A Tounkara

University of Sciences, Techniques and Technology of Bamako, Bammaco, Bamako, Mali

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Publications (50)86.68 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Characterizing perturbations in the immune response to tuberculosis in HIV can develop insights into the pathogenesis of coinfection. HIV+TB+ and TB monoinfected (TB+) subjects recruited from clinics in Bamako prior to initiation of TB treatment were evaluated at time-points following initiation of therapy. Flow cytometry assessed CD4+/CD8+Tcell subsets and activation markers CD38/HLA-DR. Antigen specific responses to TB proteins were assessed by intracellular cytokine detection and proliferation. HIV+TB+ subjects had significantly higher markers of immune activation in the CD4+ and CD8+Tcells compared to TB+ subjects. HIV+TB+ had lower numbers of TB-specific CD4+Tcells at baseline. Plasma IFNγ levels were similar between HIV+TB+ and TB+ subjects. No differences were observed in in-vitro proliferative capacity to TB antigens between HIV+TB+ and TB+ subjects. Subjects with HIV+TB+ coinfection demonstrate in vivo expansion of TB-specific CD4+Tcells. Immunodeficiency associated with CD4+Tcell depletion may be less significant compared to immunosuppression associated with HIV viremia or untreated TB infection. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.
    No preview · Article · Apr 2015 · Clinical Immunology
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    ABSTRACT: It has been demonstrated for some drugs that the genetic barrier, defined as the number of genetic transitions and/or transversions needed to produce a resistance mutation, can differ between HIV-1 subtypes. We aimed to assess differences in the genetic barrier for the evolution of resistance to the second-generation non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors etravirine and rilpivirine in subtypes B and CRF02_AG in antiretroviral-naive patients. An analysis was undertaken of 25 substitutions associated with etravirine and rilpivirine resistance at 12 amino acid positions in 267 nucleotide sequences (136 HIV-1 B and 131 HIV-1 CRF02_AG subtypes) of the reverse transcriptase gene. The majority (7/12) of amino acid positions studied were conserved between the two HIV-1 subtypes, leading to a similar genetic barrier. Different predominant codons between the subtypes were observed in 5/12 positions (90, 98, 179, 181 and 227), with an effect on the calculated genetic barrier only at the V179D and V179F codons (2.5 versus 3.5 for V179D, and 2.5 versus 5 for V179F, respectively, for subtype B versus subtype CRF02_AG). The majority of amino acids involved in etravirine and rilpivirine resistance showed a high degree of conservation of the predominant codon between the B and CRF02_AG subtypes. For rilpivirine, the genetic barrier was the same between the two subtypes. Nevertheless, subtype CRF02_AG showed a higher genetic barrier to acquiring mutations V179D and V179F (mutations associated with resistance to etravirine) compared with subtype B, suggesting that it would be more difficult to produce resistance to etravirine in the CRF02_AG subtype than the B subtype.
    Preview · Article · Jul 2013 · Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
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    Full-text · Dataset · May 2013
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    Full-text · Dataset · May 2013
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Shortening tuberculosis treatment could significantly improve patient adherence and decrease the development of drug resistance. Phosphodiesterase inhibitors (PDE-Is) have been shown to be beneficial in animal models of tuberculosis. We assessed the impact of PDE-Is on the duration of treatment in tuberculous mice. Methods: We analyzed the time to death in Mycobacterium tuberculosis-infected mice receiving type 4 PDE-Is (rolipram and cilomilast) and the impact on bacterial burden, time to clearance, and relapse when types 3 and 5 PDE-Is (cilostazol and sildenafil, respectively) and rolipram were added to the standard treatment. We investigated pharmacokinetic interactions between PDE-Is (cilostazol and sildenafil) and rifampin. Results: The type 4 PDE-Is rolipram and cilomilast accelerated the time to death in tuberculous mice. The addition of rolipram to standard tuberculosis treatment increased bacterial burden and did not decrease the time to bacterial clearance in the lung, while the addition of the cilostazol and sildenafil reduced the time to clearance by 1 month. Cilostazol and sildenafil did not have negative pharmacokinetic interactions with rifampin. Conclusions: Type 4 PDE-Is may increase the severity of tuberculosis and should be carefully investigated for use in patients with latent or active tuberculosis. Cilostazol and sildenafil may benefit tuberculosis patients by shortening the duration of therapy.
    Full-text · Article · May 2013 · The Journal of Infectious Diseases
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    ABSTRACT: Adverse events during antiretroviral treatment are frequent and various. Their diagnosis incurs some various difficulties according to the geographic context. Our aim was to describe the frequency, nature, and preventability of adverse drug reactions (ADRs) due to antiretroviral treatment in Malian outpatient children. The study was a 6-month (June 1 to November 30, 2010) prospective, observational study of 92 children admitted to a pediatric hospital in Sikasso, Mali. The patients were treated with a generic drug and/or drug combinations. Prior to treatment initiation, demographic characteristics, clinical history, and biologic parameters, including CD4 cell counts, were collected for each patient. The World Health Organization's adverse drug reactions classification was used to characterize the side effects. Adverse effects and toxicities were graded 1, 2, and 3. Analysis of data was performed using SPSS Version 17.0 software. Ninety-two human immunodeficiency virus-infected children met the criteria of inclusion. After 24 weeks of treatment, we observed that 14.1% of children had at least one side effect during our study. Side effects were many and varied, with the most frequent being cutaneous rash, nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea (38.5%, 23.1%, 15.4%, and 15.4%, respectively). Side effects were grade 1 in most cases. One case of grade 2 and one case of grade 3 were observed with rash. We observed one case of grade 3 side effects during our study. The treatment regimen was changed in 15.2% of cases, including one case because of side effects. ADRs are not rare in Mali, particularly in children. These ADRs have an impact on quality of life for patients. We recommend a pharmacovigilance system for sustainable management of side effects in patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus in Mali.
    No preview · Article · Oct 2012
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    ABSTRACT: Although sickle cell trait protects against severe disease due to Plasmodium falciparum, it has not been clear whether sickle trait also protects against asymptomatic infection (parasitemia). To address this question, the authors identified 171 persistently smear-negative children and 450 asymptomatic persistently smear-positive children in Bancoumana, Mali (June 1996 to June 1998). They then followed both groups for 2 years using a cohort-based strategy. Among the 171 children with persistently negative smears, the median time for conversion to smear-positive was longer for children with sickle trait than for children without (274 vs. 108 days, P < 0.001; Cox hazard ratio = 0.56, 95% confidence interval: 0.33, 0.96; P = 0.036). Similar differences were found in the median times to reinfection after spontaneous clearance without treatment (365 days vs. 184 days; P = 0.01). Alternatively, among the 450 asymptomatic children with persistently positive smears, the median time for conversion to smear-negative (spontaneous clearance) was shorter for children with sickle trait than for children without (190 vs. 365 days; P = 0.02). These protective effects of sickle trait against asymptomatic P. falciparum infection under conditions of natural transmission were demonstrable using a cohort-based approach but not when the same data were examined using a cross-sectional approach.
    Full-text · Article · Oct 2012 · American journal of epidemiology
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    ABSTRACT: Objectives: We describe the outcomes of second-line drug resistance profiles and predict the efficacy of drugs for third-line therapy in patients monitored without the benefit of plasma HIV-1 RNA viral load (VL) or resistance testing. Methods: We recruited 106 HIV-1-infected patients after second-line treatment failure in Mali. VL was determined by the Abbott RealTime system and the resistance by the ViroSeq HIV-1 genotyping system. The resistance testing was interpreted using the latest version of the Stanford algorithm. Results: Among the 106 patients, 93 had isolates successfully sequenced. The median age, VL and CD4 cells were respectively 35 years, 72 000 copies/mL and 146 cells/mm(3). Patients were exposed to a median of 4 years of treatment and to six antiretrovirals. We found 20% of wild-type viruses. Resistance to etravirine was noted in 38%, to lopinavir in 25% and to darunavir in 12%. The duration of prior nucleos(t)ide reverse transcriptase inhibitor exposure was associated with resistance to abacavir (P < 0.0001) and tenofovir (P = 0.0001), and duration of prior protease inhibitor treatment with resistance to lopinavir (P < 0.0001) and darunavir (P = 0.06). Conclusion: Long duration of therapy prior to failure was associated with high levels of resistance and is directly related to limited access to VL monitoring and delayed switches to second-line treatment, precluding efficacy of drugs for third-line therapy. This study underlines the need for governments and public health organizations to recommend the use of VL monitoring and also the availability of darunavir and raltegravir for third-line therapies in the context of limited-resource settings.
    Full-text · Article · Aug 2012 · Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
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    ABSTRACT: Abstract The WHO recommends regular surveillance for transmitted antiretroviral drug-resistant viruses in HIV antiretroviral treatment (ART)-naive patients in resource-limited settings. This study aimed to assess the prevalence of mutations associated with resistance in ART-naive patients newly diagnosed with HIV in Bamako and Ségou in Mali. HIV-positive patients who never received ART were recruited in Bamako and Ségou, Mali. The reverse transcriptase (RT) and protease (PR) genes of these patients were sequenced by the "ViroSeq" method. Analysis and interpretation of the resistance were made according to the WHO 2009 list of drug resistance mutations. In all, 51/54 (94.4%) sample patients were sequenced. The median age (IQR) of our patients was 24 (22-27) years and the median CD4 count was 380 (340-456) cells/mm(3). The predominant subtype was recombinant HIV-1 CRF02_AG (66.7%) followed by CRF06_cpx (12%) and CRF09_cpx (4%). Four patients had mutations associated with resistance, giving an overall prevalence of resistance estimated at 7.9%. There were two (4%) patients with nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NRTI) mutations (one M184V and one T215Y), two (4%) with non-NRTI mutations (two K103N), and one (2%) with a protease inhibitor mutation (one I54V). The prevalence of primary resistance in newly infected patients in Mali is moderate (7.9%). This indicates that the standard NNRTI-based first-line regimen used in Mali is suboptimal for some patients. This study should be done regularly to inform clinical practice.
    No preview · Article · Jul 2012 · AIDS research and human retroviruses
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    ABSTRACT: Mutations in the connection domain (CD) of reverse transcriptase have been implicated in reverse transcriptase inhibitor (RTI) resistance, but this is controversial and little is known in non-B subtype HIV-1. We determined CD mutations prevalence in a population infected predominantly with CRF02_AG and investigated associations with phenotypic RTI resistance. Detected CD mutations were G335D (82.3%), A371V (69.8%), E399D (9.4%), N348I (5.2%), V365I (4.2), Y318F (2.1%), G333E (2.1%), and A360V (2.1%). Mutations were largely polymorphic and did not confer RTI resistance. The observed trend toward reduced likelihood of etravirine or nevirapine resistance in the presence of G335D should be investigated further.
    Full-text · Article · Jul 2012 · JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes
  • H D Konaré · I A Cissé · A A Oumar · S Idrissa · S Maiga · S Dao · A Rhaly · A Tounkara
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    ABSTRACT: The incidences of cutaneous drug eruption constitute a real public health problem. The aim of this study was to describe the cutaneous drug eruption in Gabriel Touré Hospital in Bamako. This is a prospective longitudinal study from 1 July 2005 to August 31, 2006. The study included patients with a lesion cutaneous Contemporary taking medication, without other cause and consent. We included 61 cases of toxdermies. The mean age was 28 ± 14.8 years with extremes of 18 and 77 years. The sex ratio was 2.4 for women. Self-medication was most often found in 51% of cases. The fixed drug eruption (EPF) with 26 cases (30.6%); acne with 23 cases (27%), erythema multiforme with 14 cases (16.5%) are the predominant manifestations toxidermy. The causative drugs are molecules with 12.6% with analgesics, NSAIDs with 12.6%, 13.6% with ARVs; sulfonamides with 9.5% with 7.4% beta-lactam; anticonvulsants with 5.2%. The therapeutic management was simple for minor forms. Severe forms have been hospitalized and often the help of intensive care and ophthalmology. Mortality was 2.3%. The toxidermy exist in Mali with a frequency more and more increasing. We recommend the systematic toxidermy consultations especially among HIV patients in Mali.
    No preview · Article · Jul 2012 · Le Mali médical
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    ABSTRACT: Nontuberculous mycobacterial (NTM) infections cause morbidity worldwide. They are difficult to diagnose in resource-limited regions, and most patients receive empiric treatment for tuberculosis (TB). Our objective here is to evaluate the potential impact of NTM diseases among patients treated presumptively for tuberculosis in Mali. We re-evaluated sputum specimens among patients newly diagnosed with TB (naïve) and those previously treated for TB disease (chronic cases). Sputum microscopy, culture and Mycobacterium tuberculosis drug susceptibility testing were performed. Identification of strains was performed using molecular probes or sequencing of secA1 and/or 16S rRNA genes. Of 142 patients enrolled, 61 (43%) were clinically classified as chronic cases and 17 (12%) were infected with NTM. Eleven of the 142 (8%) patients had NTM disease alone (8 M. avium, 2 M. simiae and 1 M. palustre). All these 11 were from the chronic TB group, comprising 11/61 (18%) of that group and all were identified as candidates for second line treatment. The remaining 6/17 (35.30%) NTM infected patients had coinfection with M. tuberculosis and all 6 were from the TB treatment naïve group. These 6 were candidates for the standard first line treatment regimen of TB. M. avium was identified in 11 of the 142 (8%) patients, only 3/11 (27.27%) of whom were HIV positive. NTM infections should be considered a cause of morbidity in TB endemic environments especially when managing chronic TB cases to limit morbidity and provide appropriate treatment.
    Full-text · Article · May 2012 · PLoS ONE
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    ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE: To identify strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTC) circulating in Bamako and to examine the relationship between the strains and their drug susceptibility profiles. METHODS: Between 2006 and 2010, we conducted a cross-sectional study using spoligotyping to identify strains of MTC recovered from 126 tuberculosis (TB) patients under treatment in Bamako, Mali. RESULT: Three members of the MTC were isolated: M. tuberculosis (71.4%), M. africanum (27.8%) and M. bovis (0.8%). Of these, three strains were found to be the most prevalent: M. tuberculosis T1 (MTB T1; 38.9%), M. africanum F2 (MAF2; 26.2%) and M. tuberculosis Latin American and Mediterranean 10 (MTB LAM 10; 10.3%). MAF2 and MTB LAM 10 strains have a lower risk of multidrug resistance (MDR) than MTB T1 (respectively OR 0.1, 95%CI 0.03–0.4 and OR 0.1, 95%CI 0.01–0.8). Age ⩾32 years (OR 1.4, 95%CI 0.4–3.9), negative human immunodeficiency virus status (OR 0.4, 95%CI 0.1–2.5) and male sex (OR 4, 95%CI 0.9–16.5) were not associated with MDR. The prevalence of MDR among treatment and retreatment failure patients was respectively 25% and 81.8% compared to new patients (2.9%). CONCLUSION: This study indicates a low level of primary drug resistance in Bamako, affirms the importance of using correct drug regimens, and suggests that the MTB T1 strain may be associated with the development of resistance.
    Full-text · Article · May 2012 · The International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
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    ABSTRACT: We undertook a study to determine the level of knowledge and practice of medical staff personnel on transfusion medicine in Mali at Bamako and Kati. The study was conducted from January to April 2010 in the three main teaching hospitals of Bamako and Kati and in the six referral health centers of the district of Bamako. Medical staff knowledge and practice were assessed using a questionnaire. The study population consisted of specialized practitioners (15%), general practitioners (21.4%), nurses (41.6%), and midwives (22%). Overall, 70.9% of the staff did not receive any training in blood transfusion since their graduation. The general knowledge about blood transfusion was insufficient in 53.9% of staff and excellent in 46.1%. Only 42.9% of medical staff has a good basic knowledge of blood products, their indications, and related accidents. Our study showed weaknesses in the transfusion system in Bamako, with insufficient knowledge of the medical staff in blood transfusion and little experience.
    Full-text · Article · Apr 2012 · Transfusion Clinique et Biologique
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    ABSTRACT: To identify strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTC) circulating in Bamako and to examine the relationship between the strains and their drug susceptibility profiles. Between 2006 and 2010, we conducted a cross-sectional study using spoligotyping to identify strains of MTC recovered from 126 tuberculosis (TB) patients under treatment in Bamako, Mali. Three members of the MTC were isolated: M. tuberculosis (71.4%), M. africanum (27.8%) and M. bovis (0.8%). Of these, three strains were found to be the most prevalent: M. tuberculosis T1 (MTB T1; 38.9%), M. africanum F2 (MAF2; 26.2%) and M. tuberculosis Latin American and Mediterranean 10 (MTB LAM 10; 10.3%). MAF2 and MTB LAM 10 strains have a lower risk of multidrug resistance (MDR) than MTB T1 (respectively OR 0.1, 95%CI 0.03-0.4 and OR 0.1, 95%CI 0.01-0.8). Age ≥ 32 years (OR 1.4, 95%CI 0.4-3.9), negative human immunodeficiency virus status (OR 0.4, 95%CI 0.1-2.5) and male sex (OR 4, 95%CI 0.9-16.5) were not associated with MDR. The prevalence of MDR among treatment and retreatment failure patients was respectively 25% and 81.8% compared to new patients (2.9%). This study indicates a low level of primary drug resistance in Bamako, affirms the importance of using correct drug regimens, and suggests that the MTB T1 strain may be associated with the development of resistance.
    Full-text · Article · Apr 2012 · The International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease

  • No preview · Article · Apr 2012
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    ABSTRACT: We identified 480 persons with positive thick smears for asexual Plasmodium falciparum parasites, of whom 454 had positive rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) for the histidine-rich protein 2 (HRP2) product of the hrp2 gene and 26 had negative tests. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification for the histidine-rich repeat region of that gene was negative in one-half (10/22) of false-negative specimens available, consistent with spontaneous deletion. False-negative RDTs were found only in persons with asymptomatic infections, and multiplicities of infection (MOIs) were lower in persons with false-negative RDTs (both P < 0.001). These results show that parasites that fail to produce HRP2 can cause patent bloodstream infections and false-negative RDT results. The importance of these observations is likely to increase as malaria control improves, because lower MOIs are associated with false-negative RDTs and false-negative RDTs are more frequent in persons with asymptomatic infections. These findings suggest that the use of HRP2-based RDTs should be reconsidered.
    Full-text · Article · Feb 2012 · The American journal of tropical medicine and hygiene
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    Full-text · Chapter · Dec 2011
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    Tounkara A · Kone? A · Diarra B · Maiga A.I · Oumar A.A · Hammond A.S · Diop S · Sarro Y.S

    Full-text · Chapter · Oct 2011
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    ABSTRACT: In 2006, the Malian government established a program for free insecticide-treated net (ITNs) distribution during antenatal care visit (ANC) and intermittent preventive treatment during pregnancy with sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (IPTp-SP) for pregnant women. In March to November of 2009, we conducted a cross-sectional study in peri-urban areas of Bamako, Mali to determine the malaria prevalence among pregnant women and their newborn children in the context of this policy. We included 379 pregnant women aged 15 to 45 years. At delivery, malaria was diagnosed using peripheral thick smears in mothers and newborns, as well as umbilical cord blood and placental blood. The prevalence of Plasmodium falciparum malaria was 2.4, 1.6 and 0.5% respectively in mother, placenta and cord samples; we observed a low birth weight rate of 12.1%. Approximately 77% of our parturient were housewives. The illiteracy rate among this group was 72.3%. Of the 379 women, 73% had at least three prenatal visits, 83% had received at least one free ITNs and 72% had received IPTp-SP during antenatal visit. Among them, 81% claimed to have complied with IPTp-SP. No congenital malaria was found. The prevalence of malaria in both mother and newborn has show a significant decrease in Bamako, compared with previous studies before the implementation of IPTp-SP policy in Mali. A high rate of coverage and use of IPTp-SP and ITNs correlate with lower malaria prevalence in pregnant women.
    Full-text · Article · Jun 2011 · Sante (Montrouge, France)