chronically infected with lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV). T reg cell ablation resulted in 10-100-fold expansion of functional LCMV-specific CD8 T cells. Rescue of exhausted CD8 T cells was dependent on cognate antigen, B7 costimulation, and conventional CD4 T cells. Despite the striking recovery of LCMV-specific CD8 T cell responses, T reg cell depletion failed to diminish viral load. Interestingly, T reg cell ablation triggered up-regulation of the molecule programmed cell death ligand-1 (PD-L1), which upon binding PD-1 on T cells delivers inhibitory signals. Increased PD-L1 expression was observed especially on LCMV-infected cells, and combining T reg cell depletion with PD-L1 blockade resulted in a significant reduction in viral titers, which was more pronounced than that upon PD-L1 blockade alone. These results suggest that T reg cells effectively maintain CD8 T cell exhaustion, but blockade of the PD-1 inhibitory pathway is critical for elimination of infected cells.
Full-text · Article · Aug 2014 · Journal of Experimental Medicine
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The inhibitory receptor programmed cell death 1 (PD-1) plays a major role in functional exhaustion of T cells during chronic infections and cancer, and recent clinical data suggest that blockade of the PD-1 pathway is an effective immunotherapy in treating certain cancers. Thus, it is important to define combinatorial approaches that increase the efficacy of PD-1 blockade. To address this issue, we examined the effect of IL-2 and PD-1 ligand 1 (PD-L1) blockade in the mouse model of chronic lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV) infection. We found that low-dose IL-2 administration alone enhanced CD8+ T cell responses in chronically infected mice. IL-2 treatment also decreased inhibitory receptor levels on virus-specific CD8+ T cells and increased expression of CD127 and CD44, resulting in a phenotype resembling that of memory T cells. Surprisingly, IL-2 therapy had only a minimal effect on reducing viral load. However, combining IL-2 treatment with blockade of the PD-1 inhibitory pathway had striking synergistic effects in enhancing virus-specific CD8+ T cell responses and decreasing viral load. Interestingly, this reduction in viral load occurred despite increased numbers of Tregs. These results suggest that combined IL-2 therapy and PD-L1 blockade merits consideration as a regimen for treating human chronic infections and cancer.
Full-text · Article · May 2013 · The Journal of clinical investigation
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Adenovirus (Ad) vectors are widely used as experimental vaccines against several infectious diseases, but the magnitude, phenotype,
and functionality of CD8+ T cell responses induced by different adenovirus serotypes have not been compared. To address this question, we have analyzed
simian immunodeficiency virus Gag-specific CD8+ T cell responses in mice following vaccination with Ad5, Ad26, and Ad35. Our results show that although Ad5 is more immunogenic
than Ad26 and Ad35, the phenotype, function, and recall potential of memory CD8+ T cells elicited by these vectors are substantially different. Ad26 and Ad35 vectors generated CD8+ T cells that display the phenotype and function of long-lived memory T cells, whereas Ad5 vector-elicited CD8+ T cells are of a more terminally differentiated phenotype. In addition, hepatic memory CD8+ T cells elicited by Ad26 and Ad35 mounted more robust recall proliferation following secondary challenge than those induced
by Ad5. Furthermore, the boosting potential was higher following priming with alternative-serotype Ad vectors than with Ad5
vectors in heterologous prime-boost regimens. Anamnestic CD8+ T cell responses were further enhanced when the duration between priming and boosting was extended from 30 to 60 days. Our
results demonstrate that heterologous prime-boost vaccine regimens with alternative-serotype Ad vectors elicited more functional
memory CD8+ T cells than any of the regimens containing Ad5. In summary, these results suggest that alternative-serotype Ad vectors will
prove useful as candidates for vaccine development against human immunodeficiency virus type 1 and other pathogens and also
emphasize the importance of a longer rest period between prime and boost for generating optimal CD8+ T cell immunity.
Full-text · Article · Nov 2012 · Journal of Virology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Functionally exhausted T cells have high expression of the PD-1 inhibitory receptor, and therapies that block PD-1 signaling show promise for resolving chronic viral infections and cancer. By using human and murine systems of acute and chronic viral infections, we analyzed epigenetic regulation of PD-1 expression during CD8(+) T cell differentiation. During acute infection, naive to effector CD8(+) T cell differentiation was accompanied by a transient loss of DNA methylation of the Pdcd1 locus that was directly coupled to the duration and strength of T cell receptor signaling. Further differentiation into functional memory cells coincided with Pdcd1 remethylation, providing an adapted program for regulation of PD-1 expression. In contrast, the Pdcd1 regulatory region was completely demethylated in exhausted CD8(+) T cells and remained unmethylated even when virus titers decreased. This lack of DNA remethylation leaves the Pdcd1 locus poised for rapid expression, potentially providing a signal for premature termination of antiviral functions.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To design successful vaccines for chronic diseases, an understanding of memory CD8(+) T cell responses to persistent antigen restimulation is critical. However, most studies comparing memory and naive cell responses have been performed only in rapidly cleared acute infections. Herein, by comparing the responses of memory and naive CD8(+) T cells to acute and chronic lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus infection, we show that memory cells dominated over naive cells and were protective when present in sufficient numbers to quickly reduce infection. In contrast, when infection was not rapidly reduced, because of high antigen load or persistence, memory cells were quickly lost, unlike naive cells. This loss of memory cells was due to a block in sustaining cell proliferation, selective regulation by the inhibitory receptor 2B4, and increased reliance on CD4(+) T cell help. Thus, emphasizing the importance of designing vaccines that elicit effective CD4(+) T cell help and rapidly control infection.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Inhibitory receptors play a crucial role in regulating CD8 T-cell function during chronic viral infection. T-cell Ig- and mucin-domain-containing molecule-3 (Tim-3) is well known to negatively regulate T-cell responses, but its role in CD8 T-cell exhaustion during chronic infection in vivo remains unclear. In this study, we document coregulation of CD8 T cell exhaustion by Tim-3 and PD-1 during chronic lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus infection. Whereas Tim-3 was only transiently expressed by CD8 T cells after acute infection, virus-specific CD8 T cells retained high Tim-3 expression throughout chronic infection. The majority (approximately 65% to 80%) of lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus-specific CD8 T cells in lymphoid and nonlymphoid organs coexpressed Tim-3 and PD-1. This coexpression of Tim-3 and PD-1 was associated with more severe CD8 T-cell exhaustion in terms of proliferation and secretion of effector cytokines such as IFN-gamma, TNF-alpha, and IL-2. Interestingly, CD8 T cells expressing both inhibitory receptors also produced the suppressive cytokine IL-10. Most importantly, combined blockade of Tim-3 and PD-1 pathways in vivo synergistically improved CD8 T cell responses and viral control in chronically infected mice. Taken together, our study defines a parameter for determining the severity of CD8 T cell dysfunction and for identifying virus-specific CD8 T cells that produce IL-10, and shows that targeting both PD-1 and Tim-3 is an effective immune strategy for treating chronic viral infections.
Full-text · Article · Aug 2010 · Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The inhibitory receptor programmed death 1 (PD-1) is upregulated on antigen-specific CD8+ T cells during persistent viral infections. Interaction with PD-1 ligand 1 (PD-L1) contributes to functional exhaustion of responding T cells and may limit immunopathology during infection. PD-L1 is expressed on both hematopoietic and nonhematopoietic cells in tissues. However, the exact roles of PD-L1 on hematopoietic versus nonhematopoietic cells in modulating immune responses are unclear. Here we used bone marrow chimeric mice to examine the effects of PD-L1 deficiency in hematopoietic or nonhematopoietic cells during lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus clone 13 (LCMV CL-13) infection. We found that PD-L1 expression on hematopoietic cells inhibited CD8+ T cell numbers and function after LCMV CL-13 infection. In contrast, PD-L1 expression on nonhematopoietic cells limited viral clearance and immunopathology in infected tissues. Together, these data demonstrate that there are distinct roles for PD-L1 on hematopoietic and nonhematopoietic cells in regulating CD8+ T cell responses and viral clearance during chronic viral infection.
Full-text · Article · Jul 2010 · The Journal of clinical investigation
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Obliterative bronchiolitis (OB) limits the long-term success of lung transplantation, while T-cell effector mechanisms in this process remain incompletely understood. Using the murine heterotopic tracheal transplant model of obliterative airway disease (OAD) to characterize airway allograft rejection, we previously reported an important role for CD8(+) T cells in OAD. Herein, we studied the role of CD154/CD40 costimulation in the regulation of allospecific CD8(+) T cells, as airway rejection has been reported to be CD154-dependent. Airway allografts from CD154(-/-) recipients had significantly lower day 28 OAD scores compared to wild-type (WT) recipients, and adoptive transfer of CD8(+) T cells from WT recipients, but not CD154(-/-) recipients, were capable of airway rejection in fresh CD154(-/-) allograft recipients. Intragraft CD8(+) T cells from CD154(-/-) mice showed similar expression of the surface markers CD69, CD62L(low) CD44(high) and PD-1, but markedly impaired IFN-gamma and TNF-alpha secretion and granzyme B expression versus WT controls. Unexpectedly, intragraft and systemic CD8(+) T cells from CD154(-/-) recipients demonstrated robust in vivo expansion similar to WT recipients, consistent with an uncoupling of proliferation from effector function. Together, these data suggest that a lack of CD154/CD40 costimulation results in ineffective allospecific priming of CD8(+) T cells required for murine OAD.
Full-text · Article · Dec 2009 · American Journal of Transplantation
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Acute lung injury (ALI) is characterized by rapid alveolar injury, inflammation, cytokine induction, and neutrophil accumulation. Although early events in the pathogenesis of ALI have been defined, the mechanisms underlying resolution are unknown. As a model of ALI, we administered intratracheal (i.t.) LPS to mice and observed peak lung injury 4 days after the challenge, with resolution by day 10. Numbers of alveolar lymphocytes increased as injury resolved. To examine the role of lymphocytes in this response, lymphocyte-deficient Rag-1-/- and C57BL/6 WT mice were exposed to i.t. LPS. The extent of injury was similar between the groups of mice through day 4, but recovery was markedly impaired in the Rag-1-/- mice. Adoptive transfer studies revealed that infusion of CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ Tregs as late as 24 hours after i.t. LPS normalized resolution in Rag-1-/- mice. Similarly, Treg depletion in WT mice delayed recovery. Treg transfer into i.t. LPS-exposed Rag-1-/- mice also corrected the elevated levels of alveolar proinflammatory cytokines and increased the diminished levels of alveolar TGF-beta and neutrophil apoptosis. Mechanistically, Treg-mediated resolution of lung injury was abrogated by TGF-beta inhibition. Moreover, BAL of patients with ALI revealed dynamic changes in CD3+CD4+CD25hiCD127loFoxp3+ cells. These results indicate that Tregs modify innate immune responses during resolution of lung injury and suggest potential targets for treating ALI, for which there are no specific therapies currently available.
Full-text · Article · Sep 2009 · The Journal of clinical investigation
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Sarcoidosis is a systemic granulomatous disease associated with local epithelioid granulomas, CD4(+) T cells, and Th1 cytokines. The tissue Ags that drive this granulomatous inflammation are uncertain. In this study, we used IFN-gamma-ELISPOT assays and flow cytometry to assess lung and blood T cell responses to the candidate pathogenic Ag, Mycobacterium tuberculosis catalase-peroxidase (mKatG) in patients with sarcoidosis from two centers. Despite differences in patient phenotypic, genetic, and prognostic characteristics, we report that T cell responses to mKatG were remarkably similar in these cohorts, with higher frequencies of mKatG-reactive, IFN-gamma-expressing T cells in the blood of sarcoidosis patients compared with nontuberculosis sensitized healthy controls, and (in a subset) in greater numbers than T cells reactive to purified protein derivative. In sarcoidosis, mKatG-reactive CD4(+) Th1 cells preferentially accumulated in the lung, indicating a compartmentalized response. Patients with or without Löfgren syndrome had similar frequencies of mKatG specific IFN-gamma-expressing blood T cells. Circulating mKatG-reactive T cells were found in chronic active sarcoidosis but not in patients with inactive disease. Together, these results demonstrate that T cell responses to mKatG in sarcoidosis fit a profile expected for a pathogenic Ag, supporting an immunotherapeutic approach to this disease.
Full-text · Article · Jan 2009 · The Journal of Immunology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Acquisition of T cell responses during primary CMV infection in lung transplant recipients (LTRs) appear critical for host defense and allograft durability, with increased mortality in donor+/recipient- (D+R-) individuals. In 15 D+R- LTRs studied, acute primary CMV infection was characterized by viremia in the presence or absence of pneumonitis, with viral loads higher in the lung airways/allograft compared with the blood. A striking influx of CD8+ T cells into the lung airways/allograft was observed, with inversion of the CD4+:CD8+ T cell ratio. De novo CMV-specific CD8+ effector frequencies in response to pooled peptides of pp65 were strikingly higher in lung mononuclear cells compared with the PBMC and predominated over IE1-specific responses and CD4+ effector responses in both compartments. The frequencies of pp65-specific cytokine responses were significantly higher in lung mononuclear cells compared with PBMC and demonstrated marked contraction with long-term persistence of effector memory CD8+ T cells in the lung airways following primary infection. CMV-tetramer+CD8+ T cells from PBMC were CD45RA- during viremia and transitioned to CD45RA+ following resolution. In contrast, CMV-specific CD8+ effectors in the lung airways/allograft maintained a CD45RA- phenotype during transition from acute into chronic infection. Together, these data reveal differential CMV-specific CD8+ effector frequencies, immunodominance, and polyfunctional cytokine responses predominating in the lung airways/allograft compared with the blood during acute primary infection. Moreover, we show intercompartmental phenotypic differences in CMV-specific memory responses during the transition to chronic infection.
Full-text · Article · Aug 2008 · The Journal of Immunology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: One potentially promising strategy to control chronic infections such as human immunodeficiency virus, hepatitis B virus, and hepatitis C virus is therapeutic vaccination, which aims to reduce persisting virus by stimulating a patient's own antiviral immune responses. However, this approach has fallen short of expectations, because antiviral T cells generated during chronic infections often become functionally exhausted and thus do not respond properly to therapeutic vaccination. Therefore, it is necessary to develop a therapeutic vaccine strategy to more effectively boost endogenous T-cell responses to control persistent viral infections. Studies to elucidate the cause of impaired T-cell function have pointed to sustained inhibitory receptor signaling through T-cell expression of programmed death 1 (PD-1). Recently, another inhibitory molecule, cytotoxic T lymphocyte antigen 4 (CTLA-4), and also an immunosuppressive cytokine, interleukin 10 (IL-10), have been reported to be potential factors of establishing immune suppression and viral persistence. Blocking these negative signaling pathways could restore the host immune system, enabling it to respond to further stimulation. Indeed, combining therapeutic vaccination along with the blockade of inhibitory signals could synergistically enhance functional CD8(+) T-cell responses and improve viral control in chronically infected mice, providing a promising strategy for the treatment of chronic viral infections. Furthermore, not only the ablation of negative signals but also the addition of stimulatory signals, such as interleukin 2 (IL-2), might prove to be a potentially promising strategy to augment the efficacy of therapeutic vaccination against chronic viral infections.
No preview · Article · Jul 2008 · Immunological Reviews
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Long-term success in lung transplantation is limited by obliterative bronchiolitis, whereas T cell effector mechanisms in this process remain incompletely understood. Using the mouse heterotopic allogeneic airway transplant model, we studied T cell effector responses during obliterative airways disease (OAD). Allospecific CD8+ IFN-gamma+ T cells were detected in airway allografts, with significant coexpression of TNF-alpha and granzyme B. Therefore, using IFN-gamma as a surrogate marker, we assessed the distribution and kinetics of extragraft allo-specific T cells during OAD. Robust allospecific IFN-gamma was produced by draining the lymph nodes, spleen, and lung mononuclear cells from allograft, but not isograft recipients by Day 14, and significantly decreased by Day 28. Although the majority of allospecific T cells were CD8+, allospecific CD4+ T cells were also detected in these compartments, with each employing distinct allorecognition pathways. An influx of pluripotent CD8+ effector cells with a memory phenotype were detected in the lung during OAD similar to those seen in the allografts and secondary lymphoid tissue. Antibody depletion of CD8+ T cells markedly reduced airway lumen obliteration and fibrosis at Day 28. Together, these data demonstrate that allospecific CD8+ effector T cells play an important role in OAD and traffic to the lung after heterotopic airway transplant, suggesting that the lung is an important immunologic site, and perhaps a reservoir, for effector cells during the rejection process.
Full-text · Article · Feb 2006 · American Journal of Respiratory Cell and Molecular Biology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Primary CMV infection in lung transplant recipients (LTRs) is associated with increased mortality. We studied 22 donor CMV-positive, recipient-negative (D(+)R(-)) LTRs for the development of posttransplant CMV-specific immunity. We found that 13 of 22 D(+)R(-) LTRs (59.1%) seroconverted (CMV IgG Ab(+)). Using pooled peptides of the immunodominant CMV Ags pp65 and IE1, we detected CMV-specific CD8(+)IFN-gamma(+) T cells in the PBMC of 90% of seroconverted individuals following primary infection by intracellular cytokine staining. In contrast, few seroconverters had detectable CMV-specific CD4(+)IFN-gamma(+) T cells during viral latency. However, the majority of IgG(+) LTRs demonstrated CMV-specific CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cell proliferative responses from PBMC, with CD4(+)IFN-gamma(+) T cells detectable upon re-expansion. Examination of lung allograft mononuclear cells obtained by bronchoalveolar lavage revealed both CMV-specific CD4(+) and CD8(+)IFN-gamma(+) T cells, including patients from whom CD4(+)IFN-gamma(+) T cells were simultaneously undetectable in the PBMC, suggesting differential effector memory populations between these compartments. Moreover, both responses in the PBMC and lung allograft were found to persist, despite substantial immunosuppression, long after primary infection. Clinical correlation in this cohort demonstrated that the acquisition of CMV immunity was associated with freedom from CMV disease (p < or = 0.009) and preservation of allograft function (p < or = 0.02) compared with those who failed to develop CMV immunity. Together, our data reveal immunologic heterogeneity in D(+)R(-) LTRs, with the development and persistence of primary CMV responses that may provide clinical benefit.
Full-text · Article · Feb 2006 · The Journal of Immunology